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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238337, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249249

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762561

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leislers Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leislers Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238339, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278513

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi realizada para explorar a fauna de aranhas do vale Buner, em um estudo taxonômico realizado de fevereiro de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. Para esse fim, foram coletadas amostras, quatro vezes por mês, a partir de 4 subdistritos: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan e Totalai. Foram utilizados dois métodos, coleta manual e rede de varredura, para a obtenção das amostras. Durante o dia e a noite, foram pesquisados ​​três habitats: área árida, área agrícola e área de construção. Foram coletadas 534 amostras de aranha em quatro locais de amostragem, sendo que 379 pertenciam à família Araneidae. Após a confirmação, as espécies identificadas pertenciam a 8 gêneros (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia e Poltys) e a 19 espécies (18 delas foram identificados em seu nível de espécie, enquanto uma única foi identificada em seu nível genérico). O gênero Neoscona foi dominante (26,31%), com 5 espécies, seguido pelos gêneros Argiope (21,05%), com 4 espécies, Cyclosa (15,78%), com 3 espécies, e Cyrtophora e Araneus (10,52%), com 2 espécies. Poltys e Larinia (5,26%) são os gêneros mais raros, representando a mesma espécie. A análise estatística mostrou que a riqueza de espécies (D) foi de 5,77, o índice de Simpson (1-D) foi de 0,87 e o índice de Shannon (H) foi de 2,33. A diversidade de aranhas foi distribuída uniformemente, e o valor calculado da uniformidade foi H / InS = 0,5408. Também existem poucas espécies atípicas, e o alfa de Fisher (Fisher α) estimou o valor de 4,42. Já Chao-1 estimou 22 espécies.

4.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 111(3S): e340-e341, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34701221

RESUMO

PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE(S): Coordination of definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for locally advanced lung cancer can be challenging, especially if the therapies are delivered at different facilities. We hypothesized that patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or small cell lung cancer (SCLC) who undergo chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) in multiple facilities (MF) compared to a single facility (SF) will have different sociodemographic/clinical characteristics but similar overall survival (OS). MATERIALS/METHODS: We examined 2 cohorts of patients diagnosed in 2010-16 in the National Cancer Database: (1) stage III(N2+) NSCLC patients who received CCRT (60-70 Gy in 1.8-2 Gy fractions) and (2) stage III SCLC patients who received CCRT (45 Gy in 30 fractions or 60-70 Gy in 30-35 fractions). CCRT was defined as definitive multi-agent chemotherapy and external beam RT initiated within 30 days of each other. All patients received their entire course of RT at the reporting facility. Patients who received surgery or immunotherapy were excluded. We used univariable (UVA) and multivariable (MVA) analyses to assess potential associations of MF treatment with sociodemographic/clinical factors and OS. Odds ratios (OR) and hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Subset analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of diagnosis year (< 2014 vs. ≥2014) and facility volume (low vs. high, defined by 75th percentile) on OS in both cohorts. RESULTS: Our NSCLC cohort included 9279 patients; 32.4% received MF treatment. Our SCLC cohort included 2683 patients; 31.4% received MF treatment. Characteristics significantly associated with MF treatment on MVA for both cohorts included higher median household income, earlier year of diagnosis, absence of comorbidities, treatment at a community cancer program, and treatment at a facility in the South or Midwest. NSCLC patients receiving MF treatment were less likely to travel > 20 miles for RT (OR 0.80 [CI 0.70-0.90], P < 0.001) on UVA, while no such association was found in SCLC. For NSCLC, we found no significant difference in OS between patients who received MF vs. SF treatment on UVA (23.6 [CI 22.3-24.9] vs. 23.4 [CI 22.6-24.3] months, P = 0.55) or MVA (HR 1.00 [CI 0.95-1.05], P = 0.99). For SCLC, we similarly found no significant difference in OS between patients who received MF vs. SF treatment on UVA (21.7 [CI 20.4-24.0] vs. 22.1 [CI 21.2-23.4] months, P = 0.98) or MVA (HR 0.96 [CI 0.87-1.06], P = 0.44). Subset analyses also yielded no significant differences. CONCLUSION: Receiving definitive CCRT in MF vs. SF does not appear to significantly affect OS in locally advanced NSCLC or SCLC, although NSCLC patients receiving MF care are less likely to travel farther for RT. While outcomes of local control and toxicity have yet to be explored, traveling longer distances to receive lung cancer CCRT at the same facility may not be necessary to optimize survival.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272107

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of temporary and permanent facial nerve injury in total temporomandibular joint (TMJ) replacement surgery and to identify potential predictive risk factors. We made a retrospective review of case notes and opportunistic review of patients treated in a single tertiary referral unit by a single surgeon. For each patient a number of potential risk factors were determined, and the presence or absence of nerve injury recorded at 2 week follow up and a minimum of 12 months follow up. At 2-week review, facial nerve weakness was noted in 38/133 cases (28%) and at last follow up there were 4/133 cases (3%) with continuing (permanent) facial nerve weakness. Bilateral surgery, revision TMJ replacement, primary diagnosis, the number of previous surgeries and a history of recovered facial nerve injury all significantly increased the likelihood of temporary facial nerve injury, but not the likelihood of permanent facial nerve injury. Factors which increase the risk of temporary facial nerve injury are relatively predictable and include bilateral surgery, revision TMJ replacement, and multiple open TMJ surgeries. Risk factors associated with permanent injury are less predictable but are likely to be similar. The identification of such factors allows for the risk stratification of patients and improve informed consent. We also recommend that patients with a single, previously failed open TMJ surgery should be considered for early TMJ replacement and in multiply operated patients a subfascial plane of dissection is adopted.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238339, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161423

RESUMO

The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Assuntos
Aranhas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Paquistão
7.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238337, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978080

RESUMO

Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Paquistão , Filogenia
8.
Cureus ; 13(3): e13984, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889456

RESUMO

Pilonidal sinus (PNS) is a clinically diagnosed condition caused by hair entrapment underneath the skin leading to a granulomatous reaction and the formation of a tract. PNS is commonly found in the sacrococcygeal area (natal cleft). However, this is a rare case presentation of a male patient with PNS located at the back of his neck region as there were only four similar conditions reported in the literature review. The patient was first managed medically as a case of hidradenitis suppurativa by the dermatology department. Later on, when the treatment failed, he was treated surgically as a case of PNS with an excellent outcome. The patient was seen at the outpatient clinic one week after surgery. The wound was healed completely and totally recovered.

9.
J Hosp Infect ; 112: 96-103, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839212

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gram-negative organisms harbouring carbapenem resistance genes (CRGs) are spreading globally, including in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. However, relatively few data are available about carriage of CRGs in hospitalized patients in this region. AIM: To determine prevalence of CRG carriage and risk factors for colonization among patients in GCC hospitals. METHODS: Rectal swabs were obtained from ∼50 intensive care unit (ICU) patients from each of 11 hospitals in five GCC countries between March and November 2019. The swabs were tested for the presence of blaKPC, blaNDM, blaVIM, blaIMP, and blaOXA-48 CRG using a commercial polymerase chain reaction test. Data on risk factors for colonization were collected and analysed. FINDINGS: Of 529 specimens screened, 138 (26.1%) were positive for one or more CRGs. The positivity rates among the hospitals ranged from 8.0% to 67.3%; ∼20% of the positive specimens harboured ≥2 CRGs. The most common CRG detected was blaOXA-48, which was present in 82 specimens (15.5%). Additional CRGs included blaNDM, blaVIM, blaKPC, and blaIMP either alone or in combination. Overall, 31.1% of patients on antibiotics on admission to the ICU were positive for CRGs compared to 16.5% not on antibiotic therapy (P < 0.001). CRG detection was also more common among patients aged >65 years (P = 0.027) and increased with hospital length of stay (P = 0.025). CONCLUSION: The rate of CRGs detected in hospitalized patients in GCC countries varied considerably. Prior antibiotic exposure, increasing age, and prolonged length of stay were associated with CRG detection.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , beta-Lactamases , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Carbapenêmicos/farmacologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , beta-Lactamases/genética
10.
Cureus ; 13(2): e13150, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33692920

RESUMO

Iatrogenic bladder injuries with intraperitoneal extravasations are standardly managed surgically. However, we are presenting a case of iatrogenic intraperitoneal bladder injury developing after a cesarean section that was managed successfully by conservative therapy after tapping and pigtail drainage of 14 days. On the next follow up, which was 14 days later, there was a complete resolution with no signs of injury. Therefore, the trial of conservative approach may prove beneficial to minimize the chances of any invasive interventions in such cases.

11.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 22(4): 321-328, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152488

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary purpose of this study was to statistically evaluate age, ethnic and sex differences in the prevalence of clinically meaningful malocclusions among adults. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: A random sample of 8804 untreated US adults between 17 and 46 years of age was selected from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. MATERIALS & METHODS: Three ethnic (non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black and Mexican Americans) and three age (17-26, 27-36 and 37-46 years) groups were evaluated. Subjects with and without clinically meaningful malocclusions were categorized based on the established cut-off values. Chi-square analyses were performed to determine differences in prevalence. RESULTS: The prevalence of clinically meaningful mandibular incisor irregularity, overjet and overbite increased significantly (P < 0.05) with age, while posterior crossbite decreased. There were statistically significant ethnic differences in the prevalence of incisor irregularity, overbite, overjet, open bite and reverse overjet. Males had a significantly higher prevalence of clinically meaningful mandibular incisor irregularity, overbite, open bite and reverse overjet than females. One-third of US adults exhibited no clinically meaningful malocclusions. CONCLUSIONS: There are age, ethnic and sex differences in the prevalence of clinically meaningful malocclusions that characterize approximately two-thirds of untreated US adults.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão Classe II de Angle , Má Oclusão , Sobremordida , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
12.
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 56(7): 582-585, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29980355

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the exposure of final-year medical students to oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) and to find out how this has influenced them in terms of recruitment or possible future referral patterns. We sent questionnaires to final-year students at Oxford University and St George's University medical schools (n=100 in each) to find out how much experience they had had of the specialty, their knowledge of disease (through clinical situations), and specific knowledge about oral cancer. In both, exposure to, and knowledge about, OMFS were poor, and patients had been referred inappropriately to ear, nose, and throat (ENT) or plastic surgery. Despite targeted teaching in OMFS at both institutions, further engagement is needed, and awareness of the specialty may need to be improved at all medical schools.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina , Avaliação Educacional , Doenças da Boca/diagnóstico , Doenças da Boca/cirurgia , Cirurgia Bucal/educação , Adulto , Escolha da Profissão , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 5: 11, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556499

RESUMO

Standard therapies for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) have been unsuccessful, demonstrating that the contribution of the underlying diastolic dysfunction pathophysiology differs from that of systolic dysfunction in heart failure and currently is far from being understood. Complicating the investigation of HFpEF is the contribution of several comorbidities. Here, we selected three established rat models of diastolic dysfunction defined by three major risk factors associated with HFpEF and researched their commonalities and differences. The top differentially expressed genes in the left ventricle of Dahl salt sensitive (Dahl/SS), spontaneous hypertensive heart failure (SHHF), and diabetes 1 induced HFpEF models were derived from published data in Gene Expression Omnibus and used for a comprehensive interpretation of the underlying pathophysiological context of each model. The diversity of the underlying transcriptomic of the heart of each model is clearly observed by the different panel of top regulated genes: the diabetic model has 20 genes in common with the Dahl/SS and 15 with the SHHF models. Advanced analytics performed in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA®) revealed that Dahl/SS heart tissue transcripts triggered by upstream regulators lead to dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophy of heart, arrhythmia, and failure of heart. In the heart of SHHF, a total of 26 genes were closely linked to cardiovascular disease including cardiotoxicity, pericarditis, ST-elevated myocardial infarction, and dilated cardiomyopathy. IPA Upstream Regulator analyses revealed that protection of cardiomyocytes is hampered by inhibition of the ERBB2 plasma membrane-bound receptor tyrosine kinases. Cardioprotective markers such as natriuretic peptide A (NPPA), heat shock 27 kDa protein 1 (HSPB1), and angiogenin (ANG) were upregulated in the diabetes 1 induced model; however, the model showed a different underlying mechanism with a majority of the regulated genes involved in metabolic disorders. In conclusion, our findings suggest that multiple mechanisms may contribute to diastolic dysfunction and HFpEF, and thus drug therapies may need to be guided more by phenotypic characteristics of the cardiac remodeling events than by the underlying molecular processes.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28769873

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a major unmet medical need that is characterized by the presence of multiple cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular comorbidities. Foremost among these comorbidities are obesity and diabetes, which are not only risk factors for the development of HFpEF, but worsen symptoms and outcome. Coronary microvascular inflammation with endothelial dysfunction is a common denominator among HFpEF, obesity, and diabetes that likely explains at least in part the etiology of HFpEF and its synergistic relationship with obesity and diabetes. Thus, pharmacological strategies to supplement nitric oxide and subsequent cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-protein kinase G (PKG) signaling may have therapeutic promise. Other potential approaches include exercise and lifestyle modifications, as well as targeting endothelial cell mineralocorticoid receptors, non-coding RNAs, sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitors, and enhancers of natriuretic peptide protective NO-independent cGMP-initiated and alternative signaling, such as LCZ696 and phosphodiesterase-9 inhibitors. Additionally, understanding the role of adipokines in HFpEF may lead to new treatments. Identifying novel drug targets based on the shared underlying microvascular disease process may improve the quality of life and lifespan of those afflicted with both HFpEF and obesity or diabetes, or even prevent its occurrence.

15.
East Mediterr Health J ; 22(3): 175-82, 2016 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27334074

RESUMO

Meningitis is among the 10 commonest infectious causes of death worldwide. This retrospective analysis of reported cases of meningitis in Bahrain aimed to assess the trend in the incidence of bacterial meningitis from 1990 to 2013, before and after the introduction of new vaccines. Of 1455 reported cases of meningitis during the study period 73.1% were viral and 26.9% were bacterial etiology (tuberculous meningitis 8.3%; Streptococcus pneumoniae 4.9%, Haemophilus influenzae 3.6% and Neisseria meningitidis 1.7%). There was a peak of meningitis cases in 1995-1996. The incidence of meningitis due to H. influenzae and N. meningitidis showed a marked reduction after the introduction of the corresponding vaccines in 1998 and 2001 respectively, and S. pneumoniae became the predominant organism after Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The changing trend in the etiology of bacterial meningitis points to the need to study vaccination programme modifications, such as pneumococcal vaccine for the adult population, especially high-risk groups.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Meningites Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Barein/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Med Eng Phys ; 38(7): 690-694, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27134150

RESUMO

The internal carotid artery (ICA) has been proposed as an alternative site to the middle cerebral artery (MCA) to measure dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) using transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD). Our aim was to test the inter-operator reproducibility of dCA assessment in the ICA and the effect of interaction amongst different variables (artery source × operator × intra-subject variability). Two operators measured blood flow velocity using TCD at the ICA and MCA simultaneously on each side in 12 healthy volunteers. The autoregulation index (ARI) was estimated by transfer function analysis. A two-way repeated measurements ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey tested the difference between ARI by different operators and interaction effects were analysed based on the generalized linear model. In this healthy population, no significant differences between operator and no interaction effects were identified amongst the different variables. This study reinforced the validity of using the ICA as an alternative site for the assessment of dCA. Further work is needed to confirm and extend our findings, particularly to disease populations.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/metabolismo , Homeostase , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana
17.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 308(7): H688-96, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25659488

RESUMO

Arterial hypotension can be induced by sudden release of inflated thigh cuffs (THC), but its effects on the cerebral circulation have not been fully described. In nine healthy subjects [aged 59 (9) yr], bilateral cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was recorded in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), noninvasive arterial blood pressure (BP) in the finger, and end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) with nasal capnography. Three THC maneuvers were performed in each subject with cuff inflation 20 mmHg above systolic BP for 3 min before release. Beat-to-beat values were extracted for mean CBFV, BP, ETCO2 , critical closing pressure (CrCP), resistance-area product (RAP), and heart rate (HR). Time-varying estimates of the autoregulation index [ARI(t)] were also obtained using an autoregressive-moving average model. Coherent averages synchronized by the instant of cuff release showed significant drops in mean BP, CBFV, and RAP with rapid return of CBFV to baseline. HR, ETCO2 , and ARI(t) were transiently increased, but CrCP remained relatively constant. Mean values of ARI(t) for the 30 s following cuff release were not significantly different from the classical ARI [right MCA 5.9 (1.1) vs. 5.1 (1.6); left MCA 5.5 (1.4) vs. 4.9 (1.7)]. HR was strongly correlated with the ARI(t) peak after THC release (in 17/22 and 21/24 recordings), and ETCO2 was correlated with the subsequent drop in ARI(t) (19/22 and 20/24 recordings). These results suggest a complex cerebral autoregulatory response to the THC maneuver, dominated by myogenic mechanisms and influenced by concurrent changes in ETCO2 and possible involvement of the autonomic nervous system and baroreflex.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular , Dedos/irrigação sanguínea , Hemodinâmica , Hipotensão/fisiopatologia , Artéria Cerebral Média/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Torniquetes , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Arterial , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hipotensão/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Coxa da Perna , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 17(4): 840-51, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25631371

RESUMO

Intron retention in transcripts and the presence of 5' and 3' splice sites within these introns mediate alternate splicing, which is widely observed in animals and plants. Here, functional characterisation of the K(+) transporter, HvHKT2;1, with stably retained introns from barley (Hordeum vulgare) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and transcript profiling in yeast and transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is presented. Expression of intron-retaining HvHKT2;1 cDNA (HvHKT2;1-i) in trk1, trk2 yeast strain defective in K(+) uptake restored growth in medium containing hygromycin in the presence of different concentrations of K(+) and mediated hypersensitivity to Na(+) . HvHKT2;1-i produces multiple transcripts via alternate splicing of two regular introns and three exons in different compositions. HKT isoforms with retained introns and exon skipping variants were detected in relative expression analysis of (i) HvHKT2;1-i in barley under native conditions, (ii) in transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing HvHKT2;1-i, and (iii) in trk1, trk2 yeast expressing HvHKT2;1-i under control of an inducible promoter. Mixed proportions of three HKT transcripts: HvHKT2;1-e (first exon region), HvHKT2;1-i1 (first intron) and HvHKT2;1-i2 (second intron) were observed. The variation in transcript accumulation in response to changing K(+) and Na(+) concentrations was observed in both heterologous and plant systems. These findings suggest a link between intron-retaining transcripts and different splice variants to ion homeostasis, and their possible role in salt stress.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Éxons/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Íntrons/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Potássio/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
20.
J Med Microbiol ; 62(Pt 2): 259-268, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23105021

RESUMO

This study reports for the first time, to our knowledge, descriptive epidemiological data for 188 invasive Candida isolates from Pakistan, including species identification and antifungal susceptibility against fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin and amphotericin. Risk factors for invasive candidiasis (IC) were determined for 96 patients from Karachi, Pakistan. In adults and neonates, Candida tropicalis (38 and 36 %, respectively) was the most common species, followed in adults by Candida parapsilosis (17.8 %), Candida glabrata (15.9 %) and Candida albicans (12.3 %). C. albicans (21 %) was the second most common in neonates. In children, C. albicans (31.9 %), C. tropicalis (26.4 %) and C. parapsilosis (19.4 %) were the most common. C. albicans IC was significantly associated with paediatric age [crude odds ratio (COR) 3.46, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.63-7.32]. Rare species made up 17.5 % of the total isolates studied. Resistance to fluconazole was seen in C. glabrata (15 .0%) and Candida krusei (100 .0%). Only one isolate (C. glabrata) was resistant to all three echinocandins. Low MICs of fluconazole for 98 % (184/188) of isolates tested support its continued use as an empiric therapy for IC. Non-C. albicans IC was associated with the use of ß-lactam inhibitor combinations (COR 3.16, 95 % CI 1.05-9.57). Use of healthcare devices was documented in 85.4 % of IC patients, whilst 75 .0% had been admitted to special care units. Surprisingly, 66.7 % of patients with IC were not obviously immunosuppressed. The high frequency of modifiable risk factors in this population indicates that candidaemia can be reduced with stringent antibiotic and infection control measures. These data will be useful for empiric selection of antifungals in Karachi, and contribute to global assessments of antifungal resistance.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida , Candidíase Invasiva/epidemiologia , Candidíase Invasiva/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Candida/classificação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/genética , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Invasiva/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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