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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250607, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355881

RESUMO

Abstract Newcastle disease (ND) is an infectious, highly contagious and lethal disease of avian species. It is considered that ducks are natural reservoir or carrier for Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and are resistant against different strains of NDV. Current study was designed to evaluate the pathogenesis of Newcastle disease in domestic ducks through histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and serum biochemical changes. For this purpose, eighty ducks were reared for 42 days and divided in two groups A and B. Ducks in group A were challenged with (NDV) at rate of 0.1 ml of ELD50 (virus titer 107.32/100µl) on second week of age, whereas Group B was control negative. Splenomegaly, atrophy of thymus and necrotic lesion in kidney were observed on 9th day of post infection. Hepatic degeneration and mononuclear cell infiltration were noticed in proventriculus and intestine in challenged ducks. Viral antigen detected in lungs, intestine, proventriculus and lymphoid organs of infected ducks through IHC. Albumin and total protein values were significantly low in infected groups A as compared to control group B. ALT, AST, and ALP values were significantly high in infected group A. On 5th and 7th day of post infection oropharyngeal swabs were negative for NDV and cloacal swabs were positive for NDV through Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. It is concluded that ducks are susceptible to NDV and virulent strain of NDV caused disease in ducks.


Resumo A doença de Newcastle (DN) é uma doença infecciosa, altamente contagiosa e letal de espécies aviárias. Considera-se que os patos são reservatórios ou portadores naturais do vírus da doença de Newcastle (VDN) e são resistentes a diferentes cepas de VDN. O presente estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a patogênese da DN em patos domésticos por meio de histopatologia, imuno-histoquímica (IHQ) e alterações bioquímicas séricas. Para este propósito, 80 patos foram criados por 42 dias e divididos em dois grupos A e B. Os patos do grupo A foram submetidos ao VDN a uma taxa de 0,1 ml de ELD50 (título viral de 107,32 / 100 µl) na segunda semana de idade, enquanto o Grupo B foi controle negativo. Esplenomegalia, atrofia do timo e lesão necrótica no rim foram observadas no 9º dia pós-infecção. Degeneração hepática e infiltração de células mononucleares foram observadas no proventrículo e intestino em patos infectados. Antígeno viral foi detectado em pulmões, intestino, proventrículo e órgãos linfoides de patos infectados por IHQ. Os valores de albumina e proteína total foram significativamente baixos no grupo A infectado em comparação com o grupo B. Os valores de ALT, AST e ALP foram significativamente altos no grupo A. No 5º e no 7º dia após a infecção, os esfregaços orofaríngeos foram negativos para VDN, enquanto os esfregaços cloacais foram positivos para VDN por meio da reação em cadeia da polimerase via transcriptase reversa. Conclui-se que os patos são suscetíveis ao VDN e à cepa virulenta de VDN que causou doenças em patos.


Assuntos
Animais , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Patos , Doença de Newcastle/diagnóstico
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249742, 2024. tab, ilus, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374679

RESUMO

Antioxidants are materials that scavenge or remove free radicals from living systems. The oxidation process ends in the production of free radicals. These free radicals are the chief birthplace of cancerous cells. Antioxidizing agents remove free radical intermediates by terminating oxidation processes by being oxidized themselves. On the other hand, infectious diseases affect the world on a large scale. To fight these diseases several synthetic compounds have been used. Plant based medications play important role in this regard. So, the current research aimed to investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant effect of Berberis lycium Royle root bark (BLR) extract. Berberis lycium Royle was used for phytochemical analysis and also as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar well diffusion method. Current study revealed that BLR was rich in phytochemicals and toxic against tested pathogenic bacteria. BLR showed the highest activity against S. pyogenes (13.3±0.8 mm). The lowest antibacterial activity was reported against E. coli (0±0 mm). In case of minimum inhibitory concentration, it was observed that BLR with 10 µg/mL concentration showed the highest activity while 2.5 µg/mL of BLR showed the least inhibitory activity. The highest In vitro antioxidant activity was recorded as 65% at 100 µg/mL. In case of in vivo antioxidant activity level of CAT, GSH and SOD were decreased while that of MDA was enhanced in groups treated with CCl4 as compared to the control group. BLR extract treatment reversed all these changes significantly. Current results indicate that BLR is effective against bacterial pathogens and also has antioxidant potential.


Os antioxidantes são materiais que eliminam ou removem os radicais livres dos sistemas vivos. O processo de oxidação termina na produção de radicais livres. Esses radicais livres são o principal local de nascimento das células cancerosas. Os agentes antioxidantes removem os intermediários dos radicais livres ao encerrar os processos de oxidação ao serem eles próprios oxidados. Por outro lado, as doenças infecciosas afetam o mundo em grande escala. Para combater essas doenças, diversos compostos sintéticos têm sido utilizados. Os medicamentos à base de plantas desempenham um papel importante a este respeito. Assim, o objetivo da pesquisa atual é investigar o efeito antibacteriano e antioxidante do extrato da casca da raiz de Berberis lycium Royle (BLR). Berberis lycium Royle foi utilizado para análises fitoquímicas e também como agentes antimicrobianos e antioxidantes. A atividade antimicrobiana foi avaliada pelo método de difusão em ágar em poço. A partir do estudo atual, observou-se que o BLR era rico em fitoquímicos e tóxico contra bactérias patogênicas testadas. BLR apresentou maior atividade contra S. pyogenes (13,3 ± 0,8 mm). A menor atividade antibacteriana foi relatada contra E. coli (0 ± 0 mm). No caso de concentração inibitória mínima, observou-se que BLR com concentração de 10 µg / mL apresentou maior atividade, enquanto BLR 2,5 µg / mL apresentou menor atividade inibitória. A maior atividade antioxidante in vitro foi registrada como 65% a 100 µg / mL. No caso do nível de atividade antioxidante in vivo de CAT, GSH e SOD diminuiu, enquanto o de MDA aumentou nos grupos tratados com CCl4 em comparação com o grupo controle. O tratamento com extrato de BLR reverteu todas essas mudanças significativamente. Os resultados atuais indicam que o BLR é eficaz contra patógenos bacterianos e também tem atividade antioxidante.


Assuntos
Berberis , Fitoterapia , Anti-Infecciosos , Antibacterianos , Antioxidantes
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255692, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374646

RESUMO

The current research was designed to reach extracellular protease production potential in different strains of Sordaria fimicola which were previously obtained from Dr. Lamb (Imperial College, London) from North Facing Slope and South Facing Slope of Evolution Canyon. After initial and secondary screening, two hyper-producers strains S2 and N6 were selected for submerged fermentation and cultural conditions including temperature, pH, incubation period, inoculum size, substrate concentration, and different carbon and nitrogen sources were optimized for enzyme production. S2 strain showed maximum protease production of 3.291 U/mL after 14 days of incubation at 30 °C with 7 pH, 1% substrate concentration and 1 mL inoculum, While N6 strain showed maximum protease production of 1.929 U/mL under fermentation optimized conditions. Another aim of the present research was to underpin the biodiversity of genetics and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of protease DPAP (peptidyl-aminopeptidase) in Sordaria fimicola. Five polymorphic sites were observed in amino acid sequence of S. fimicola strains with reference to Neurospora crassa. PTMs prediction from bioinformatics tools predicted 38 phosphorylation sites on serine residues for protease peptidyl-aminopeptidase in S1 strain of S. fimicola while 45 phosphorylation sites on serine in N7 strain and 47 serine phosphorylation modifications were predicted in N. crassa. Current research gave an insight that change in genetic makeup effected PTMs which ultimately affected the production of protease enzyme in different strains of same organism (S. fimicola). The production and molecular data of the research revealed that environmental stress has strong effects on the specific genes through mutations which may cause genetic diversity. S. fimicola is non- pathogenic fungus and has a short life cycle. This fungus can be chosen to produce protease enzyme on a commercial scale.


A pesquisa atual foi projetada para alcançar o potencial de produção de protease extracelular em diferentes cepas de Sordaria fimicola que foram previamente obtidas do Dr. Lamb (Imperial College, Londres) de North Facing Slope e South Facing Slope de Evolution Canyon. Após a triagem inicial e secundária, duas cepas hiperprodutoras S2 e N6 foram selecionadas para fermentação submersa e condições culturais, incluindo temperatura, pH, período de incubação, tamanho do inóculo, concentração de substrato, e diferentes fontes de carbono e nitrogênio foram otimizadas para produção de enzima. A cepa S2 apresentou produção máxima de protease de 3,291 U/mL após 14 dias de incubação a 30 °C com pH 7, concentração de substrato de 1% e inóculo de 1 mL, enquanto a cepa N6 apresentou produção máxima de protease de 1,929 U/mL em condições otimizadas de fermentação. Outro objetivo da presente pesquisa foi sustentar a biodiversidade da genética e modificações pós-tradicionais (PTMs) da protease DPAP (peptidil-aminopeptidase) em Sordaria fimicola. Cinco sítios polimórficos foram observados na sequência de aminoácidos de cepas de S. fimicola com referência a Neurospora crassa. A previsão de PTMs a partir de ferramentas de bioinformática previu 38 locais de fosforilação em resíduos de serina para protease peptidil-aminopeptidase na cepa S1 de S. fimicola, enquanto 45 locais de fosforilação em serina na cepa N7 e 47 modificações de fosforilação de serina foram previstas em N. crassa. A pesquisa atual deu uma ideia de que a mudança na composição genética afetou os PTMs que, em última análise, afetaram a produção da enzima protease em diferentes cepas do mesmo organismo (S. fimicola). A produção e os dados moleculares da pesquisa revelaram que o estresse ambiental tem fortes efeitos sobre genes específicos por meio de mutações que podem causar diversidade genética. S. fimicola é um fungo não patogênico e tem um ciclo de vida curto. Esse fungo pode ser escolhido para produzir enzima protease em escala comercial.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Sordariales , Enzimas/genética , Fungos
4.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-12, 2023. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765547

RESUMO

The present trial explained the effect of alternative production systems on growth, morphometric and carcass traits of four different chicken genotypes. The second generation of two genotypes RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) and BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtained by two self-crosses (RNN × RNN = RR and BNN × BNN = BB) and two reciprocal crosses (RNN × BNN = RB and BNN × RNN = BR) were evaluated in three alternative production systems (conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary). At the 6th week of age after sexing, a total of 600 birds, comprising 150 from each crossbred with a total of 300 pullets and 300 cockerels were divided into conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary systems having 200 birds in each.Birds were organized into 3×4 factorial arrangements under Completely Randomized Design (3 production systems × 4 genotypes × 2 sexes × 25 birds = 600 birds). Regarding genotypes, RB and BR males showed higher (p < 0.01) carcass yield, drumstick weight, breast weight, and thigh weight than BB and RR genotypes. Females of BR genotype showed higher (p < 0.01) breast weight, thigh weight and drumstick weight. As far as production systems are concerned, higher (p < 0.01) liver weight, heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight were observed in the males reared in enriched cages compared with conventional cages and aviary system. Females reared in enriched cages showed higher (p < 0.01) heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight when compared with those reared in conventional cages and aviary. It is concluded that chickens (both sexes) of BR and RB genotypes had better morphological measurements and carcass traits than those of RR and BB genotype chickens. Among alternative production systems, chickens reared in enriched cages had better traits than those of reared in conventional cages and aviary during the growing phase.(AU)


O presente estudo explicou o efeito de sistemas alternativos de produção sobre o crescimento, características morfométricas e carcaças de quatro genótipos de frango diferentes. A segunda geração de dois genótipos RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) e BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtida por duas autocruzes (RNN × RNN = RR e B ANN × BNN = BB) e duas cruzes recíprocas (RNN × BNN = RB e BNN × RNN = BR) foi avaliada em três sistemas de produção alternativos (gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e aviário). Na 6ª semana de idade após o sexo, um total de 600 aves, compostas por 150 de cada raça cruzada com um total de 300 pullets e 300 galos, foi dividido em gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e sistemas aviários com 200 aves em cada. As aves foram organizadas em 3×4 arranjos fatoriais sob projeto completamente randomizado (3 sistemas de produção × 4 genótipos × 2 sexos × 25 aves = 600 aves). Em relação aos genótipos, os machos RB e BR apresentaram maior rendimento de carcaça (p < 0,01), peso da baqueta, peso mamário e peso da coxa do que os genótipos BB e RR. As fêmeas do genótipo BR apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso mamário, peso da coxa e peso da baqueta. No que diz respeito aos sistemas de produção, maior (p < 0,01) peso hepático, peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa foram observados nos machos criados em gaiolas enriquecidas em comparação com gaiolas convencionais e sistema aviário. As fêmeas criadas em gaiolas enriquecidas apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa quando comparadas com as criadas em gaiolas convencionais e aviárias. Conclui-se que as galinhas (ambos os sexos) dos genótipos BR e RB apresentaram melhores medidas morfológicas e traços de carcaça do que os de frangos genótipos RR e BB. Entre os sistemas de produção alternativos, [...].(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cruzamento/métodos , Hibridização Genética , Seleção Artificial/genética
5.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-9, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765473

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that arsenic crosses the placenta and affects the fetus development. The study under consideration aims to show comparative ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced fetus toxicity of mice. Pregnant mice (N=44) were kept in lab and divided into eleven group from (A to K) and were orally administered the doses 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg for sodium arsenate, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (MOLE) and 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera flower extracts (MOFE) comparing with control. The investigation revealed evident reduction in the fetuses weight, hind limb, fore limb, tail and snout length, crown rump and head circumferences well as malformations in tail, feet, arms, legs, skin and eyes in the negative control group (only administered with sodium arsenate). Co-administration of sodium arsenate with MOLE and MOFE ameliorate the reversed effect of sodium arsenate on the shape, length, body weight and DNA damage of fetus significantly at 95% confidence interval. However, Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed more significant results in comparison to Moringa oleifera flower extract. Hence concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorated the embryo toxic effects of sodium arsenate and can be used against environmental teratogens.(AU)


Estudos anteriores sugeriram que o arsênio atravessa a placenta e afeta o desenvolvimento do feto. O estudo em consideração visa mostrar o efeito melhorador comparativo de extratos de folhas e flores de Moringa oleifera contra a toxicidade fetal induzida por arseniato de sódio em camundongos. Camundongos grávidas (N = 44) foram mantidos em laboratório e divididos em 11 grupos (de A a K) e foram administrados por via oral nas doses de 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg para arseniato de sódio, 150 mg/kg e 300 mg/kg para extratos de folhas de Moringa oleifera (MOLE) e 150 mg/kg e 300 mg/kg para extratos de flores de Moringa oleifera (MOFE) em comparação com o controle. A investigação revelou redução evidente no peso do feto, membro posterior, membro anterior, comprimento da cauda e focinho, coroa, nádega e circunferência da cabeça, bem como malformações na cauda, pés, braços, pernas, pele e olhos no grupo de controle negativo (apenas administrado com arseniato de sódio). A coadministração de arseniato de sódio com MOLE e MOFE melhora significativamente o efeito reverso do arseniato de sódio na forma, comprimento, peso corporal e dano ao DNA do feto, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. No entanto, o extrato da folha da Moringa oleifera apresentou resultados mais significativos em comparação ao extrato da flor da Moringa oleifera. Portanto, concluiu que o extrato da folha de Moringa oleifera melhorou os efeitos tóxicos do arseniato de sódio para o embrião e pode ser usado contra teratógenos ambientais.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Camundongos , Moringa oleifera/embriologia , Ensaio Cometa/veterinária , Feto/anormalidades , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Pré-Natais/veterinária , Arseniatos/toxicidade
6.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765456

RESUMO

During this one year study, blood and fecal samples of doves (Zenaida asiatica), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), pigeons (Columba livia), partridges (Alectoris chukar), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and goose (Chen caerulescens) were collected to assess the parasitic prevalence in these birds. The birds were kept at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. All these avian species were kept in separate cages and their entire body was inspected on regularly basis to record external parasites. For internal parasites, 100 blood and 100 fecal samples for each species were analyzed. During present study, two species of ectoparasites i.e. fowl ticks (Args persicus) and mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) while 17 species of endoparasites; three from blood and 14 from fecal samples were identified. Prevalence of blood parasites was Plasmodium juxtanucleare 29.3%, Aegyptinella pullorum 15% and Leucoctoyzoon simond 13%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 50%, Capillaria anatis 40%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%, Ascardia galli 24% and Allodpa suctoria 2%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 12.1% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 9.1% were also recorded from fecal samples of the birds. Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 27% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having prevalence 20.1%, Histomonas meleagridis 8% and Giardia lamblia 5.3% were recorded. In our recommendation, proper medication and sanitation of the bird's houses and cages is recommended to avoid parasites.(AU)


Durante este estudo de um ano, amostras de sangue e fezes de pombos (Zenaida asiatica), patos (Anas platyrhynchos), pombos (Columba livia), perdizes (Alectoris chukar), perus (Meleagris gallopavo) e ganso (Chen caerulescens) foram coletados para avaliar a prevalência de parasitas nessas aves. As aves foram mantidas no Centro de Conservação e Pesquisa de Aves, Departamento de Vida Selvagem e Ecologia, Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, Lahore. Todas essas espécies de aves foram mantidas em gaiolas separadas e todo o seu corpo foi inspecionado regularmente para registrar parasitas externos. Para parasitas internos, foram analisadas 100 amostras de sangue e 100 amostras fecais de cada espécie. Durante o presente estudo, duas espécies de ectoparasitas, ou seja, carrapatos de aves (Args persicus) e ácaros (Dermanyssus gallinae), enquanto 17 espécies de endoparasitas, três de sangue e 14 de amostras fecais, foram identificadas. Os parasitas sanguíneos prevalentes foram Plasmodium juxtanucleare, 29,3%, Aegyptinella pullorum, 15%, e Leucoctoyzoon simond, 13%. As espécies parasitas registradas em amostras fecais incluíram 6 espécies de nematoides viz. Syngamus traqueia com prevalência parasitária de 50%, Capillaria anatis, 40%, Capillaria annulata, 37,5%, Heterakis gallinarum, 28,3%, Ascardia galli, 24% e Allodpa suctoria, 2%. Da mesma forma, duas espécies de trematódeos viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus com prevalência parasitária de 12,1% e Prosthogonimus macrorchis, 9,1%, também foram registrados nas amostras fecais das aves. Espécies de cestoide único Raillietina echinobothrida com prevalência parasitária de 27% e 3 espécies de protozoários, ou seja, Eimeria maxima tendo prevalência de 20,1%, Histomonas meleagridis, 8%, e Giardia lamblia, 5,3%, foram registradas. Em nossa recomendação, são indicados medicação adequada e saneamento das casas e gaiolas dos pássaros para evitar parasitas.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/sangue , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Carga Parasitária/veterinária , Columbidae , Perus , Gansos
7.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-6, 2023. mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765432

RESUMO

The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honeys nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.(AU)


Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.(AU)


Assuntos
Abelhas , Mel/análise
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252594, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339400

RESUMO

Abstract The present trial explained the effect of alternative production systems on growth, morphometric and carcass traits of four different chicken genotypes. The second generation of two genotypes RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) and BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtained by two self-crosses (RNN × RNN = RR and BNN × BNN = BB) and two reciprocal crosses (RNN × BNN = RB and BNN × RNN = BR) were evaluated in three alternative production systems (conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary). At the 6th week of age after sexing, a total of 600 birds, comprising 150 from each crossbred with a total of 300 pullets and 300 cockerels were divided into conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary systems having 200 birds in each.Birds were organized into 3×4 factorial arrangements under Completely Randomized Design (3 production systems × 4 genotypes × 2 sexes × 25 birds = 600 birds). Regarding genotypes, RB and BR males showed higher (p < 0.01) carcass yield, drumstick weight, breast weight, and thigh weight than BB and RR genotypes. Females of BR genotype showed higher (p < 0.01) breast weight, thigh weight and drumstick weight. As far as production systems are concerned, higher (p < 0.01) liver weight, heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight were observed in the males reared in enriched cages compared with conventional cages and aviary system. Females reared in enriched cages showed higher (p < 0.01) heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight when compared with those reared in conventional cages and aviary. It is concluded that chickens (both sexes) of BR and RB genotypes had better morphological measurements and carcass traits than those of RR and BB genotype chickens. Among alternative production systems, chickens reared in enriched cages had better traits than those of reared in conventional cages and aviary during the growing phase.


Resumo O presente estudo explicou o efeito de sistemas alternativos de produção sobre o crescimento, características morfométricas e carcaças de quatro genótipos de frango diferentes. A segunda geração de dois genótipos RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) e BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtida por duas autocruzes (RNN × RNN = RR e B ANN × BNN = BB) e duas cruzes recíprocas (RNN × BNN = RB e BNN × RNN = BR) foi avaliada em três sistemas de produção alternativos (gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e aviário). Na 6ª semana de idade após o sexo, um total de 600 aves, compostas por 150 de cada raça cruzada com um total de 300 pullets e 300 galos, foi dividido em gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e sistemas aviários com 200 aves em cada. As aves foram organizadas em 3×4 arranjos fatoriais sob projeto completamente randomizado (3 sistemas de produção × 4 genótipos × 2 sexos × 25 aves = 600 aves). Em relação aos genótipos, os machos RB e BR apresentaram maior rendimento de carcaça (p < 0,01), peso da baqueta, peso mamário e peso da coxa do que os genótipos BB e RR. As fêmeas do genótipo BR apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso mamário, peso da coxa e peso da baqueta. No que diz respeito aos sistemas de produção, maior (p < 0,01) peso hepático, peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa foram observados nos machos criados em gaiolas enriquecidas em comparação com gaiolas convencionais e sistema aviário. As fêmeas criadas em gaiolas enriquecidas apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa quando comparadas com as criadas em gaiolas convencionais e aviárias. Conclui-se que as galinhas (ambos os sexos) dos genótipos BR e RB apresentaram melhores medidas morfológicas e traços de carcaça do que os de frangos genótipos RR e BB. Entre os sistemas de produção alternativos, as galinhas criadas em gaiolas enriquecidas tinham características melhores do que as criadas em gaiolas convencionais e aviárias durante a fase de cultivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Galinhas/genética , Hibridização Genética , Rhode Island , Genótipo
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285627

RESUMO

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.


Assuntos
Animais , Mel , Abelhas , Carboidratos
10.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 40: 103136, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36195260

RESUMO

The dengue virus (DENV) infection is a worldwide cause of serious illness and death. Early and efficient prediction of disease may help in proper medical management to control disease. Keeping this in view, multivariate classification models by combining with Raman spectroscopy have been developed for the diagnosis of DENV infection in human blood sera. For study design, a statistical analysis is performed to select the sample size for training of models. Total 1240 Raman spectra have been acquired from 39 DENV infected and 23 healthy sera samples. Prior to model development, Raman spectra were examined using ANOVA test for significant differences present in the intensities of newly appeared Raman bands at 622, 645, 700, 746, 800, 814, 873, 890, 948, 1002, 1018, 1080, 1235, 1250, 1272, 1386, 1404, 1446, 1609 and 1645 cm-1. The significant differences and characteristic patterns of Raman bands induced by disease played decisive role and are exploited for development of multivariate model. Classification models are developed by utilizing principal component analysis (PCA) to extract discriminant features from multidimensional Raman spectral dataset and followed by support vector machines (SVM) with Polynomial of 5, RBF, and liner kernels. The proposed model for this study is built using 10-fold cross validation technique and evaluated on independent dataset to demonstrate its robustness. PCA-SVM (poly-5) model successfully yielded high diagnostic accuracy of 99.52%, sensitivity of 99.75%, specificity of 99.09% for classification of unknown suspected samples. For comparison, PCA discriminant analysis (PCA-DA), partial least squares regression (PLSR) are PLS-DA have been compared. It is found that PCA-SVM (poly-5) approach is more effective and robust compared to other state-of-the-art approaches and it can be used for clinical prediction of DENV infection in human blood sera.

11.
Neuron ; 110(18): 2895-2898, 2022 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36137519

RESUMO

Nicotine has both rewarding and aversive effects. In this issue of Neuron, Liu et al. show that nicotine aversion depends on both desensitization of high-affinity nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that activate midbrain dopamine neurons and activation of low-affinity nAChRs that inhibit dopamine neurons via the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT).


Assuntos
Nicotina , Receptores Nicotínicos , Animais , Dopamina , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Nicotina/farmacologia , Agonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36121603

RESUMO

In the current study, the application of fluorescence spectroscopy along with the advanced statistical technique and confocal microscopy was investigated for the early detection of stripe rust infection in wheat grown under field conditions. The indigenously developed Fluorosensor fitted with LED, emitting monochromatic light was used that covered comparatively larger leaf area for recording fluorescence data thus presenting more reliable current status of the leaf. The examined leaf samples covered the entire range of stripe rust disease infection from no visible symptoms to the complete disease prevalence. The molecular changes were also assessed in the leaves as the disease progresses. The emission spectra mainly produce two fluorescence emission classes, namely the blue-green fluorescence (400-600 nm range) and chlorophyll fluorescence (650-800 nm range). The chlorophyll fluorescence region showed lower chlorophyll bands both at 685 and 735 nm in the asymptomatic (early diseased) and symptomatic (diseased) leaf samples than the healthy ones as a result of partial deactivation of PSII reaction centers. The 735 nm chlorophyll fluorescence band was either slight or completely absent in the leaf samples with lower to higher disease incidence and thus differentiate between the healthy and the infected leaf samples. The Hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic and sinapic acids) showed decreasing trend, whereas the ferulic acid increased with the rise in disease infection. Peak broadening/shifting has been observed in case of ferulic acid and carotenes/carotenoids, with the increase in the disease intensity. While using the LEDs (365 nm), the peak broadening and the decline in the chlorophyll fluorescence bands could be used for the early prediction of stripe rust disease in wheat crop. The PLSR statistical techniques discriminated well between the healthy and the diseased samples, thus showed promise in early disease detection. Confocal microscopy confirmed the early prevalence of stripe rust disease infection in a susceptible variety at a stage when the disease is not detectable visually. It is inferred that fluorescence emission spectroscopy along with the chemometrics aided in the effective and timely diagnosis of plant diseases and the detected signatures provide the basis for remote sensing.

13.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(11): 9206-9215, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085108

RESUMO

The SLICK1 mutation in the prolactin receptor (PRLR) results in a short-hair coat and increased ability to regulate body temperature during heat stress. It is unclear whether the mutation affects capacity for sweating. The objective of this observational study was to evaluate whether the SLICK1 mutation in PRLR alters characteristics of skin related to sweat gland abundance or function. Skin biopsies from 31 Holstein heifers, including 14 wild-type (SL-/-) and 17 heterozygous slick (SL+/-), were subjected to histological analysis to determine the percent of the surface area of skin sections that are occupied by sweat glands. We detected no effect of genotype on this variable. Immunohistochemical analysis of the forkhead transcription factor A1 (FOXA1), a protein essential for sweating in mice, from 6 SL-/- and 6 SL+/- heifers indicated twice as much FOXA1 in sweat glandular epithelia of SL+/- heifers as in SL-/- heifers. Results from RNA sequencing of skin biopsies from 5 SL-/- and 7 SL+/- heifers revealed few genes that were differentially expressed and none that have been associated with sweat gland development or function. In conclusion, results do not support the idea that the SLICK1 mutation changes the abundance of sweat glands in skin, but do show that functional properties of sweat glands, as indicated by increased abundance of immunoreactive FOXA1, are modified by inheritance of the mutation in PRLR.


Assuntos
Receptores da Prolactina , Glândulas Sudoríparas , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Expressão Gênica , Mutação
14.
Neuroscience ; 499: 64-103, 2022 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35853563

RESUMO

Dopamine facilitates approach to reward via its actions on dopamine receptors in the nucleus accumbens. For example, blocking either D1 or D2 dopamine receptors in the accumbens reduces the proportion of reward-predictive cues to which rats respond with cued approach. Recent evidence indicates that accumbens dopamine also promotes wakefulness and arousal, but the relationship between dopamine's roles in arousal and reward seeking remains unexplored. Here, we show that the ability of systemic or intra-accumbens injections of the D1 antagonist SCH23390 to reduce cued approach to reward depends on the animal's state of arousal. Handling the animal, a manipulation known to increase arousal, was sufficient to reverse the behavioral effects of the antagonist. In addition, SCH23390 reduced spontaneous locomotion and increased time spent in sleep postures, both consistent with reduced arousal, but also increased time spent immobile in postures inconsistent with sleep. In contrast, the ability of the D2 antagonist haloperidol to reduce cued approach was not reversible by handling. Haloperidol reduced spontaneous locomotion but did not increase sleep postures, instead increasing immobility in non-sleep postures. We place these results in the context of the extensive literature on dopamine's contributions to behavior, and propose the arousal-motor hypothesis. This novel synthesis, which proposes that two main functions of dopamine are to promote arousal and facilitate motor behavior, accounts both for our findings and many previous behavioral observations that have led to disparate and conflicting conclusions.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Dopamina , Dopamina , Animais , Nível de Alerta , Dopamina/fisiologia , Antagonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Haloperidol/farmacologia , Núcleo Accumbens , Ratos , Receptores de Dopamina D1 , Recompensa
15.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e261785, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35703635

RESUMO

Phytoremediation is an ecofriendly technique to clean heavy metals from contaminated soil by the use of high biomass producing plant species. Chelators can help to improve this biological technique by increasing metal solubility. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the chelators EDTA and citric acid (CA) in phytoremediation of Ni contaminated soil by using Brassica napus (canola). Two cultivars of B. napus, Con-II (tolerant) and Oscar (sensitive), were selected after screening and exposed to NiSO4 at 30 ppm at the time of sowing. CA (10 mM) and EDTA (1.5 mM) were applied either alone or in combination with each other after two weeks of Ni treatments. Different parameters like morpho-physiological and biochemical data were recorded after 15 days of chelate application. The results highlighted the successful use of chelating agents (CA and EDTA) not only to ameliorate Ni stress but also to enhance Ni accumulation which is prerequisite for phytoremediation. The basal application of 10 mMCA and 1.5 mM EDTA concentration proved to be effective for the growth of plants. The combination of chelating agents failed to show any synergistic effects.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Quelantes/farmacologia , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Ácido Edético/farmacologia , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/farmacologia
16.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e255692, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35584457

RESUMO

The current research was designed to reach extracellular protease production potential in different strains of Sordaria fimicola which were previously obtained from Dr. Lamb (Imperial College, London) from North Facing Slope and South Facing Slope of Evolution Canyon. After initial and secondary screening, two hyper-producers strains S2 and N6 were selected for submerged fermentation and cultural conditions including temperature, pH, incubation period, inoculum size, substrate concentration, and different carbon and nitrogen sources were optimized for enzyme production. S2 strain showed maximum protease production of 3.291 U/mL after 14 days of incubation at 30 °C with 7 pH, 1% substrate concentration and 1 mL inoculum, While N6 strain showed maximum protease production of 1.929 U/mL under fermentation optimized conditions. Another aim of the present research was to underpin the biodiversity of genetics and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of protease DPAP (peptidyl-aminopeptidase) in Sordaria fimicola. Five polymorphic sites were observed in amino acid sequence of S. fimicola strains with reference to Neurospora crassa. PTMs prediction from bioinformatics tools predicted 38 phosphorylation sites on serine residues for protease peptidyl-aminopeptidase in S1 strain of S. fimicola while 45 phosphorylation sites on serine in N7 strain and 47 serine phosphorylation modifications were predicted in N. crassa. Current research gave an insight that change in genetic makeup effected PTMs which ultimately affected the production of protease enzyme in different strains of same organism (S. fimicola). The production and molecular data of the research revealed that environmental stress has strong effects on the specific genes through mutations which may cause genetic diversity. S. fimicola is non- pathogenic fungus and has a short life cycle. This fungus can be chosen to produce protease enzyme on a commercial scale.


Assuntos
Aminopeptidases , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Sordariales , Aminopeptidases/genética , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Serina , Sordariales/enzimologia , Sordariales/genética
17.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e249742, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475988

RESUMO

Antioxidants are materials that scavenge or remove free radicals from living systems. The oxidation process ends in the production of free radicals. These free radicals are the chief birthplace of cancerous cells. Antioxidizing agents remove free radical intermediates by terminating oxidation processes by being oxidized themselves. On the other hand, infectious diseases affect the world on a large scale. To fight these diseases several synthetic compounds have been used. Plant based medications play important role in this regard. So, the current research aimed to investigate the antibacterial and antioxidant effect of Berberis lycium Royle root bark (BLR) extract. Berberis lycium Royle was used for phytochemical analysis and also as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar well diffusion method. Current study revealed that BLR was rich in phytochemicals and toxic against tested pathogenic bacteria. BLR showed the highest activity against S. pyogenes (13.3±0.8 mm). The lowest antibacterial activity was reported against E. coli (0±0 mm). In case of minimum inhibitory concentration, it was observed that BLR with 10 µg/mL concentration showed the highest activity while 2.5 µg/mL of BLR showed the least inhibitory activity. The highest In vitro antioxidant activity was recorded as 65% at 100 µg/mL. In case of in vivo antioxidant activity level of CAT, GSH and SOD were decreased while that of MDA was enhanced in groups treated with CCl4 as compared to the control group. BLR extract treatment reversed all these changes significantly. Current results indicate that BLR is effective against bacterial pathogens and also has antioxidant potential.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Berberis , Lycium , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias , Berberis/química , Escherichia coli , Radicais Livres , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química
18.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e252526, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416847

RESUMO

Acacia modesta (AM) and Opuntia monocantha (OM) are distributed in Pakistan, Afghanistan and India. Both of these plants have different pharmacological properties. This study was designed to evaluate anticancer potential of Acacia modesta (AM) and Opuntia monocantha (OM). Liver cancer cell line HepG2 was used for assessment of anticancer activity. For the evaluation of anti-proliferative effects, cell viability and cell death in all groups of cells were evaluated via MTT, crystal violet and trypan blue assays. For the evaluation of apoptosis ELISA of p53 performed. Furthermore, LDH assay to find out the ability of malignant cells to metabolize pyruvate to lactate and antioxidant enzymes activity (GSH, CAT and SOD) at the end HPLC was performed to find active compound of AM and OM. Cytotoxicity (MTT), Viability assays (trypan blue, crystal viability, MUSE analysis) showed more dead, less live cells in plant treated groups with increase of concentration. Scratch assay for the anti-migratory effect of these plants showed treated groups have not ability to heal scratch/wound. ELISA of p53 for cellular apoptosis showed more release of p53 in treated groups. Antioxidant assay via glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) showed less anti-oxidative potential in treated cancer groups. LDH assay showed more lactate dehydrogenase release in treated groups compared with untreated. HPLC analysis showed the presence of phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinone and amino acids in AM and OM plant extracts. Based on all these findings, it can be concluded that ethanolic extracts of Acacia modesta and Opuntia monocantha have promising anti-cancer potential.


Assuntos
Acacia , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Opuntia , Extratos Vegetais , Acacia/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Opuntia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Azul Tripano , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53
19.
Eur Food Res Technol ; 248(7): 1823-1829, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431646

RESUMO

Sidr honey is vulnerable to adulteration with low-grade honey and sugar syrups, which compromises its nutritional and medicinal value, demanding fast and reliable analytical tools for quality assessment. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopy was employed to assess the quality of a honey samples, specifically, Sidr, unifloral (Acacia) and multifloral (Acacia, Carisa and Justicia) honey. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed characteristic spectral signatures of Sidr honey, compared to Acacia and multifloral honey. In addition, cane sugar syrup was artificially added to Sidr honey at different concentrations. These spectral signatures were exploited for the machine-assisted classification of Sidr, sugar syrup and different concentrations of Sidr-sugar mixture. The bagging classification algorithm generated values of sensitivity and specificity close to unity, indicating its ability for efficient discrimination of the samples. Fluorescence spectroscopy in tandem with chemometrics could potentially be used as a rapid analytical tool to identify Sidr honey and its sugar adulteration. Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s00217-022-04008-9.

20.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(3)2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35160417

RESUMO

Glaucoma is an ocular condition characterized by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Conventional treatments of glaucoma face poor corneal permeability and bioavailability. To address these issues, a nanoemulsion in situ gel of Timolol maleate was developed in this study by adding the polymer Carbopol 934p. Using Carbopol 934p, a novel ophthalmic pH-induced nanoemulsion in situ gel was formulated. The formulation was liquid at pH 4 and quickly gelled when the pH was raised to 7.4 (Lacrimal pH). The pH-triggered in situ gelling mechanism demonstrated continuous drug release over a 24 h cycle. A total of nine trial formulations were prepared (NEI1-NEI9) and subjected to various physicochemical and in vitro evaluations. According to the in vitro release kinetics, the drug release of Timolol maleate nanoemulsion in situ gel NEI5 followed zero-order kinetics, with a release exponent value of 0.902, indicating that the mechanism of release was non-Fickian diffusion regulated. In vivo results showed that Timolol maleate nanoemulsion in situ gel NEI5 provided a better-sustained release of the drug, compared with the Timolet OD eye drops. The formulation is stable in storage, with no distinguishable change in appearance, physical properties, quality, and percentage drug release. NEI5 also reduces drug administration frequency, which improves patient compliance. Timolol maleate nanoemulsion in situ gel NEI5 achieved the goal of controlled drug delivery with extended-release and cost-effectiveness, lowering the dosage and frequency of drug administration, and thus may improve patient compliance. In conclusion, the stable nanoemulsion in situ gel of Timolol maleate NEI5 decreases intraocular pressure (IOP) over a prolonged period.

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