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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1332-1336, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555002

RESUMO

Foodborne illnesses are a substantial and largely preventable public health problem; before 2020 the incidence of most infections transmitted commonly through food had not declined for many years. To evaluate progress toward prevention of foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food reported by 10 U.S. sites.* FoodNet is a collaboration among CDC, 10 state health departments, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS), and the Food and Drug Administration. This report summarizes preliminary 2020 data and describes changes in incidence with those during 2017-2019. During 2020, observed incidences of infections caused by enteric pathogens decreased 26% compared with 2017-2019; infections associated with international travel decreased markedly. The extent to which these reductions reflect actual decreases in illness or decreases in case detection is unknown. On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. After the declaration, state and local officials implemented stay-at-home orders, restaurant closures, school and child care center closures, and other public health interventions to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Federal travel restrictions were declared (1). These widespread interventions as well as other changes to daily life and hygiene behaviors, including increased handwashing, have likely changed exposures to foodborne pathogens. Other factors, such as changes in health care delivery, health care-seeking behaviors, and laboratory testing practices, might have decreased the detection of enteric infections. As the pandemic continues, surveillance of illness combined with data from other sources might help to elucidate the factors that led to the large changes in 2020; this understanding could lead to improved strategies to prevent illness. To reduce the incidence of these infections concerted efforts are needed, from farm to processing plant to restaurants and homes. Consumers can reduce their risk of foodborne illness by following safe food-handling and preparation recommendations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Conduta Expectante , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2323-2332, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193337

RESUMO

We characterized common exposures reported by a convenience sample of 202 US patients with coronavirus disease during January-April 2020 and identified factors associated with presumed household transmission. The most commonly reported settings of known exposure were households and healthcare facilities; among case-patients who had known contact with a confirmed case-patient compared with those who did not, healthcare occupations were more common. Among case-patients without known contact, use of public transportation was more common. Within the household, presumed transmission was highest from older (>65 years) index case-patients and from children to parents, independent of index case-patient age. These findings may inform guidance for limiting transmission and emphasize the value of testing to identify community-acquired infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso , COVID-19/transmissão , Criança , Vírus de DNA , Características da Família , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(28): 904-908, 2020 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673296

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first detected in the United States in January 2020 (1), and by mid-July, approximately 3.4 million cases had been reported in the United States (2). Information about symptoms among U.S. COVID-19 patients is limited, especially among nonhospitalized patients. To better understand symptom profiles of patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in the United States, CDC used an optional questionnaire to collect detailed information on a convenience sample of COVID-19 patients from participating states. Symptom data were analyzed by age group, sex, hospitalization status, and symptom onset date relative to expansion of testing guidelines on March 8, 2020 (3). Among 164 symptomatic patients with known onset during January 14-April 4, 2020, a total of 158 (96%) reported fever, cough, or shortness of breath. Among 57 hospitalized adult patients (aged ≥18 years), 39 (68%) reported all three of these symptoms, compared with 25 (31%) of the 81 nonhospitalized adult patients. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and other symptoms, such as chills, myalgia, headache, and fatigue, also were commonly reported, especially after expansion of testing guidelines. To aid prompt recognition of COVID-19, clinicians and public health professionals should be aware that COVID-19 can cause a wide variety of symptoms.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tosse/virologia , Dispneia/virologia , Feminino , Febre/virologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(17): 509-514, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352955

RESUMO

To evaluate progress toward prevention of enteric illnesses, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food at 10 U.S. sites.* This report summarizes preliminary 2019 data and describes changes in incidence compared with that during 2016-2018. The incidence of enteric infections caused by these eight pathogens reported by FoodNet sites in 2019 continued to increase or remained unchanged, indicating progress in controlling major foodborne pathogens in the United States has stalled. Campylobacter and Salmonella caused the largest proportion of illnesses; trends in incidence varied by Salmonella serotype. Widespread adoption of whole genome sequencing (WGS) of bacteria has improved the ability to identify outbreaks, emerging strains, and sources of pathogens. To maximize the potential of WGS to link illnesses to particular sources, testing of isolates by clinical and public health laboratories is needed. Reductions in Salmonella serotype Typhimurium suggest that targeted interventions (e.g., vaccinating chickens and other food animals) might decrease human infections. Reducing contamination during food production, processing, and preparation will require more widespread implementation of known prevention measures and of new strategies that target particular pathogens and serotypes.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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