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1.
J Biol Chem ; 287(12): 9200-12, 2012 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22241477

RESUMO

The adenylate cyclase (CyaA) toxin, one of the virulence factors secreted by Bordetella pertussis, the pathogenic bacteria responsible for whooping cough, plays a critical role in the early stages of respiratory tract colonization by this bacterium. The CyaA toxin is able to invade eukaryotic cells by translocating its N-terminal catalytic domain directly across the plasma membrane of the target cells, where, activated by endogenous calmodulin, it produces supraphysiological levels of cAMP. How the catalytic domain is transferred from the hydrophilic extracellular medium into the hydrophobic environment of the membrane and then to the cell cytoplasm remains an unsolved question. In this report, we have characterized the membrane-interacting properties of the CyaA catalytic domain. We showed that a protein covering the catalytic domain (AC384, encompassing residues 1-384 of CyaA) displayed no membrane association propensity. However, a longer polypeptide (AC489), encompassing residues 1-489 of CyaA, exhibited the intrinsic property to bind to membranes and to induce lipid bilayer destabilization. We further showed that deletion of residues 375-485 within CyaA totally abrogated the toxin's ability to increase intracellular cAMP in target cells. These results indicate that, whereas the calmodulin dependent enzymatic domain is restricted to the amino-terminal residues 1-384 of CyaA, the membrane-interacting, translocation-competent domain extends up to residue 489. This thus suggests an important role of the region adjacent to the catalytic domain of CyaA in promoting its interaction with and its translocation across the plasma membrane of target cells.


Assuntos
Toxina Adenilato Ciclase/química , Toxina Adenilato Ciclase/metabolismo , Bordetella pertussis/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/microbiologia , Coqueluche/microbiologia , Toxina Adenilato Ciclase/genética , Bordetella pertussis/química , Bordetella pertussis/genética , Domínio Catalítico , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Transporte Proteico
2.
Langmuir ; 24(5): 1989-99, 2008 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18198904

RESUMO

Floating supported bilayers (FSBs) are new systems which have emerged over the past few years to produce supported membrane mimics, where the bilayers remain associated with the substrate, but are cushioned from the substrates constraining influence by a large hydration layer. In this paper we describe a new approach to fabricating FSBs using a chemically grafted phospholipid layer as the support for the floating membrane. The grafted lipid layer was produced using a Langmuir-Schaeffer transfer of acryloyl-functionalized lipid onto a pre-prepared substrate, with AIBN-induced cross-polymerization to permanently bind the lipids in place. A bilayer of DSPC was then deposited onto this grafted monolayer using a combination of Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaeffer transfer. The resulting system was characterized by neutron reflection under two water contrasts, and we show that the new system shows a hydrating layer of approximately 17.5 A in the gel phase, which is comparable to previously described FSB systems. We provide evidence that the grafted substrate is reusable after cleaning and suggest that this greatly simplifies the fabrication and characterization of FSBs compared to previous methods.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Modelos Biológicos , Fosfatidilcolinas/química , Engenharia Química , Estrutura Molecular
3.
J Pharm Sci ; 97(5): 1864-77, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17786955

RESUMO

Fatty acid microspheres have been used for taste masking purposes whereby the drug is preferentially released in the lower gastrointestinal tract, although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. In this study, we use a combination of surface pressure measurements, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) and neutron reflectivity measurements to study the phase miscibility and escaping tendency from mixed stearic and palmitic acid films with a view to relating this to drug dissolution behaviour. It was noted that mixed systems showed considerably greater film interaction and instability than those composed of the pure lipid, especially in alkaline media. BAM studies were able to identify a range of phase separated structures for both the pure and mixed systems. Neutron reflectivity studies indicated a marked selective dissolution of palmitic acid into the subphase as a function of time and allowed quantification of the rate of dissolution of this species. It is concluded that the fatty acids are interacting within the monolayer and in addition the palmitic acid is escaping the mixed monolayers and dissolving into the alkali subphase. These findings have strong relevance for understanding the mechanism of drug release from the associated microspheres.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Lasers , Nêutrons , Paladar , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Microscopia , Microesferas
4.
Langmuir ; 23(8): 4589-98, 2007 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17371057

RESUMO

Mesostructured films of alkyltrimethylammonium bromides or cetylpyridinium bromide and polyethylenimines that spontaneously self-assemble at the air/water interface have been examined using a range of surface sensitive techniques. These films are unusual in that they can be micrometers thick and are relatively robust. Here we show that the films can be cross-linked and thus removed from the liquid surface where they form, as solid, mesostructured polymer-surfactant membranes. Cross-linking causes little change in the structure of the films but freezes in the metastable mesostructures, enhancing the potential of these films for future applications. Cross-linked films, dried after removal from the solution surface, retain the ordered nanoscale structure within the film. We also report grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GID), which shows that most films display scattering consistent with 2D-hexagonal phase crystallites of rodlike surfactant micelles encased in polymer. Polymer branching makes little difference to the film structures; however, polymer molecular weight has a significant effect. Films with lower polymer MW are generally thinner and more ordered, while higher polymer MW films were thicker and less ordered. Increased pH causes formation of thicker films and improves the ordering in low MW films, while high MW films lose order. To rationalize these results, we propose a model for the film formation process that relates the kinetic and thermodynamic limits of phase separation and mesophase ordering to the structures observed.


Assuntos
Polímeros/química , Tensoativos/química , Cátions , Físico-Química/métodos , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/química , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas/farmacologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Micelas , Modelos Químicos , Estrutura Molecular , Nêutrons , Polietilenoimina/química , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Termodinâmica
5.
Soft Matter ; 3(2): 214-222, 2007 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680268

RESUMO

Biomembrane mimics in the form of supported planar bilayers allow the application of a wide range of surface and interface analytical techniques. The structure and phase-behavior of single and double bilayers of 1,2-dipalmitoylphosphoethanolamine (DPPE) were investigated by specular neutron reflectivity for their viability as biomembrane mimics. Whilst single bilayer samples were found to exhibit stable gel and fluid structures, double bilayers were found to be intrinsically unstable in the fluid phase as a planar structure. A Bragg peak was observed in the reflectivity data at just above the gel-to-fluid transition temperature, indicating the partial rearrangement of the upper bilayer into a repeat stacked structure. The lower bilayer was structurally stable. The structure and phase-behaviour of a double bilayer containing a ratio of 9 : 1 DPPE/cholesterol was also investigated to assess the stabilising effect of cholesterol on the upper bilayer. The presence of cholesterol completely destabilised the upper bilayer, causing it to detach 7 °C below the gel-to-fluid transition temperature of DPPE. It is possible that the cholesterol increases the overall conical shape of DPPE molecule by residing in the chain region of the lipid.

6.
Soft Matter ; 3(6): 747-753, 2007 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900138

RESUMO

The interactions involved in aqueous mixtures of polyethyleneimine (PEI) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were studied under dilute conditions. The phase diagram of this polyelectrolyte-surfactant system of similar charge was constructed by determining the CAC and CMC* values at different PEI concentrations, using surface-tension and conductivity measurements, respectively. Formation of thin films at the air-solution interface was detected at concentrations belonging to the interaction region of the phase diagram, using Brewster angle microscopy. These films were formed at low polymer and surfactant concentrations, 0.01% w/v PEI and 0.1 mmol dm CTAB. Results from SAXS determinations indicate that, under these conditions, mesostructure formation occurs exclusively at the surface. The effect of PEI on surfactant micellisation is determined by the polyelectrolyte nature of the polymer. The presence of the polymer in the aggregate significantly affects free micelle formation, even when hydrophobic interactions are mainly determined by the surfactant structure. The films obtained at low surfactant concentration are mesostructured, composed of five layers, each one 49.7 Å thick, as was determined using specular X-ray reflectometry. These results indicate that mesostructured film formation is achievable under more economical and environmentally friendly conditions, suggesting novel routes for surfactant templating in mixed polyelectrolyte systems of similar charge.

7.
J Phys Chem B ; 110(11): 5330-6, 2006 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16539465

RESUMO

Surfactant-templated polymer films prepared from polyethylenimine (PEI), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), and octaethylene glycol monohexadecyl ether (C(16)E(8)) were examined and the effect of increasing the percentage of nonionic surfactant in the micelles measured using both surface and bulk-sensitive techniques. It was found that there is a strong interaction between CTAB and C(16)E(8), although no interaction between the C(16)E(8) and PEI was observed. Generally, increasing the percentage of C(16)E(8) in the micelles decreases both the thickness and degree of order in the films; however, it was observed, depending on the conditions, that films could still be formed with as little as 20% cationic surfactant. Experiments on the CTAB/Brij56/PEI system were also performed and these indicate that it is similar to the CTAB/C(16)E(8)/PEI system.

8.
Langmuir ; 21(20): 9187-93, 2005 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16171350

RESUMO

The effect of the addition of 1, 2, 4, and 6 mol % cholesterol to 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) floating bilayers has been investigated by neutron reflectivity. All samples exhibited fully stable and reversible gel and fluid phases. Around the main lipid phase transition temperature, DPPC double bilayers exhibit large increases in the water layer separating the bilayers and the upper bilayer roughness. The inclusion of low amounts of cholesterol reduced the swelling of the water layer between the bilayers and the upper bilayer roughness and progressively widened the temperature range over which swelling occurs. Results from asymmetric bilayers are also reported. A higher amount of cholesterol in the lower bilayer induces a smaller swelling of the water layer between the bilayers than in the symmetric case. Finally, the effect of the inclusion of a leaflet of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DPPE) was investigated. The presence of a leaflet with a higher gel-transition temperature (T(m)) modifies the phase behavior of the lower T(m) leaflet.

9.
Langmuir ; 21(19): 8703-10, 2005 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16142951

RESUMO

The effect of the addition of 10 mol % cholesterol to 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) floating bilayers has been investigated by means of neutron reflectivity measurements. The large swelling of the water layer between the two bilayers found in pure phosphocholine systems around the lipid main phase transition is greatly reduced in the 9:1 DPPC:cholesterol mixture. The analysis of the structure of the bilayer reveals that in the gel phase cholesterol induces the presence of a high rms roughness that disappears in the fluid phase.


Assuntos
1,2-Dipalmitoilfosfatidilcolina/química , Colesterol/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Nêutrons , Espalhamento de Radiação , Propriedades de Superfície , Água/química
10.
Langmuir ; 20(24): 10679-84, 2004 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15544401

RESUMO

Off-specular X-ray reflectivity measurements were carried out to follow the in situ development of surfactant-templated silica thin films at the air-water interface under conditions of controlled relative humidity and temperature, using an enclosed sample cell designed for this purpose. The results suggest a strong dependence of formation time and growth mechanism on ambient conditions. Thin films were synthesized at the air-water interface using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, 0.075 M) and a silica precursor, tetramethoxysilane (TMOS, 0.29-0.80 M) in an acidic medium. The studied humidity range was from 50 to 100%, the temperature was between 25 and 40 degrees C, and the TMOS/CTAB molar ratio was between 3.3 and 10.7. We observed that high humidity slows down the growth process due to lack of evaporation. However, increasing the temperature results in a decrease in the film-formation time. We proposed a formation mechanism for film growth as a consequence of phase separation, organic array assembly, and silica polymerization.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cetrimônio/química , Umidade , Membranas Artificiais , Silicatos/química , Temperatura , Ar , Cetrimônio , Porosidade , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química , Difração de Raios X
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