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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246651, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285627

RESUMO

Abstract The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Resumo Os atributos medicinais do mel parecem ofuscar sua importância como alimento funcional. Consequentemente, várias literaturas estão repletas de usos antigos do mel como medicina complementar e alternativa, com relevância para os cuidados de saúde modernos, apoiados por dados clínicos baseados em evidências, com pouca atenção dada às funções nutricionais do mel. O teor de umidade do mel extraído da Universidade de Veterinária e Ciências Animais, fazenda de abelhas de Lahore, foi de 12,19%, enquanto o de fonte natural foi de 9,03 ± 1,63%. Da mesma forma, os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel cultivado foram de 0,37% e 5,22%, respectivamente. Já os teores de cinzas e proteínas do mel natural foram de 1,70 ± 1,98% e 6,10 ± 0,79%. Da mesma forma, os teores de gordura, fibra dietética e carboidratos de origem cultivada documentados foram de 0,14%, 1,99% e 62,26%, respectivamente. Embora os teores de gordura, fibra alimentar e carboidratos do mel retirado dos recursos naturais fossem de 0,54 ± 0,28%, 2,76 ± 1,07% e 55,32 ± 2,91%, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Os conteúdos de glicose e frutose do mel retirado da fazenda de abelhas foram de 27% e 34%, mas a fonte natural foi de 22,50 ± 2,12% e 28,50 ± 3,54%. Da mesma forma, os teores de sacarose e maltose no mel cultivado foram de 2,5% e 12%, enquanto no mel natural foram de 1,35 ± 0,49% e 8,00 ± 1,41%, respectivamente. O presente estudo indica que os teores de umidade, carboidratos, sacarose e maltose foram maiores no mel cultivado em comparação ao mel natural. Em nossa recomendação, o mel natural é melhor que o mel de cultivo.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252594, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339400

RESUMO

Abstract The present trial explained the effect of alternative production systems on growth, morphometric and carcass traits of four different chicken genotypes. The second generation of two genotypes RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) and BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtained by two self-crosses (RNN × RNN = RR and BNN × BNN = BB) and two reciprocal crosses (RNN × BNN = RB and BNN × RNN = BR) were evaluated in three alternative production systems (conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary). At the 6th week of age after sexing, a total of 600 birds, comprising 150 from each crossbred with a total of 300 pullets and 300 cockerels were divided into conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary systems having 200 birds in each.Birds were organized into 3×4 factorial arrangements under Completely Randomized Design (3 production systems × 4 genotypes × 2 sexes × 25 birds = 600 birds). Regarding genotypes, RB and BR males showed higher (p < 0.01) carcass yield, drumstick weight, breast weight, and thigh weight than BB and RR genotypes. Females of BR genotype showed higher (p < 0.01) breast weight, thigh weight and drumstick weight. As far as production systems are concerned, higher (p < 0.01) liver weight, heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight were observed in the males reared in enriched cages compared with conventional cages and aviary system. Females reared in enriched cages showed higher (p < 0.01) heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight when compared with those reared in conventional cages and aviary. It is concluded that chickens (both sexes) of BR and RB genotypes had better morphological measurements and carcass traits than those of RR and BB genotype chickens. Among alternative production systems, chickens reared in enriched cages had better traits than those of reared in conventional cages and aviary during the growing phase.


Resumo O presente estudo explicou o efeito de sistemas alternativos de produção sobre o crescimento, características morfométricas e carcaças de quatro genótipos de frango diferentes. A segunda geração de dois genótipos RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) e BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtida por duas autocruzes (RNN × RNN = RR e B ANN × BNN = BB) e duas cruzes recíprocas (RNN × BNN = RB e BNN × RNN = BR) foi avaliada em três sistemas de produção alternativos (gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e aviário). Na 6ª semana de idade após o sexo, um total de 600 aves, compostas por 150 de cada raça cruzada com um total de 300 pullets e 300 galos, foi dividido em gaiolas convencionais, gaiolas enriquecidas e sistemas aviários com 200 aves em cada. As aves foram organizadas em 3×4 arranjos fatoriais sob projeto completamente randomizado (3 sistemas de produção × 4 genótipos × 2 sexos × 25 aves = 600 aves). Em relação aos genótipos, os machos RB e BR apresentaram maior rendimento de carcaça (p < 0,01), peso da baqueta, peso mamário e peso da coxa do que os genótipos BB e RR. As fêmeas do genótipo BR apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso mamário, peso da coxa e peso da baqueta. No que diz respeito aos sistemas de produção, maior (p < 0,01) peso hepático, peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa foram observados nos machos criados em gaiolas enriquecidas em comparação com gaiolas convencionais e sistema aviário. As fêmeas criadas em gaiolas enriquecidas apresentaram maior (p < 0,01) peso cardíaco, peso mamário, peso intestinal, peso da baqueta e peso da coxa quando comparadas com as criadas em gaiolas convencionais e aviárias. Conclui-se que as galinhas (ambos os sexos) dos genótipos BR e RB apresentaram melhores medidas morfológicas e traços de carcaça do que os de frangos genótipos RR e BB. Entre os sistemas de produção alternativos, as galinhas criadas em gaiolas enriquecidas tinham características melhores do que as criadas em gaiolas convencionais e aviárias durante a fase de cultivo.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e245261, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249221

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was planned to determine variations in external and internal quality egg parameters of different avian species including ostrich Struthio camelus, ducks Anas platyrhynchos, chicken Gallus gallus, turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and grey francolin Francolinus pondicerinus. All the birds were kept under similar rearing conditions. A total of 150 eggs were collected for each species to record external features of these eggs. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations were recorded in egg weight, egg length and egg width between ostrich, ducks, chicken, turkey and quail eggs. Significantly (p<0.05) higher egg weight, egg length and egg width was observed for ostrich eggs while the same was lowest for grey francolin eggs. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) greater shape index and egg volume values were observed for ostrich eggs while lowest shape index values were recorded for turkey eggs and egg volume was lowest for grey francolin. Significantly, higher (p<0.05) values of egg density were noted for eggs of the quail and the same were lowest for ostrich eggs. Non-significant variations in egg density values were observed between eggs of the ducks, chicken, turkey and grey francolin. It has been concluded that the positive correlations between the internal and external egg quality traits indicated that the traits can be improved through selection.


Resumo O presente estudo foi planejado para determinar variações nos parâmetros externos e internos de qualidade dos ovos de diferentes espécies de aves, incluindo avestruz Struthio camelus, patos Anas platyrhynchos, frango Gallus gallus, perus Meleagris gallopavo e francolin cinza Francolinus pondicerinus. Todas as aves foram mantidas em condições de criação semelhantes. Um total de 150 ovos foi coletado para cada espécie para registrar as características externas desses ovos. Variações estatisticamente significativas (p < 0,05) foram registradas no peso do ovo, comprimento do ovo e largura do ovo entre os ovos de avestruz, patos, galinha, peru e codorna. Significativamente (p < 0,05) maior peso do ovo, comprimento e largura do ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto o mesmo foi menor para ovos de francolina cinza. Da mesma forma, significativamente (p < 0,05) maiores valores de índice de forma e volume de ovo foram observados para ovos de avestruz, enquanto os menores valores de índice de forma foram registrados para ovos de peru e o volume de ovo foi menor para francolina cinza. Significativamente, maiores (p < 0,05) valores de densidade de ovos foram observados para ovos de codorna e os mesmos foram menores para ovos de avestruz. Variações não significativas nos valores de densidade de ovos foram observadas entre os ovos de pato, frango, peru e francolina cinza. Concluiu-se que as correlações positivas entre as características internas e externas de qualidade do ovo indicaram que as características podem ser melhoradas por meio da seleção.

4.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783146

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) are important gaseous signalling molecules that regulate key physiochemical mechanisms of plants under environmental stresses. A number of attempts have been made to improve waterlogging tolerance in plants, but with limited success. Having said that, NO and H2 S are vital signalling molecules, but their role in mitigating waterlogging effects on crop plants is not well established. We investigated the efficacy of exogenous NO and H2 S to alleviate waterlogging effects in two wheat cultivars (Galaxy-2013 and FSD-2008). Waterlogging produced a noticeable reduction in plant growth, yield, chlorophyll, soluble sugars and free amino acids. Besides, waterlogging induced severe oxidative damage seen as higher cellular TBARS and H2 O2 content. Antioxidant enzyme activity increased together with a notable rise in Fe2+ and Mn2+ content. Proline content was higher in waterlogged plants compared with non-waterlogged plants. In contrast, waterlogging caused a substantial decline in endogenous levels of essential nutrients (K+ , Ca2+ and Mg2+ ). Waterlogged conditions led to Fe2+ and Mn2+ toxicity due to rapid reduction of Fe3+ and Mn3+ in the soil. Exogenous NO and H2 S significantly protected plants from waterlogging effects by enhancing the oxidative defence and regulating nutritional status. Besides, the protective effects of exogenous NO were more prominent as compared with effects of H2 S. Further, we did not study the effect of H2 S and NO on photosynthetic attributes and expression of stress-related genes. Therefore, future studies should examine the effects of H2 S and NO on wheat physiology and gene expression under waterlogging.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e252594, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669811

RESUMO

The present trial explained the effect of alternative production systems on growth, morphometric and carcass traits of four different chicken genotypes. The second generation of two genotypes RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) and BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtained by two self-crosses (RNN × RNN = RR and BNN × BNN = BB) and two reciprocal crosses (RNN × BNN = RB and BNN × RNN = BR) were evaluated in three alternative production systems (conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary). At the 6th week of age after sexing, a total of 600 birds, comprising 150 from each crossbred with a total of 300 pullets and 300 cockerels were divided into conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary systems having 200 birds in each.Birds were organized into 3×4 factorial arrangements under Completely Randomized Design (3 production systems × 4 genotypes × 2 sexes × 25 birds = 600 birds). Regarding genotypes, RB and BR males showed higher (p < 0.01) carcass yield, drumstick weight, breast weight, and thigh weight than BB and RR genotypes. Females of BR genotype showed higher (p < 0.01) breast weight, thigh weight and drumstick weight. As far as production systems are concerned, higher (p < 0.01) liver weight, heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight were observed in the males reared in enriched cages compared with conventional cages and aviary system. Females reared in enriched cages showed higher (p < 0.01) heart weight, breast weight, intestinal weight, drumstick weight, and thigh weight when compared with those reared in conventional cages and aviary. It is concluded that chickens (both sexes) of BR and RB genotypes had better morphological measurements and carcass traits than those of RR and BB genotype chickens. Among alternative production systems, chickens reared in enriched cages had better traits than those of reared in conventional cages and aviary during the growing phase.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Hibridização Genética , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Rhode Island
6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468515

RESUMO

During this one year study, blood and fecal samples of doves (Zenaida asiatica), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), pigeons (Columba livia), partridges (Alectoris chukar), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and goose (Chen caerulescens) were collected to assess the parasitic prevalence in these birds. The birds were kept at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. All these avian species were kept in separate cages and their entire body was inspected on regularly basis to record external parasites. For internal parasites, 100 blood and 100 fecal samples for each species were analyzed. During present study, two species of ectoparasites i.e. fowl ticks (Args persicus) and mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) while 17 species of endoparasites; three from blood and 14 from fecal samples were identified. Prevalence of blood parasites was Plasmodium juxtanucleare 29.3%, Aegyptinella pullorum 15% and Leucoctoyzoon simond 13%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 50%, Capillaria anatis 40%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%, Ascardia galli 24% and Allodpa suctoria 2%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 12.1% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 9.1% were also recorded from fecal samples of the birds. Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 27% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having prevalence 20.1%, Histomonas meleagridis 8% and Giardia lamblia 5.3% were recorded. In our recommendation, proper medication and sanitation of the bird's houses and cages is recommended to avoid parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Parasitos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Columbidae , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248022, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468531

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that arsenic crosses the placenta and affects the fetus development. The study under consideration aims to show comparative ameliorative effect of Moringa oleifera leaf and flower extracts against sodium arsenate induced fetus toxicity of mice. Pregnant mice (N=44) were kept in lab and divided into eleven group from (A to K) and were orally administered the doses 6 mg/kg, 12 mg/kg for sodium arsenate, 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera leaf extracts (MOLE) and 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg for Moringa oleifera flower extracts (MOFE) comparing with control. The investigation revealed evident reduction in the fetuses weight, hind limb, fore limb, tail and snout length, crown rump and head circumferences well as malformations in tail, feet, arms, legs, skin and eyes in the negative control group (only administered with sodium arsenate). Co-administration of sodium arsenate with MOLE and MOFE ameliorate the reversed effect of sodium arsenate on the shape, length, body weight and DNA damage of fetus significantly at 95% confidence interval. However, Moringa oleifera leaf extract showed more significant results in comparison to Moringa oleifera flower extract. Hence concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf extract ameliorated the embryo toxic effects of sodium arsenate and can be used against environmental teratogens.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Animais , Arseniatos , Dano ao DNA , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246651, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378683

RESUMO

The medicinal attributes of honey appears to overshadow its importance as a functional food. Consequently, several literatures are rife with ancient uses of honey as complementary and alternative medicine, with relevance to modern day health care, supported by evidence-based clinical data, with little attention given to honey's nutritional functions. The moisture contents of honey extracted from University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore honey bee farm was 12.19% while that of natural source was 9.03 ± 1.63%. Similarly, ash and protein contents of farmed honey recorded were 0.37% and 5.22%, respectively. Whereas ash and protein contents of natural honey were 1.70 ± 1.98% and 6.10 ± 0.79%. Likewise fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of farmed source documented were 0.14%, 1.99% and 62.26% respectively. Although fat, dietary fiber and carbohydrates contents of honey taken from natural resource were 0.54 ± 0.28%, 2.76 ± 1.07% and 55.32 ± 2.91% respectively. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Glucose and fructose contents of honey taken out from honeybee farm were 27% and 34% but natural source were 22.50 ± 2.12% and 28.50 ± 3.54%. Similarly, sucrose and maltose contents of farmed honey were 2.5% and 12% while in natural honey were 1.35 ± 0.49% and 8.00 ± 1.41% respectively. The present study indicates that such as moisture, carbohydrates, sucrose and maltose contents were higher farmed honey as compared to the natural honey. In our recommendation natural honey is better than farmed honey.


Assuntos
Mel , Animais , Abelhas , Carboidratos
9.
eNeuro ; 8(4)2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326066

RESUMO

The ventral pallidum (VP) is the major downstream nucleus of the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Both VP and NAc neurons are responsive to reward-predictive stimuli and are critical drivers of reward-seeking behavior. The cue-evoked excitations and inhibitions of NAc neurons predict the vigor (latency and speed) of the cue-elicited locomotor approach response and encode the animal's proximity to the movement target, but do not encode more specific movement features such as turn direction. VP neurons also encode certain vigor parameters, but it remains unknown whether they also encode more specific movement features, and whether such encoding could account for vigor encoding. To address these questions, we recorded the firing of neurons in the VP of freely moving male rats performing a discriminative stimulus (DS) task. Similar to NAc neurons, VP neurons' cue-evoked excitations were correlated with the speed of the upcoming approach movement and the animal's proximity to the movement target at cue onset. Unlike NAc neurons, VP neurons' firing reflected the efficiency of the approach movement path but not the latency to initiate locomotion. VP cue-evoked excitations are unlikely to be directly influenced by NAc cue-evoked excitations because unilateral treatment of the NAc with a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, a manipulation that reduces NAc neurons' cue-evoked excitations, did not alter ipsilateral VP cue-evoked excitations. These observations suggest that the two structures receive simultaneous activation by inputs conveying similar but not identical information, and work in parallel to set the vigor of the behavioral response.


Assuntos
Prosencéfalo Basal , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Masculino , Núcleo Accumbens , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Recompensa
10.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 92(4): 045007, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243476

RESUMO

This research paper presents design and analysis of the multi-jaw microgripper that can manipulate microbiological organisms and species, cell probing and measurement, biomedical sample sorting, and preparation. Four jaws, actuated with a single thermal chevron actuator, can grip microbiological species ranging from 300 to 700 µm, 1 to 340 µm, 100 µm pool, and 1 to 120 µm spongy cells, respectively. Jaws are designed in such a way that they can grip regular, irregular, and spongy shaped biological species and their organelles. Parametric analysis of the microgripper exhibited that at 10 V, the efficiency of the thermal actuator is at maximum with respect to displacement, force, and temperature. To enhance displacement to voltage ratio and increase the energy efficiency, a class 3 lever mechanism has been incorporated. The amplification factors at four jaws are 17.21, 13.82, 4.02, and 4.93, respectively. For controlled application of the force to microspecies, two electrostatic force sensors have been amalgamated with jaws having capacitive sensitivities of 1.59 nf/µm, 1.91 nf/µm, 17 nf/µm, and 14.5 nf/µm, respectively. Electrothermal, static, and electrostatic analyses have been carried out with the finite element methods based software IntelliSuite®. Stress magnitudes are within the limits of structural integrity of silicon having a factor of safety 2.5. Thermal analysis revealed that at a differential voltage of 10 V, the maximum temperature goes up to 425 °C. Buckling analysis results depicted that the critical load for the thermal actuator is 241 µN with the buckling load factor greater than unity. This paper focuses on microbiological applications only; however, the designed microgripper can be used to manipulate micro-objects, microstructures, microelectronics parts, and micro assembly.

11.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e245261, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076170

RESUMO

Present study was planned to determine variations in external and internal quality egg parameters of different avian species including ostrich Struthio camelus, ducks Anas platyrhynchos, chicken Gallus gallus, turkeys Meleagris gallopavo and grey francolin Francolinus pondicerinus. All the birds were kept under similar rearing conditions. A total of 150 eggs were collected for each species to record external features of these eggs. Statistically significant (p<0.05) variations were recorded in egg weight, egg length and egg width between ostrich, ducks, chicken, turkey and quail eggs. Significantly (p<0.05) higher egg weight, egg length and egg width was observed for ostrich eggs while the same was lowest for grey francolin eggs. Similarly, significantly (p<0.05) greater shape index and egg volume values were observed for ostrich eggs while lowest shape index values were recorded for turkey eggs and egg volume was lowest for grey francolin. Significantly, higher (p<0.05) values of egg density were noted for eggs of the quail and the same were lowest for ostrich eggs. Non-significant variations in egg density values were observed between eggs of the ducks, chicken, turkey and grey francolin. It has been concluded that the positive correlations between the internal and external egg quality traits indicated that the traits can be improved through selection.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Struthioniformes , Animais , Paquistão
12.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(6): 1979-1986, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616784

RESUMO

Outcomes of kidney transplant (KT) patients with pre-transplant pulmonary hypertension (PH) are poorly understood. PH patients are often considered high risk and excluded from KT. We investigated the association of pre-transplant PH with KT recipient's outcomes. A single-center, retrospective study that reviewed all patients transplanted from 2010 to 2016, who had a transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) before KT and at least one TTE post-KT. The TTE closest to the KT was used for analyses. PH is defined as pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) ≥ 40 mm Hg. Of 204 patients, 61 had PASP ≥ 40 mm Hg (with PH) and 143 had PASP < 40 mm Hg (without PH) prior to KT. No statistically significant differences existed between the two groups in baseline demographics, renal failure etiologies, dialysis access type, and cardiovascular risk factors. The mean difference in pre-KT PASP was 18.1 ± 7 mm Hg (P < 0.001). Patients with PH had a statistically significant decrease in PASP post-KT compared to the patients without PH with a mean change of -7.03 ± 12.28 mm Hg vs. + 3.96 ± 11.98 mm Hg (p < 0.001), respectively. Moderate mitral and moderate-severe tricuspid regurgitation were the only factors found to be independently associated with PH (p = 0.001) on multivariable analysis. No statistically significant difference was notable in patient survival, graft function, and creatinine post-KT in both groups. PH pre-KT particularly mild-moderate PH did not adversely affect intermediate (90-day) and long-term allograft and patient survival. Patients with mild-moderate PH should not be excluded from KT.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Transplante de Rim , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Transplante de Rim/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Food Sci Technol ; 58(1): 234-243, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33505068

RESUMO

In this study, Raman spectroscopy has been utilized to characterize buffalo, cow and goat fat samples by using laser wavelengths at 532 and 785 nm as excitation sources. It has been observed that Raman spectra of cow fats contain beta-carotene at 1006, 1156 and 1520 cm-1, which are absent in buffalo and goat fats. The Raman bands at 1060, 1080, 1127 and 1440 cm-1 represent the saturated fatty acids, and their concentration is found relatively higher in buffalo fats than cow and goat. Similarly, the Raman band at 1650 cm-1 represent conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) which shows its relatively higher concentration in goat fats than cow and buffalo. The Raman band at 1267 cm-1 represent unsaturated fatty acids, which shows its relatively higher concentration in goat fats than cow and buffalo. The Raman bands at 838, 870 and 1060 cm-1 depict relatively higher concentration of vitamin D in buffalo fats than cow and goat. Principal component analysis has been applied to highlight the differences among three fat types which based upon the concentration of fatty acids, CLA and vitamin D.

15.
J Appl Microbiol ; 130(5): 1721-1729, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966644

RESUMO

AIMS: This study was designed to analyse the prevalence of class 1 and class 2 integron integrase genes among antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria isolated from paper currency circulating in Pakistan. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 500 individual currency notes were collected from different food vending sites at Lahore, Pakistan. Bacterial population were identified by biochemical and PCR techniques. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion assay. The highest bacterial population on currency was found from street vendors and butcher shops. Escherichia coli was found to be the most prevalent coliform bacteria followed by Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. PCR amplification of antimicrobial resistance gene showed the presence of ampC, blaTEM , blaNDM-1 , qnrA, tet(A) and tet(B) genes among coliform isolates. A total of 47 integron integrase bearing strains of coliform bacteria were analysed. Sequence analysis showed the presence of dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, aadA1, aadA4 cassette arrays in class 1 integron and dfrA1-sat2-aadA1 in class 2 integrase genes. CONCLUSION: Circulating currency was heavily contaminated with antimicrobial-resistant coliform bacteria bearing class 1 and class 2 integron integrase genes. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study describes a potential threat of severe bacterial infections due to improper hand hygiene and community sanitation when dealing with the currency notes.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Enterobacteriaceae/classificação , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Integrases/genética , Integrons/genética , Papel , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Comércio , DNA Bacteriano , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Higiene , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paquistão , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
16.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 200: 105865, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The effect of chemotherapy in cancer models is mostly handled by using a separate equation for chemotherapeutic agent. In this study, we do not consider a separate equation for drug but rather introduce its effect in terms of a parameter m representing the fraction of tumor cells killed by chemotherapeutic drug module. The main objective of this study is to provide conditions on model parameters which when fulfilled the grave consequences of cancer can be avoided. This study also shows that chemotherapy at times can produce unexpected results. METHODS: Linearization method to study the stability of model equilibria. RESULTS: The results obtained in this study are governed by the trichotomy law on the number 1-a12-d1, where a12 represents the negative effect on the growth of cancer cells due to their competition with host cells for resources and d1 is rate of annihilation of cancer cells due to chemotherapy. It is seen that in case of under-dose drug module when d1<1-a12, the complete eradication of cancer is not possible. When d1=1-a12, the model suggests occurrence of chaotic dynamics. When the drug dose is properly adjusted so that d1>1-a12, the complete eradication of cancer is guaranteed. CONCLUSION: The results of the model of this paper given for the post vascular stages of tumor suggest criteria to select a particular drug module (a single drug or a combination of drugs) that the chemotherapy procedure should adapt to eradicate cancer. This study injects a note of caution for oncologists that chemotherapy as cancer treatment can also cause chaotic dynamics in certain situations. This study also presents a plausible explanation to the question why sometimes a tumor grows in the body and then gets cured without any medical intervention.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Oncologistas , Humanos , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 246: 119034, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049470

RESUMO

In this study, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and Raman spectroscopy (RS), are employed for the classification of different stages of breast cancer using clinically diagnosed serum samples from breast cancer patients and healthy individuals. These serum samples are compared for their spectral features acquired by SERS and RS to establish spectral features that can be considered as spectral markers of breast cancer diagnosis and classification. SERS features related to DNA, proteins and lipids were observed which are solely observed in the serum samples of patients at different stages of breast cancer as compared to healthy samples. In order to explore the capability of SERS and RS and their comparison as an analytical tool for the efficient understanding of the progression of breast cancer, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is done for the SERS and RS spectra of control, stage 2, stage 3 and stage 4. Furthermore, the Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) was performed to compare the diagnostic performance of SERS and Raman spectroscopy for the classification of disease positive samples and healthy ones. The sensitivity and specificity and area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve values for SERS data were 90%, 98.4%, and 94% respectively which were higher as compared to Raman spectral data for which these values were found to be 88.2%, 97.7%, and 83.4% respectively.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Análise Espectral Raman , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Análise Discriminante , Humanos , Análise de Componente Principal , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-10, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32578521

RESUMO

Animals and humans are motivated to consume high-fat, high-calorie foods by cues predicting such foods. The neural mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood.Objective: We tested the hypothesis that cues paired with a food reward, as compared to explicitly unpaired cues, increase rats' food-seeking behavior by potentiating dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, and that this effect would be less evident under satiety.Methods: We used a simple discriminative stimulus task and electrochemical recordings of dopamine release in freely moving rats.Results: We found that both food-predictive cue and hunger increased conditioned approaches to the receptacle (food-seeking behavior indicated by movement to the food receptacle). In addition, we observed dopamine release when the food-predictive cue (but not the unpaired cue) was presented, independent of hunger or satiety. Finally, we found a positive correlation between dopamine release amplitude and the number of conditioned approaches to the food receptacle in the sated condition, but not in the hungry condition.Discussion: Our results suggest that dopamine could drive seeking behavior for calorie-dense food in absence of homeostatic need, a core aspect of binge eating disorders.

19.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 31: 101851, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497774

RESUMO

In the present study, the spectral diagnosis of blood plasma samples of breast cancer patients and an equal number of normal controls was investigated. A set of ratio parameters was acquired by employing SXS and FES. The samples were also analyzed statistically by employing Welch two-sample t-tests, and the effects of three ratio parameters, R1, R2, and R3, were also studied by plotting them against the subject numbers. A linear discriminant was also applied to verify the exact classification of normal control and breast cancer patients. It was observed that the levels of biofluorophores such as porphyrin, NADH, tryptophan and flavins were elevated 2- to 3-fold for breast cancer patients compared to normal controls, with an accuracy of approximately 100 %. We have also confirmed the validity of the obtained experimental results by using an advanced robust diagnostic algorithm. The experimental results of the current study may have a vital and substantial impact on the detection and screening protocols used for future breast cancer patients. The spectral analysis of body fluid could be of great value to add to and enhance the current procedures with an accuracy of approximately 100 % with limited number of samples. The results and objectives of this preliminary study were encouraging and useful for the discrimination of the features of breast cancer patients compared to those of normal controls.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Fotoquimioterapia , Porfirinas , Algoritmos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes
20.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 192: 105433, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240885

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In most of the cancer therapeutic models separate equations for consumption of drugs are used, we however use parameters m and s to see the effect of chemotherapy and immunotherapy respectively. The main objective of this theoretical study is to develop strategies for eradication or minimization of cancer. METHODS: Linearization method to study the local stability of model equilibria. RESULTS: The results obtained in this study provide thresholds on m-fraction of cancer cells killed by chemotherapy and s-fraction of immune cells stimulated by immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: The model considered relates to immune-cancer-normal cell interactions in post vascularization process. The study aims to develop strategies for complete eradication or minimization of cancer in terms of model parameters. This paper presents a minimal immuno-chemotherapeutic cancer model by describing interacting dynamics of cancer, immune and normal cells in a system of three ordinary differential equations. The source of the immune cells is considered outside the sytem given by a constant influx rate, s. The minimality of the model lies in not considering a separate equation for the dynamics of the drug but its overall killing effect on the cancer cells represented by a parameter, m. Thus the parameter m relates to chemotherapy and s to immunotherapy. The analysis of the model yields thresholds on these parameters for therapeutic strategies which guarantee either eradication or minimization of cancer from a patient's body.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Algoritmos , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Imunoterapia
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