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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243670, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278509

RESUMO

Abstract For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.


Resumo Para o bom crescimento dos peixes, é necessário alimentá-los com uma alimentação adequada e balanceada. Um estudo foi realizado para descobrir o efeito de diferentes dietas à base de proteínas em alevinos de Tor putitora (mahseer). Foi preparado um alimento com níveis de proteína dietética de 35%, 40%, 45% e 50%. O efeito de diferentes alimentos à base de proteína no ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento padrão (SGR), taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR), ganho de peso percentual, eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) e taxa de eficiência proteica (PER) foi estudado. Foi observado um aumento na taxa de crescimento com um aumento na concentração de proteína de até 45%. Os alevinos alimentados com dieta de 45% de proteína apresentaram o maior crescimento, seguidos de 50%, 40% e 35%. O valor de SGR foi maior para dieta com 45% de proteína (8,56), seguido de 50% e 40%, enquanto os menores valores foram observados para ração com 35% de proteína (1,57). A mesma tendência foi observada para FCE. Os maiores valores de PER foram observados em peixes alimentados com 45% de ração à base de proteína (0,65), seguido por 50% (0,56), 40% (0,38) e 35% (0,17). A taxa de conversão alimentar foi menor para a dieta com 45% de proteína (3,41), enquanto a maior para a dieta com 35% de proteína (16,85). Concluiu-se que a dieta à base de proteína de 45% foi a melhor formulação alimentar para maior produção de Tor putitora. No entanto, a pesquisa sobre a mesma porcentagem de dieta proteica é recomendada para animais de um ano.

2.
Heliyon ; 7(11): e08339, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816038

RESUMO

A series of six coumarin based dye derivatives were investigated and their geometry and optoelectronic properties elucidated for suitability in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using TD-DFT/B3LYP with 6-31G basis set. D-π-A schemes were developed by attaching various donors and acceptors to coumarin dye (CM) to calculate changes in their photovoltaic properties. D2-CM-A2 and D4-CM-A4 showed less dihedral angle because of the low steric effect between donor and connector. The D1-CM-A1 and D2-CM-A2 results of intramolecular charge transfer were higher because of low bond length and a strong group of electron donors. The results revealed that LUMO energies of D1-CM-A1, D2-CM-A2, D3-CM-A3 and D4-CM-A4 were higher than the conduction band edge of TiO2 electrode (-4.0 eV) suggesting that these dyes will inject the electrons into the conduction band of the semiconductor. In addition, the light harvest efficiency (LHE), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and band energy gap (Eg) values are calculated in the gas phase, as well as in the solvent phase. This study shows that D1-CM-D1 and D2-CM-A2 derivatives have better properties for application in the DSSCs.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774433

RESUMO

Impurity profiling has a rising importance nowadays due to the increased health problems associated with impurities and degradation products found in several drug substances and formulations. Three advanced, accurate and precise chemometric methods were developed as impurity profiling methods for a mixture of bisoprolol fumarate (BIS) and perindopril arginine (PER) with their degradation products which represent drug impurity or a precursor to such impurity. The methods applied were Partial Least Squares (PLS-1), Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares (MCR-ALS) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). Genetic Algorithm (GA) was used as a variable selection tool to select the most significant wavelengths for the three chemometric models. For proper analysis, a 5-factor 5-level experimental design was used to establish a calibration set of 25 mixtures containing different ratios of the drugs and their degradation products (impurities). The validity of the proposed methods was assessed using an independent validation set. The designed models were able to predict the concentrations of the drugs and the degradation products/impurities in the validation set and pharmaceutical formulation. The proposed methods presented a powerful alternative to traditional and expensive chromatographic methods as impurity profiling tools.

4.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821679

RESUMO

The assessment of blood glucose levels is necessary for the diagnosis and management of diabetes. The accurate quantification of serum or plasma glucose relies on enzymatic and nonenzymatic methods utilizing electrochemical biosensors. Current research efforts are focused on enhancing the non-invasive detection of glucose in sweat with accuracy, high sensitivity, and stability. In this work, nanostructured mesoporous carbon coupled with glucose oxidase (GOx) increased the direct electron transfer to the electrode surface. A mixed alloy of CuNi nanoparticle-coated mesoporous carbon (CuNi-MC) was synthesized using a hydrothermal process followed by annealing at 700 °C under the flow of argon gas. The prepared catalyst's crystal structure and morphology were explored using X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The electrocatalytic activity of the as-prepared catalyst was investigated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and amperometry. The findings show an excellent response time of 4 s and linear range detection from 0.005 to 0.45 mM with a high electrode sensitivity of 11.7 ± 0.061 mA mM cm-2 in a selective medium.

5.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-11, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751094

RESUMO

As the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to pose a health and economic crisis worldwide, the quest for drugs and/or vaccines against the virus continues. The human transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) has attracted attention as a target for drug discovery, as inhibition of its catalytic reaction would result in the inactivation of the proteolytic cleavage of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein. As a result, the inactivation prevents viral cell entry to the host's cell. In this work, we screened and identified two potent molecules that interact and inhibit the catalytic reaction by using computational approaches. Two docking screening experiments were performed utilizing the crystal structure and holo ensemble structure obtained from molecular dynamics in bound form. There is enhancement and sensitivity of docking results to the holo ensemble as compared to the crystal structure. Compound 1 demonstrated a similar inhibition value to nafamostat by interacting with catalytic triad residues His296 and Ser441, thereby disrupting the already established hydrogen bond interaction. The stability of the ligand-TMPRSS2 complexes was studied by molecular dynamics simulation, and the binding energy was re-scored by using molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) binding free energy. The obtained compounds may serve as an initial point toward the discovery of potent TMPRSS2 inhibitors upon further in vivo validation.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642904

RESUMO

Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most commonly performed, major elective surgeries in the USA. African American TKA patients on average experience worse clinical outcomes than whites, including lower improvements in patient-reported outcomes and higher rates of complications, hospital readmissions, and reoperations. The mechanisms leading to these racial health disparities are unclear, but likely involve patient, provider, healthcare system, and societal factors. Lower physical and mental health at baseline, lower social support, provider bias, lower rates of health insurance coverage, higher utilization of lower quality hospitals, and systemic racism may contribute to the inferior outcomes that African Americans experience. Limited evidence suggests that improving the quality of surgical care can offset these factors and lead to a reduction in outcome disparities.

7.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684811

RESUMO

Traditional glycosyltransferase (GT) activity assays are not easily configured for rapid detection nor for high throughput screening because they rely on radioactive product isolation, the use of heterogeneous immunoassays or mass spectrometry. In a typical glycosyltransferase biochemical reaction, two products are generated, a glycosylated product and a nucleotide released from the sugar donor substrate. Therefore, an assay that detects the nucleotide could be universal to monitor the activity of diverse glycosyltransferases in vitro. Here we describe three homogeneous and bioluminescent glycosyltransferase activity assays based on UDP, GDP, CMP, and UMP detection. Each of these assays are performed in a one-step detection that relies on converting the nucleotide product to ATP, then to bioluminescence using firefly luciferase. These assays are highly sensitive, robust and resistant to chemical interference. Various applications of these assays are presented, including studies on the specificity of sugar transfer by diverse GTs and the characterization of acceptor substrate-dependent and independent nucleotide-sugar hydrolysis. Furthermore, their utility in screening for specific GT inhibitors and the study of their mode of action are described. We believe that the broad utility of these nucleotide assays will enable the investigation of a large number of GTs and may have a significant impact on diverse areas of Glycobiology research.


Assuntos
Glicosiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Glicômica/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Cinética , Luciferases de Vaga-Lume/metabolismo , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
8.
J Family Community Med ; 28(3): 155-163, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34703375

RESUMO

We report existing evidence and gaps in neuropathic pain management in Saudi Arabia, the prevalence and patient management stages in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and low back pain (LBP) with a neuropathic component. A semi-systematic approach was adopted to identify data on neuropathic pain. A structured search was conducted through MEDLINE, Embase, and BIOSIS databases to identify articles published in English between January 2010 and December 2019. Unstructured search was conducted through various sources including Google Scholar and Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Health website. Studies including populations ≥18 years and neuropathic pain were included; data gaps were supplemented with anecdotal data from local experts. Weighted or simple means were calculated for overall data; synthesized evidence was represented as an evidence gap map. Of 37 articles retrieved from structured search, none were eligible for final analyses. Thirteen articles from unstructured search and two anecdotal data sources were included for final analyses. The majority of articles included were of cross-sectional design (n = 10) in diabetes patients. The mean (range; number of articles) DPN prevalence was estimated as 33.6% (5.6%-65.3%; n = 8). Data on DPN patient management stages were limited; synthesized evidence indicated that 37.2% (0.41%-80.0%; n = 3) of patients had DPN awareness, 17.8% (n = 1) underwent screening, 22.4% (18.4%-65.3%; n = 2) had DPN diagnosis, and 45.1% (0.0%-62.7%; n = 2) received treatment for pain management. Data on LBP with neuropathic component were scarce (prevalence, 41.0% [n = 1]; diagnosis, 54.7% [n = 1]). Data are limited, so more studies are needed to accurately estimate the prevalence and stages of patient management for neuropathic pain in the country.

9.
Kidney Med ; 3(5): 816-826.e1, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693261

RESUMO

Rationale & Objective: The Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) is the largest quality payment program administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Little is known about predictors of nephrologist performance in MIPS. Study Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting & Participants: Nephrologists participating in MIPS in performance year 2018. Predictors: Nephrologist characteristics: (1) participation type (individual, group, or MIPS alternative payment model [APM]), (2) practice size, (3) practice setting (rural, Health Professional Shortage Area [HPSA], or hospital based), and (4) geography (Census Division). Outcomes: MIPS Final, Quality, Promoting Interoperability, Improvement Activities, and Cost scores. Using published consensus ratings, we also examined the validity of MIPS Quality measures selected by nephrologists. Analytical Approach: Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted linear regression models assessing the associations between nephrologist characteristics and MIPS Final scores. Results: Among 6,117 nephrologists participating in MIPS in 2018, the median MIPS Final score was 100 (interquartile range, 94-100). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, MIPS APM participation was associated with a 12.5-point (95% CI, 10.6-14.4) higher score compared with individual participation. Nephrologists in large (355-4,294 members) and medium (15-354 members) practices scored higher than those in small practices (1-14 members). In analyses adjusted for practice size, practice setting, and geography, among individual and group participants, HPSA nephrologists scored 1.9 (95% CI, -3.6 to -0.1) points lower than non-HPSA nephrologists, and hospital-based nephrologists scored 6.0 (95% CI, -8.3 to -3.7) points lower than non-hospital-based nephrologists. The most frequently reported quality measures by individual and group participants had medium to high validity and were relevant to nephrology care, whereas MIPS APM measures had little relevance to nephrology. Limitations: Lack of adjustment for patient characteristics. Conclusions: MIPS APM participation, larger practice size, non-HPSA setting, and non-hospital-based setting were associated with higher MIPS scores among nephrologists. Our results inform strategies to improve MIPS program design and generate meaningful distinctions between practices that will drive improvements in care.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18428, 2021 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531417

RESUMO

Here we describe a homogeneous bioluminescent immunoassay based on the interaction between Fc-tagged SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD and human ACE2, and its detection by secondary antibodies labeled with NanoLuc luciferase fragments LgBit and SmBit. The assay utility for the discovery of novel inhibitors was demonstrated with a panel of anti-RBD antibodies, ACE2-derived miniproteins and soluble ACE2. Studying the effect of RBD mutations on ACE2 binding showed that the N501Y mutation increased RBD apparent affinity toward ACE2 tenfold that resulted in escaping inhibition by some anti-RBD antibodies. In contrast, while E484K mutation did not highly change the binding affinity, it still escaped antibody inhibition likely due to changes in the epitope recognized by the antibody. Also, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) from COVID-19 positive samples from two distinct regions (USA and Brazil) were successfully detected and the results further suggest the persistence of NAbs for at least 6 months post symptom onset. Finally, sera from vaccinated individuals were tested for NAbs and showed varying neutralizing activity after first and second doses, suggesting the assay can be used to assess immunity of vaccinated populations. Our results demonstrate the broad utility and ease of use of this methodology both for drug discovery and clinical research applications.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/análise , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Brasil , COVID-19/imunologia , Humanos , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , Medições Luminescentes , Mutação , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Estados Unidos , Vacinação
11.
ACR Open Rheumatol ; 3(9): 660-667, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535982

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate race and gender variations in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use for knee osteoarthritis (OA) (unadjusted and adjusted for demographic and clinical factors). METHODS: A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was conducted. The sample included Veterans Affairs patients 50 years of age or older with symptomatic knee OA. Current use of various CAM therapies was assessed at baseline. Logistic regression models were used to compare race and gender differences in the use of specific CAMs. RESULTS: The sample included 517 participants (52.2% identified as African American [AA]; 27.1% identified as female). After adjusting for demographic and clinical factors, AA participants, compared with white participants, were less likely to use joint supplements (odds ratio [OR]: 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31-0.90]); yoga, tai chi, or pilates (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.19-0.77); and chiropractic care (OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.26-1.00). However, they were more likely to participate in spiritual activities (OR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.39-2.94). Women, compared with men, were more likely to use herbs (OR: 2.42; 95% CI: 1.41-4.14); yoga, tai chi, or pilates (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.04-4.19); acupuncture, acupressure, or massage (OR: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.28-4.67); and spiritual activities (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.09-2.60). The interactive effects of race and gender were significant in the use of herbs (P = 0.008); yoga, tai chi, or pilates (P = 0.011); acupuncture, acupressure or massage (P = 0.038); and spiritual activities (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There are race and gender differences in the use of various CAMs for OA. As benefits and limitations of CAM therapies vary, clinicians must be aware of these differences.

12.
Des Monomers Polym ; 24(1): 224-237, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366700

RESUMO

In this research article, the new donor-acceptor (D-A) monomers developed using 4-methoxy-9-methyl-9 H-carbazole (MMCB) as electron donors and various electron acceptors. DFT and TD-DFT methods at the level of B3LYP with a 6-311 G basis set in a gas and chloroform solvent were used to calculate electronic and optoelectronic properties. To dissect the relationship between the molecular and optoelectronic structures, the impacts of specific acceptors on the geometry of molecules and optoelectronic properties of these D-A monomers were discussed. The calculations are also carried out on HOMO-LUMO, atomic orbital densities. The calculated band gap E g of the monomers considered increases 3,6-MMCB-OCP ≈ 3,6-MMCB-BCO < 3,6-MMCB-SDP < 3,6-MMCB-SCP < 3,6-MMCB-TCP < 3,6-MMCB-TDP < 3,6-MMCB-BCS < 3,6-MMCB-BCT in both in the gas and solvent phases. Subsequently, the optoelectrical properties of E HOMO , E LUMO , E opt , and E B energies were critically updated. Compared to different monomers, the far lower E g of the 3,6-MMCB-OCP and 3,6-CB-BCO has shown optoelectronic applications in organic solar cells like BHJ.

13.
Oman Med J ; 36(4): e287, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34405055

RESUMO

Objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major public health problem worldwide. The prevalence of HBV is dependent on the modes of transmission. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection can progress to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Oman is regarded as an intermediate endemic region and has had a neonatal vaccine against HBV since 1990. However, little research has been conducted regarding risk factors for HBV transmission. Our study aimed to identify the prevalence of major risk factors for acquiring HBV in Oman. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all adult Omani patients diagnosed with CHB at two tertiary hospitals in Oman, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital and Armed Forces Hospital, between February 2009 and July 2013. The prevalence of major risk factors was identified by interviewing CHB patients using a standard questionnaire during their follow-up visits to the hepatology clinic at both hospitals. The risk factor frequency was stratified by age, gender, and educational level. Results: A total of 274 patients were interviewed; 52.2% of the participants were males. The median age for men was 35.9 years and 35.1 years for women, with 75.5% aged 20-39 years old. The antenatal screening was the most common means of identifying HBV infection in females, and pre-blood donation screening was the most common in males. Intra-familial contact with HBV infected persons and behavioral risks such as body piercing (females) and barber shaving (males) were more common than nosocomial risk factors. Knowledge about HBV infection was scarce among our participants. More than half of the participants had a positive family history of HBV infection. There was a significant association between HBV infection and age groups, and educational levels (p < 0.050 and p < 0.001, respectively). Among those who were infected due to intra-familial contact or behavioral risk, there was a significant difference between the two sexes (p < 0.020) and between the three age groups (< 23, 23-28, >28) of HBV positive mothers (33.3%, 14.3%, and 6.6%, respectively; p < 0.050). There was also a statistically significant difference among different educational levels (p < 0.050). Conclusions: Direct contact of infected individuals within a family and exposure to high-risk behaviors such as piercing and barber shaving are the main reported risk factors for HBV infection in Omani patients. Reducing the vertical and horizontal transmission of HBV in Oman could be improved by implementing routine antenatal screening of pregnant women and a greater focus on contact screening, respectively.

14.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1945998211029839, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253112

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of sociodemographic factors on primary treatment choice (surgery vs radiotherapy) in patients with human papillomavirus-associated (HPV+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of the National Cancer Database. SETTING: Data from >1500 Commission on Cancer institutions (academic and community) via the National Cancer Database. METHODS: Our sample consists of patients diagnosed with HPV+ OPSCC from 2010 to 2015. The primary outcome of interest was initial treatment modality: surgery vs radiation. We performed multivariable logistic models to assess the relationship between treatment choice and sociodemographic factors, including sex, race, treatment facility, and insurance status. RESULTS: Of the 16,043 patients identified, 5894 (36.7%) underwent primary surgery while 10,149 (63.3%) received primary radiotherapy. Black patients were less likely than White patients to receive primary surgery (odds ratio [OR], 0.80; 95% CI, 0.66-0.96). When compared with privately insured patients, those who were uninsured or on Medicaid or Medicare were also less likely to receive primary surgery (OR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.56-0.86]; OR, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.65-0.91]; OR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.75-0.96], respectively). Patients receiving treatment at an academic/research cancer program were more likely to undergo primary surgery than those treated at comprehensive community cancer programs (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.14-1.56). CONCLUSION: In this large sample of patients with HPV+ OPSCC, race and insurance status affect primary treatment choice. Specifically, Black and nonprivately insured patients are less likely to receive primary surgery as compared with White or privately insured patients. Our findings illuminate potential disparities in HPV+ OPSCC treatment.

15.
Sci Total Environ ; 795: 148834, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252764

RESUMO

Studies have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in the feces of infected individuals. This finding spurred investigation into using wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) to monitor SARS-CoV-2 RNA and track the appearance and spread of COVID-19 in communities. SARS-CoV-2 is present at low levels in wastewater, making sample concentration a prerequisite for sensitive detection and utility in WBE. Whereas common methods for isolating viral genetic material are biased toward intact virus isolation, it is likely that a relatively low percentage of the total SARS-CoV-2 RNA genome in wastewater is contained within intact virions. Therefore, we hypothesized that a direct unbiased total nucleic acid(TNA) extraction method could overcome the cumbersome protocols, variability and low recovery rates associated with the former methods. This led to development of a simple, rapid, and modular alternative to existing purification methods. In an initial concentration step, chaotropic agents are added to raw sewage allowing binding of nucleic acid from free nucleoprotein complexes, partially intact, and intact virions to a silica matrix. The eluted nucleic acid is then purified using manual or semi-automated methods. RT-qPCR enzyme mixes were formulated that demonstrate substantial inhibitor resistance. In addition, multiplexed probe-based RT-qPCR assays detecting the N1, N2 (nucleocapsid) and E (envelope) gene fragments of SARS-CoV-2 were developed. The RT-qPCR assays also contain primers and probes to detect Pepper Mild Mottle Virus (PMMoV), a fecal indicator RNA virus present in wastewater, and an exogenous control RNA to measure effects of RT-qPCR inhibitors. Using this workflow, we monitored wastewater samples from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Dane County, Wisconsin. We also successfully sequenced a subset of samples to ensure compatibility with a SARS-CoV-2 amplicon panel and demonstrated the potential for SARS-CoV-2 variant detection. Data obtained here underscore the potential for wastewater surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 and other infectious agents in communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ácidos Nucleicos , Humanos , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Inorg Chem ; 60(14): 10323-10339, 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197094

RESUMO

We report a series of seven cationic heteroleptic copper(I) complexes of the form [Cu(P^P)(dmphen)]BF4, where dmphen is 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline and P^P is a diphosphine chelate, in which the effect of the bite angle of the diphosphine ligand on the photophysical properties of the complexes was studied. Several of the complexes exhibit moderately high photoluminescence quantum yields in the solid state, with ΦPL of up to 35%, and in solution, with ΦPL of up to 98%. We were able to correlate the powder photoluminescence quantum yields with the % Vbur of the P^P ligand. The most emissive complexes were used to fabricate both organic light-emitting diodes and light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs), both of which showed moderate performance. Compared to the benchmark copper(I)-based LECs, [Cu(dnbp)(DPEPhos)]+ (maximum external quantum efficiency, EQEmax = 16%), complex 3 (EQEmax = 1.85%) showed a much longer device lifetime (t1/2 = 1.25 h and >16.5 h for [Cu(dnbp)(DPEPhos)]+ and complex 3, respectively). The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) properties of several complexes were also studied, which, to the best of our knowledge, constitutes the first ECL study for heteroleptic copper(I) complexes. Notably, complexes exhibiting more reversible electrochemistry were associated with higher annihilation ECL as well as better performance in a LEC.

17.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243670, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161428

RESUMO

For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cyprinidae , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta
18.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 190: 113439, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166943

RESUMO

The methacholine challenge test is considered to be the gold standard bronchoprovocation test used to diagnose asthma, and this test is always performed in pulmonary function labs or doctors' offices. Methacholine (MCH) acts by inducing airway tightening/bronchoconstriction, and more importantly, MCH is hydrolyzed by cholinesterase enzyme (ChE). Recently, the American Thoracic Society raised concerns about pulmonary function testing during the COVID-19 pandemic due to recently reported correlation between cholinesterase and COVID-19 pneumonia severity/mortality, and it was shown that cholinesterase levels are reduced in the acute phase of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. This work describes the microfabrication of potentiometric sensors using copper as the substrate and chemically polymerized graphene nanocomposites as the transducing layer for tracking the kinetics of MCH enzymatic degradation in real blood samples. The in-vitro estimation of the characteristic parameters of the MCH metabolism [Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and reaction velocity (Vmax)] were found to be 241.041 µM and 56.8 µM/min, respectively. The proposed sensor is designed to be used as a companion diagnostic device that can (i) answer questions about patient eligibility to perform methacholine challenge tests, (ii) individualize/personalize medical dosing of methacholine, (iii) provide portable and inexpensive devices allowing automated readouts without the need for operator intervention (iv) recommend therapeutic interventions including intensive care during early stages and reflecting the disease state of COVID-19 pneumonia. We hope that this methacholine electrochemical sensor will help in assaying ChE activity in a "timely" manner and predict the severity and prognosis of COVID-19 to improve treatment outcomes and decrease mortality.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , COVID-19 , Broncoconstritores , Humanos , Cloreto de Metacolina , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 261: 120032, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111836

RESUMO

Although Dietary supplements are readily accessible and extensively used worldwide, they are inadequately regulated and consumers are victims of manufacturers' fraud. Thus, quality regulations are required to ensure safety of products available to the public. We propose the first native spectrofluorimetric quality control assay of raspberry ketone, a popular dietary supplement ingredient for weight loss. This work relies on the constant wavelength synchronous scan of the Raspberry Ketone native fluorescence, overcoming the demerits of conventional excitation/ emission spectra. For the best measurement conditions, several parameters were optimized including Δλ value, diluting solvent, medium pH and the effect of surfactants/ macromolecules. In aqueous medium (Δλ = 110 nm), a linear relationship exists between synchronous fluorescence intensity at peak maximum 405.6 nm and solution concentration in the range 300-1500 ng/mL. Method sensitivity was recorded with LOD and LOQ values 60.63 and 183.72 ng/mL; respectively. Validation was done in accordance to International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This simple procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of Raspberry Ketone in commercially available dietary supplement capsules with average recovery 98.67% ± 1.74 and further extended to weight variation testing following the official United States Pharmacopeial (USP) guidelines. Finally, green assessment was done using the ''Analytical Eco-scale'' tool. The total score was 89/100 points revealing excellent greenness of our proposal. Our proposal is simple, eco-friendly and cheap. It can be conveniently adopted for routine quality control practices especially in developing countries.


Assuntos
Butanonas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Controle de Qualidade , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
20.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(8): 2048-2056, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34083409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disproportionately affected socially disadvantaged populations. Whether disparities in COVID-19 incidence related to race/ethnicity and socioeconomic factors exist in the hemodialysis population is unknown. METHODS: Our study involved patients receiving in-center hemodialysis in New York City. We used a validated index of neighborhood social vulnerability, the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), which comprises 15 census tract-level indicators organized into four themes: socioeconomic status, household composition and disability, minority status and language, and housing type and transportation. We examined the association of race/ethnicity and the SVI with symptomatic COVID-19 between March 1, 2020 and August 3, 2020. COVID-19 cases were ascertained using PCR testing. We performed multivariable logistic regression to adjust for demographics, individual-level social factors, dialysis-related medical history, and dialysis facility factors. RESULTS: Of the 1378 patients on hemodialysis in the study, 247 (17.9%) developed symptomatic COVID-19. In adjusted analyses, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic patients had significantly increased odds of COVID-19 compared with non-Hispanic White patients. Census tract-level overall SVI, modeled continuously or in quintiles, was not associated with COVID-19 in unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Among non-Hispanic White patients, the socioeconomic status SVI theme, the minority status and language SVI theme, and housing crowding were significantly associated with COVID-19 in unadjusted analyses. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients on hemodialysis in New York City, there were substantial racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 incidence not explained by neighborhood-level social vulnerability. Neighborhood-level socioeconomic status, minority status and language, and housing crowding were positively associated with acquiring COVID-19 among non-Hispanic Whites. Our findings suggest that socially vulnerable patients on dialysis face disparate COVID-19-related exposures, requiring targeted risk-mitigation strategies.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Diálise Renal , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Características de Residência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
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