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1.
J Mol Model ; 28(6): 178, 2022 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35654918

RESUMO

Adsorbate interactions with substrates (e.g. surfaces and nanoparticles) are fundamental for several technologies, such as functional materials, supramolecular chemistry, and solvent interactions. However, modeling these kinds of systems in silico, such as finding the optimum adsorption geometry and energy, is challenging, due to the huge number of possibilities of assembling the adsorbate on the surface. In the current work, we have developed an artificial intelligence (AI) approach based on an active learning (AL) method for adsorption optimization on the surface of materials. AL uses machine learning (ML) regression algorithms and their uncertainties to make a decision (based on a policy) for the next unexplored structures to be computed, increasing, though, the probability of finding the global minimum with a small number of calculations. The methodology allows an accurate and automated structural elucidation of the adsorbate on the surface, based on the minimization of the total electronic energy. The new AL method for adsorption optimization was developed and implemented in the quantum machine learning software/agent for material design and discovery (QMLMaterial) program and was applied for C60@TiO2 anatase (101). It marks another software extension with a new feature in addition to the automatic structural elucidation of defects in materials and of nanoparticles as well. SCC-DFTB calculations were used to build the complex search surfaces with a reasonably low computational cost. An artificial neural network (NN) was employed in the AL framework evaluated together with two uncertainty quantification methods: K-fold cross-validation and non-parametric bootstrap (BS) resampling. Also, two different acquisition functions for decision-making were used: expected improvement (EI) and the lower confidence bound (LCB).


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Aprendizado de Máquina , Adsorção , Redes Neurais de Computação , Software
2.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(16): 9051-9081, 2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389399

RESUMO

Important contemporary biological and materials problems often depend on interactions that span orders of magnitude differences in spatial and temporal dimensions. This Tutorial Review attempts to provide an introduction to such fascinating problems through a series of case studies, aimed at beginning researchers, graduate students, postdocs and more senior colleagues who are changing direction to focus on multiscale aspects of their research. The choice of specific examples is highly personal, with examples either chosen from our own work or outstanding multiscale efforts from the literature. I start with various embedding schemes, as exemplified by polarizable continuum models, 3-D RISM, molecular DFT and frozen-density embedding. Next, QM/MM (quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical) techniques are the workhorse of pm-to-nm/ps-to-ns simulations; examples are drawn from enzymes and from nanocatalysis for oil-sands upgrading. Using polarizable force-fields in the QM/MM framework represents a burgeoning subfield; with examples from ion channels and electron dynamics in molecules subject to strong external fields, probing the atto-second dynamics of the electrons with RT-TDDFT (real-time - time-dependent density functional theory) eventually coupled with nuclear motion through the Ehrenfest approximation. This is followed by a section on coarse graining, bridging dimensions from atoms to cells. The penultimate chapter gives a quick overview of multiscale approaches that extend into the meso- and macro-scales, building on atomistic and coarse-grained techniques to enter the world of materials engineering, on the one hand, and cell biology, on the other. A final chapter gives just a glimpse of the burgeoning impact of machine learning on the structure-dynamics front. I aim to capture the excitement of contemporary leading-edge breakthroughs in the description of physico-chemical systems and processes in complex environments, with only enough historical content to provide context and aid the next generation of methodological development. While I aim also for a clear description of the essence of methodological breakthroughs, equations are kept to a minimum and detailed formalism and implementation details are left to the references. My approach is very selective (case studies) rather than exhaustive. I think that these case studies should provide fodder to build as complete a reference tree on multiscale modelling as the reader may wish, through forward and backward citation analysis. I hope that my choices of cases will excite interest in newcomers and help to fuel the growth of multiscale modelling in general.


Assuntos
Eletrônica , Elétrons , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular
3.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 17(11): 6934-6946, 2021 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709812

RESUMO

The working equations for the extension of auxiliary density perturbation theory (ADPT) to hybrid functionals, employing the variational fitting of the Fock potential, are derived. The response equations in the resulting self-consistent ADPT (SC-ADPT) are solved iteratively with an adapted Eirola-Nevanlinna algorithm. As a result, a memory and CPU time efficient implementation of perturbation theory free of four-center electron repulsion integrals (ERIs) is obtained. Our validation calculations of SC-ADPT static and dynamic polarizabilities show quantitative agreement with corresponding coupled perturbed Hartree-Fock and Kohn-Sham results employing four-center ERIs. The comparison of SC-ADPT hybrid functional polarizabilities with coupled cluster reference calculations yield semiquantitative agreement. The presented systematic study of the dynamic polarizabilities of oligothiophenes shows that hybrid functionals can overcome the pathological misplacement of excitation poles by the local density and generalized gradient approximations. Good agreement with experimental dynamic polarizabilities for all studied oligothiophenes is achieved with range-separated hybrid functionals in the framework of SC-ADPT.

4.
J Chem Phys ; 153(14): 144102, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086838

RESUMO

Explicit description of atomic polarizability is critical for the accurate treatment of inter-molecular interactions by force fields (FFs) in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations aiming to investigate complex electrostatic environments such as metal-binding sites of metalloproteins. Several models exist to describe key monovalent and divalent cations interacting with proteins. Many of these models have been developed from ion-amino-acid interactions and/or aqueous-phase data on cation solvation. The transferability of these models to cation-protein interactions remains uncertain. Herein, we assess the accuracy of existing FFs by their abilities to reproduce hierarchies of thousands of Ca2+-dipeptide interaction energies based on density-functional theory calculations. We find that the Drude polarizable FF, prior to any parameterization, better approximates the QM interaction energies than any of the non-polarizable FFs. Nevertheless, it required improvement in order to address polarization catastrophes where, at short Ca2+-carboxylate distances, the Drude particle of oxygen overlaps with the divalent cation. To ameliorate this, we identified those conformational properties that produced the poorest prediction of interaction energies to reduce the parameter space for optimization. We then optimized the selected cation-peptide parameters using Boltzmann-weighted fitting and evaluated the resulting parameters in MD simulations of the N-lobe of calmodulin. We also parameterized and evaluated the CTPOL FF, which incorporates charge-transfer and polarization effects in additive FFs. This work shows how QM-driven parameter development, followed by testing in condensed-phase simulations, may yield FFs that can accurately capture the structure and dynamics of ion-protein interactions.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Dipeptídeos/metabolismo , Cálcio/química , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/química , Bases de Dados de Compostos Químicos , Dipeptídeos/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Eletricidade Estática , Termodinâmica
5.
J Mol Model ; 26(11): 303, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064203

RESUMO

In this work, we explore the possibility of using computationally inexpensive electronic structure methods, such as semiempirical and DFTB calculations, for the search of the global minimum (GM) structure of chemical systems. The basic prerequisite that these inexpensive methods will need to fulfill is that their lowest energy structures can be used as starting point for a subsequent local optimization at a benchmark level that will yield its GM. If this is possible, one could bypass the global optimization at the expensive method, which is currently impossible except for very small molecules. Specifically, we test our methods with clusters of second row elements including systems of several bonding types, such as alkali, metal, and covalent clusters. The results reveal that the DFTB3 method yields reasonable results and is a potential candidate for this type of applications. Even though the DFTB2 approach using standard parameters is proven to yield poor results, we show that a re-parametrization of only its repulsive part is enough to achieve excellent results, even when applied to larger systems outside the training set.

6.
ACS Omega ; 5(1): 610-618, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956809

RESUMO

Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed for the adsorption of different isomers of 6-mercaptopurine on the Au(001) surface. All of the configurations of four thione and two thiol isomers were considered. The results show that the thione isomers adsorbed more strongly on the Au(001) surface compared with the thiol ones. In all of the configurations, the calculated binding energy of ma-8 is the largest, in which the S atom of 6-mercaptopurine binds strongly with one Au atom on the monodentate sites and 6-mercaptopurine retains a flat geometry, predominantly with an approximately 30° orientation between the C-S bond and the Au-Au bond of the catalyst. Additionally, the 6-mercaptopurines in ma-2, mb-5, and mc-3 also bind more strongly onto the surface, which show relatively higher stability on the surfaces, indicating a high preference for adsorption. Charge density differences and TDOS analyses for the four configurations also show that the electronic charges are accumulated between Au and S atoms in the Au-S bonds, indicating occurrence of adsorption and chemical-bond formation.

7.
Molecules ; 24(9)2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035516

RESUMO

deMon2k is a readily available program specialized in Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations within the framework of Auxiliary DFT. This article is intended as a tutorial-review of the capabilities of the program for molecular simulations involving ground and excited electronic states. The program implements an additive QM/MM (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) module relying either on non-polarizable or polarizable force fields. QM/MM methodologies available in deMon2k include ground-state geometry optimizations, ground-state Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations, Ehrenfest non-adiabatic molecular dynamics simulations, and attosecond electron dynamics. In addition several electric and magnetic properties can be computed with QM/MM. We review the framework implemented in the program, including the most recently implemented options (link atoms, implicit continuum for remote environments, metadynamics, etc.), together with six applicative examples. The applications involve (i) a reactivity study of a cyclic organic molecule in water; (ii) the establishment of free-energy profiles for nucleophilic-substitution reactions by the umbrella sampling method; (iii) the construction of two-dimensional free energy maps by metadynamics simulations; (iv) the simulation of UV-visible absorption spectra of a solvated chromophore molecule; (v) the simulation of a free energy profile for an electron transfer reaction within Marcus theory; and (vi) the simulation of fragmentation of a peptide after collision with a high-energy proton.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Algoritmos
8.
J Chem Phys ; 149(19): 194703, 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466267

RESUMO

Heterogeneous reactions at the surfaces of mineral dusts represent a key process in the formation of atmospheric aerosols. To quantify the rate of aerosol formation in climate modeling as well as combat hazardous aerosols, a deep understanding of the mechanisms of these reactions is essential. In the present work, density functional theory calculations, including a Hubbard-like +U correction, were employed to elucidate the reaction between SO2 and the hematite(0001) surface. Three reaction conditions are considered: dry, wet, and aerobic. In the absence of water and oxygen, adsorption energies of SO2 on the clean Fe-O3-Fe-termination were found to be about -0.8 to -1.0 eV and resulted in the formation of an adsorbed SO3-like species. The addition of water leads to surface hydroxylation and has little effect on promoting the SO2 adsorption. Under such circumstances, an HSO3-like species was formed with a smaller adsorption energy of about -0.5 eV. By contrast, the presence of molecular oxygen enhances the SO2 adsorption significantly as the two species combine to form sulfate SO4 2-, with adsorption energies of -1.31 to -1.64 eV. The calculated vibrational frequencies of the adsorbate species provide insight into the surface bonding and a useful spectral fingerprinting for experimental measurements. These results elucidate the atomistic mechanism of the reaction between SO2 and hematite and highlight the important role of atmospheric O2 in the formation of sulfates.

9.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 13(9): 3985-4002, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28738144

RESUMO

We propose a methodology for simulating attosecond electron dynamics in large molecular systems. Our approach is based on the combination of real time time-dependent-density-functional theory (RT-TDDFT) and polarizable Molecular Mechanics (MMpol) with the point-charge-dipole model of electrostatic induction. We implemented this methodology in the software deMon2k that relies heavily on auxiliary fitted densities. In the context of RT-TDDFT/MMpol simulations, fitted densities allow the cost of the calculations to be reduced drastically on three fronts: (i) the Kohn-Sham potential, (ii) the electric field created by the (fluctuating) electron cloud which is needed in the QM/MM interaction, and (iii) the analysis of the fluctuating electron density on-the-fly. We determine conditions under which fitted densities can be used without jeopardizing the reliability of the simulations. Very encouraging results are found both for stationary and time-dependent calculations. We report absorption spectra of a dye molecule in the gas phase, in nonpolarizable water, and in polarizable water. Finally, we use the method to analyze the distance-dependent response of the environment of a peptide perturbed by an electric field. Different response mechanisms are identified. It is shown that the induction on MM sites allows excess energy to dissipate from the QM region to the environment. In this regard, the first hydration shell plays an essential role in absorbing energy. The methodology presented herein opens the possibility of simulating radiation-induced electronic phenomena in complex and extended molecular systems.

10.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 19(10): 7333-7342, 2017 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28239719

RESUMO

Electronic properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) play an important role in their interactions with nano-structured materials. In this work, interactions of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), a DNA nucleotide, with metallic and semi-conducting CNTs are studied using the density functional tight binding (DFTB) method. The electronic structure of semi-conducting CNTs was found to be changed as they turned to metallic CNTs in a vacuum upon interaction with the nucleotide while metallic CNTs remain metallic. Specifically, the band gap of semi-conducting CNTs was decreased by 0.79 eV on average while nearly no change was found in the metallic tubes. However, our investigations showed that the presence of explicit water molecules prevents the metallicity change and only small changes in the CNT band gap occur. According to our charge analysis, the average negative charge accumulated on CNTs upon interaction with the AMP was determined to be 0.77 e in a vacuum while it was 0.03 e in solution. Therefore, it is essential to include explicit water molecules in simulating complexes formed by DNA nucleotides and CNTs which were ignored in several past studies performed using quantum mechanical approaches.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Elétrons , Eletricidade Estática , Água/química
11.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(5): 4191-200, 2016 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26784370

RESUMO

The thermodynamics of ion solvation in non-aqueous solvents remains of great significance for understanding cellular transport and ion homeostasis for the design of novel ion-selective materials and applications in molecular pharmacology. Molecular simulations play pivotal roles in connecting experimental measurements to the microscopic structures of liquids. One of the most useful and versatile mimetic systems for understanding biological ion transport is N-methyl-acetamide (NMA). A plethora of theoretical studies for ion solvation in NMA have appeared recently, but further progress is limited by two factors. One is an apparent lack of experimental data on solubility and thermodynamics of solvation for a broad panel of 1 : 1 salts over an appropriate temperature and concentration range. The second concern is more substantial and has to do with the limitations hardwired in the additive (fixed charge) approximations used for most of the existing force-fields. In this submission, we report on the experimental evaluation of LiCl solvation in NMA over a broad range of concentrations and temperatures and compare the results with those of MD simulations with several additive and one polarizable force-field (Drude). By comparing our simulations and experimental results to density functional theory computations, we discuss the limiting factors in existing potential functions. To evaluate the possible implications of explicit and implicit polarizability treatments on ion permeation across biological channels, we performed potential of mean force (PMF) computations for Li(+) transport through a model narrow ion channel with additive and polarizable force-fields.

12.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 11(10): 4992-5001, 2015 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26574284

RESUMO

Despite decades of investigations, the principal mechanisms responsible for the high affinity and specificity of proteins for key physiological cations K(+), Na(+), and Ca(2+) remain a hotly debated topic. At the core of the debate is an apparent need (or lack thereof) for an accurate description of the electrostatic response of the charge distribution in a protein to the binding of an ion. These effects range from partial electronic polarization of the directly ligating atoms to long-range effects related to partial charge transfer and electronic delocalization effects. While accurate modeling of cation recognition by metalloproteins warrants the use of quantum-mechanics (QM) calculations, the most popular approximations used in major biomolecular simulation packages rely on the implicit modeling of electronic polarization effects. That is, high-level QM computations for ion binding to proteins are desirable, but they are often unfeasible, because of the large size of the reactive-site models and the need to sample conformational space exhaustively at finite temperature. Several solutions to this challenge have been proposed in the field, ranging from the recently developed Drude polarizable force-field for simulations of metalloproteins to approximate tight-binding density functional theory (DFTB). To delineate the usefulness of different approximations, we examined the accuracy of three recent and commonly used theoretical models and numerical algorithms, namely, CHARMM C36, the latest developed Drude polarizable force fields, and DFTB3 with the latest 3OB parameters. We performed MD simulations for 30 cation-selective proteins with high-resolution X-ray structures to create ensembles of structures for analysis with different levels of theory, e.g., additive and polarizable force fields, DFTB3, and DFT. The results from DFT computations were used to benchmark CHARMM C36, Drude, and DFTB3 performance. The explicit modeling of quantum effects unveils the key electrostatic properties of the protein sites and the importance of specific ion-protein interactions. One of the most interesting findings is that secondary coordination shells of proteins are noticeably perturbed in a cation-dependent manner, showing significant delocalization and long-range effects of charge transfer and polarization upon binding Ca(2+).


Assuntos
Cálcio/química , Metaloproteínas/química , Potássio/química , Teoria Quântica , Sódio/química , Cátions/química , Ligantes , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular
13.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 582: 28-41, 2015 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26116376

RESUMO

This Review presents an overview of the most common numerical simulation approaches for the investigation of electron transfer (ET) in proteins. We try to highlight the merits of the different approaches but also the current limitations and challenges. The article is organized into three sections. Section 2 deals with direct simulation algorithms of charge migration in proteins. Section 3 summarizes the methods for testing the applicability of the Marcus theory for ET in proteins and for evaluating key thermodynamic quantities entering the reaction rates (reorganization energies and driving force). Recent studies interrogating the validity of the theory due to the presence of non-ergodic effects or of non-linear responses are also described. Section 4 focuses on the tunneling aspects of electron transfer. How can the electronic coupling between charge transfer states be evaluated by quantum chemistry approaches and rationalized? What interesting physics regarding the impact of protein dynamics on tunneling can be addressed? We will illustrate the different sections with examples taken from the literature to show what types of system are currently manageable with current methodologies. We also take care to recall what has been learned on the biophysics of ET within proteins thanks to the advent of atomistic simulations.


Assuntos
Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas/metabolismo , Transporte de Elétrons , Elétrons , Modelos Lineares , Proteínas/química
14.
Molecules ; 20(3): 4780-812, 2015 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25786164

RESUMO

The density functional code deMon2k employs a fitted density throughout (Auxiliary Density Functional Theory), which offers a great speed advantage without sacrificing necessary accuracy. Powerful Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical (QM/MM) approaches are reviewed. Following an overview of the basic features of deMon2k that make it efficient while retaining accuracy, three QM/MM implementations are compared and contrasted. In the first, deMon2k is interfaced with the CHARMM MM code (CHARMM-deMon2k); in the second MM is coded directly within the deMon2k software; and in the third the Chemistry in Ruby (Cuby) wrapper is used to drive the calculations. Cuby is also used in the context of constrained-DFT/MM calculations. Each of these implementations is described briefly; pros and cons are discussed and a few recent applications are described briefly. Applications include solvated ions and biomolecules, polyglutamine peptides important in polyQ neurodegenerative diseases, copper monooxygenases and ultra-rapid electron transfer in cryptochromes.


Assuntos
Peptídeos/química , Software , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Teoria Quântica
15.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(12): 4249-59, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25774905

RESUMO

Heterogeneous reactions catalyzed by transition-metal-containing nanoparticles represent a crucial type of reaction in chemical industry. Because of the existing gap in understanding heterogeneous catalysis between a cluster of a few atoms and a bulk model of periodic slabs, reactions catalyzed by transition-metal-containing nanoparticles are still not well understood. Herein, we provide a multiscale modeling approach to study the benzene hydrogenation reactions on molybdenum carbide nanoparticles (MCNPs) in the process of in situ heavy oil upgrading. By coupling the quantum mechanical (QM) density functional tight-binding (DFTB) method with a molecular mechanical (MM) force field, a QM/MM model was built to describe the reactants, the nanoparticles and the surroundings. Umbrella sampling (US) was used to calculate the free energy profiles of the benzene hydrogenation reactions in a model aromatic solvent in the in situ heavy oil upgrading conditions. By comparing with the traditional method in computational heterogeneous catalysis, the results reveal new features of the metallic MCNPs. Rather than being rigid, they are very flexible under working condition due to the entropic contributions of the MCNPs and the solvent, which greatly affect the free energy profiles of these nanoscale heterogeneous reactions.

16.
J Phys Chem B ; 119(29): 9401-16, 2015 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25578354

RESUMO

Small metal ions play critical roles in numerous biological processes. Of particular interest is how metalloenzymes are allosterically regulated by the binding of specific ions. Understanding how ion binding affects these biological processes requires atomic models that accurately treat the microscopic interactions with the protein ligands. Theoretical approaches at different levels of sophistication can contribute to a deeper understanding of these systems, although computational models must strike a balance between accuracy and efficiency in order to enable long molecular dynamics simulations. In this study, we present a systematic effort to optimize the parameters of a polarizable force field based on classical Drude oscillators to accurately represent the interactions between ions (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), and Cl(-)) and coordinating amino-acid residues for a set of 30 biologically important proteins. By combining ab initio calculations and experimental thermodynamic data, we derive a polarizable force field that is consistent with a wide range of properties, including the geometries and interaction energies of gas-phase ion/protein-like model compound clusters, and the experimental solvation free-energies of the cations in liquids. The resulting models display significant improvements relative to the fixed-atomic-charge additive CHARMM C36 force field, particularly in their ability to reproduce the many-body electrostatic nonadditivity effects estimated from ab initio calculations. The analysis clarifies the fundamental limitations of the pairwise additivity assumption inherent in classical fixed-charge force fields, and shows its dramatic failures in the case of Ca(2+) binding sites. These optimized polarizable models, amenable to computationally efficient large-scale MD simulations, set a firm foundation and offer a powerful avenue to study the roles of the ions in soluble and membrane transport proteins.


Assuntos
Íons/química , Modelos Químicos , Proteínas/química , Gases/química , Solventes/química , Termodinâmica
17.
Proteins ; 83(2): 268-81, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25412829

RESUMO

RNA polymerase II catalyzes the nucleotidyl transfer reaction for messenger RNA synthesis in eukaryotes. Two crystal structures of this system have been resolved, each with its own defects in the coordination sphere of Mg(2+) (A) resulting from chemical modifications. We have used both structures and also a novel hybrid of the two that allows a better exploration of the parts of configuration space that reflect substrate-enzyme interactions. MD and QM/MM calculations have been performed, the latter with the semiempirical AM1/d-PhoT method, calibrated against density functional theory. Reaction path scans in 1-D provided insights about the role of Mg(2+) (A) which turns out to be more structural than catalytic. In contrast, 1-D scans of the incorporation of the nucleotidyl group yielded barriers that were much too high, necessitating the use of 2-D reaction coordinates. Three different proton acceptors for the initial reaction step were examined. For those models based on the two PDB structures the 2-D scans continued to yield very high barriers, indicating that the reaction is unlikely to proceed from these configurations. On the other hand, two hybrid models, chosen from the early and late parts of a 12 ns molecular dynamics simulation yielded greatly reduced barriers in the range of ∼ 17 to ∼ 27 kcal/mol for the three proton acceptors, as compared to the experimental estimate of 18 kcal/mol. The final step, release of pyrophosphate, was found to be facile. Our overall mechanism involves only active site residues or water without the need for external reactive agents such as the hydroxide ion previously proposed.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerase II/química , Domínio Catalítico , Complexos de Coordenação , Difosfatos/química , Magnésio/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Prótons , Transcrição Genética
18.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 14(17): 5902-18, 2012 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22434318

RESUMO

Over recent decades, quantum effects such as coherent electronic energy transfers, electron and hydrogen tunneling have been uncovered in biological processes. In this Perspective, we highlight some of the main conceptual and methodological tools employed in the field to investigate electron tunneling in proteins, with a particular emphasis on the methodologies we are currently developing. In particular, we describe our recent contributions to the development of a mixed quantum-classical framework aimed at describing physical systems lying at the border between the quantum and semi-classical worlds. We present original results obtained by combining our approach with constrained Density Functional Theory calculations. Moving to coarser levels of description, we summarize our latest findings on electron transfer between two redox proteins, thereby showing the stabilization of inter-protein, water-mediated, electron-transfer pathways.


Assuntos
Elétrons , Teoria Quântica , Simulação por Computador , Transporte de Elétrons , Hidrogênio/química , Cinética , Oxirredução , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/química , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/metabolismo
19.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 8(11): 4232-8, 2012 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26605586

RESUMO

In QM/MM studies with large MM regions, the calculation of electrostatic embedding integrals can become a computational bottleneck. To overcome this problem, an asymptotic expansion for nuclear attraction-type integrals is developed. As a result, the long-range interactions between the QM and MM atoms reduce to atom-centered multipole moment-like expansions. The algorithm uses a natural spatial division of the molecular structure. To further improve the computational performance, a cutoff radius for the multipole moment-like expansion is introduced. The new code was validated and benchmarked with deMon2k/CHARMM QM/MM calculations on an RNA polymerase II model with almost 350 000 atoms. It is shown that the computational time for the calculation of the embedding integrals in this system can be reduced below 200 s on a small parallel architecture (eight cores) without a loss of accuracy.

20.
J Comput Chem ; 32(6): 1178-82, 2011 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21387344

RESUMO

Although potentially powerful, molecular oxygen is an inert oxidant due to the triplet nature of its ground state. Therefore, many enzymesse various metal cations (M) to produce singlet active species M(n) O(2) . In this communication we investigate the topology of the Electron Localization Function (ELF) within five biomimetic complexes which are representative of the strategies followed by metalloenzymes to activate O(2) . Thanks to its coupling to the constrained DFT methods the ELF analysis reveals the tight connection between the spin state of the adduct and the spatial organization of the oxygen lone pairs. We suggest that enzymes could resort to spin state control to tune the regioselectivity of substrate oxidations.


Assuntos
Metaloproteínas/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Teoria Quântica , Metaloproteínas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Oxigênio/química , Estereoisomerismo
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