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1.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762561

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leislers Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leislers Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762553

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762069

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762063

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vectors behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236499, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153462

RESUMO

Abstract Distribution pattern and relative abundance of the agricultural rodent pests of rain-fed and irrigated areas of district Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were recorded from April 2011 to November 2013 using wire mesh live traps. A total of 350 rodents (269 Rattus rattus and 81 Mus musculus) were captured under 2268 trap nights (trap success: 0.15). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 350 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 21.8 rodents per crop field. House rats (R. rattus; 76.8% of captures) were numerically dominant in almost all types of agricultural fields, and were significantly different from the mice (Mus musculus; 23.1% of captures). Both species were found together in some fields. The sex ratio revealed that males outnumbered the females in both of the reported species.


Resumo O padrão de distribuição e a abundância relativa de pragas de roedores agrícolas nas áreas irrigadas e irrigadas do distrito Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão foram registrados de abril de 2011 a novembro de 2013 usando armadilhas vivas de malha de arame. Um total de 350 roedores (269 Rattus rattus e 81 Mus musculus) foram capturados em 2268 noites de armadilha (sucesso da armadilha: 0,15). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 350 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 21,8 roedores por campo agrícola. Os ratos domésticos (R. rattus; 76,8% das capturas) foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de campos agrícolas e foram significativamente diferentes dos camundongos (Mus musculus; 23,1% das capturas). Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em alguns campos. A proporção de sexo revelou que os machos superaram as fêmeas em ambas as espécies relatadas.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238337, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249249

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

8.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614273

RESUMO

Vegetative storage proteins (VSPs) are known to serve as nitrogen reserves in many dicot plants but remain undiscovered in grasses, most widely grown group of crops globally. We identified and characterized a VSP in maize and demonstrated that its overexpression improved drought tolerance. Nitrogen supplementation selectively induced a mesophyll lipoxygenase (ZmLOX6), which was targeted to chloroplasts by a novel N-terminal transit peptide of 62 amino acids. When ectopically expressed under the control of various tissue specific promoters, it accumulated to a five-fold higher level upon expression in the mesophyll cells than the wildtype plants. Constitutive expression or targeted expression specifically to the bundle sheath cells increased its accumulation by less than two-fold. The overexpressed ZmLOX6 was remobilized from the leaves like other major proteins during grain development. Evaluated in the field over locations and years, transgenic hybrids overexpressing ZmLOX6 in the mesophyll cells significantly outyielded non-transgenic sibs under managed drought stress imposed at flowering. Additional storage of nitrogen as a VSP in maize leaves ameliorated the effect of drought on grain yield.

9.
R Soc Open Sci ; 8(9): 210683, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540257

RESUMO

Antineoplastic drugs, etoposide (ETO), are widely used in leukaemia. A patient with leukaemia has a relative infection with pneumonia treated by fluoroquinolones as moxifloxacin HCL (MOX). Because opioid analgesic as nalbuphine HCL (NAL) does not have a ceiling dose, it is used to manage the distasteful sensory in leukaemia. Consequently, green methods for synchronous spectrofluorimetric quantification of a ternary mixture of ETO, MOX and NAL were developed. The first approach relies simply on the estimation of MOX at 371 nm by conventional synchronous fluorimetric technique (Δλ of 60 nm). The second approach depends on applying the first derivative synchronous fluorimetric technique (Δλ of 60 nm) for simultaneous estimation of ETO and NAL at 257 and 273 nm, respectively. A good linear correlation was obtained in the ranges of 0.04-0.40, 0.10-1.00 and 0.50-5.00 µg ml-1 for MOX, ETO and NAL, respectively. Moreover, the proposed approaches were successfully applied for the estimation of the studied drugs in the pharmaceutical dosage forms. Additionally, the synchronous assessment of ETO, MOX and NAL in the spiked human urine was successfully attained by the facile protein precipitation technique. The mean % recoveries in spiked human urine were 99.49, 98.07 and 98.48 for MOX, ETO and NAL, respectively.

10.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(12): 4301-4321, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420186

RESUMO

Allium species, belonging to Alliaceae family, are among the oldest cultivated vegetables used as food. Garlic, onions, leeks and chives, which belong to this family, have been reported to have medicinal properties. The Allium species constituents have been shown to have antibacterial and antioxidant activities, and, in addition, other biological properties. These activities are related to their rich organosulfur compounds. These organosulfur compounds are believed to prevent the development of cancer, cardiovascular, neurological, diabetes, liver diseases as well as allergy and arthritis. There have also been reports on toxicities of these compounds. The major active compounds of Allium species includes, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, diallyl sulfide, dipropyl disulfide, dipropyl trisulfide, 1-propenylpropyl disulfide, allyl methyl disulfide and dimethyl disulfide. The aim of this review is to focus on a variety of experimental and clinical reports on the effectiveness, toxicities and possible mechanisms of actions of the active compounds of garlic, onions, leek and chives.

11.
JCO Glob Oncol ; 7: 1101-1109, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236931

RESUMO

PURPOSE: National cancer control strategies have been identified as essential tools for reducing and managing the growing burden of cancer in low- and middle-income countries. Cancer registration is an instrumental component of any cancer control strategy, providing the data to inform effective cancer policy. In the Middle East, North Africa, and Turkey (MENAT) region, cancer registration varies immensely and faces multifaceted challenges including protracted conflict. This study investigates and maps out the present capacities and outputs of cancer registration in the MENAT region and identifies thematic barriers facing implementation and utilization of cancer registry data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a self-administered online survey with open and close-ended questions targeting national and institutional cancer registry managers in the MENAT countries. RESULTS: Registry managers from 19 MENAT countries reported the presence of 97 population-based, 48 hospital-based, and 24 pathology-based registries. Most population-based registries were well- or partially developed. Lack of accurate death records, complete medical records, and communication between stakeholders and deficiencies in trained personnel were critical challenges that were more severe in active conflict zones and neighboring conflict-affected regions. Cancer registration challenges included weak health infrastructure, absence of legislation mandating cancer registration, and disruption of cancer registration because of active conflict and loss of funding. Refugee host countries, such as Lebanon, Turkey, and Jordan, also reported conflict-related challenges including refugee mobility and lack of accurate data on forced migrants. CONCLUSION: This study provides a much-needed understanding of the current landscape and contextual challenges affecting cancer registration in the MENAT. These data are important for identifying areas on which to focus regional capacity-strengthening initiatives.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Humanos , Jordânia , Líbano , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 263: 120156, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293668

RESUMO

The growth of tumor tissue is extremely pervasive among post-menopausal women. Commonly, from the clinical application, adjuvant selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen are prescribed for prohibiting metastatic breast cancer, while its analog, clomiphene, is used to treat infertility in women. Lately, the significance of green chemistry on our environment was through reducing the influence of hazardous chemicals. Consequently, efforts were screened to perform a fast and simple eco-friendly green method for the determination of two aromatase inhibitors. In this study, a sensitive green spectrofluorimetric approach was developed to detect and characterize tamoxifen citrate (TAM) and clomiphene citrate (CLO) via complex formation with erythrosine B. The reaction between erythrosine B dye (EB) and the two aromatase inhibitors results in quenching the fluorescence activity of the dye by the formation of ion-pair in Britton-Robinson buffer (BRB) solution (pH 4.3) at 554 nm (λex = 527 nm). The approach outcome confirmed that the solvent's inherent nature has a critical impact on the approachs' sensitivity and reproducibility. An approved linear correlation was achieved between the reduction in the emission value of EB's fluorescence and the concentration in the ranges of 40.0-600.0 ng/mL for both TAM and CLO with mean % recoveries 100.20 ± 0.93 and 100.07 ± 1.09, respectively. The approach was validated regarding ICH protocols, and the outcomes were acceptable. The changes in Gibb's free energy (ΔG°) by the obtained ion-pair between EB and TAM or CLO were -36.65 or -37.03 kJ mol-1, respectively, which indicates the reaction feasibility at ambient temperature. Commercial dosage forms for TAM and CLO were simply analyzed, and good recoveries were achieved within the range. The National Environmental Methods Index, Analytical Eco-Scale, and Green Analytical Procedure Index applications to our illustrated approach present additional eligibility to this study.


Assuntos
Clomifeno , Eritrosina , Feminino , Corantes Fluorescentes , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tamoxifeno
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3280, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078887

RESUMO

The manipulation of magnetization with interfacial modification using various spin-orbit coupling phenomena has been recently revisited due to its scientific and technological potential for next-generation memory devices. Herein, we experimentally and theoretically demonstrate the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction characteristics penetrating through a MgO dielectric layer inserted between the Pt and CoFeSiB. The inserted MgO layer seems to function as a chiral exchange interaction mediator of the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction from the heavy metal atoms to ferromagnet ones. The potential physical mechanism of the anti-symmetric exchange is based on the tunneling-like behavior of conduction electrons through the semi-conductor-like ultrathin MgO. Such behavior can be correlated with the oscillations of the indirect exchange coupling of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida type. From the theoretical demonstration, we could provide approximate estimation and show qualitative trends peculiar to the system under investigation.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10278, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986437

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cancer that causes death in women. Conventional therapies, including surgery and chemotherapy, have different therapeutic effects and are commonly associated with risks and side effects. Near infrared radiation is a technique with few side effects that is used for local hyperthermia, typically as an adjuvant to other cancer therapies. The understanding of the use of near NIR as a monotherapy, and its effects on the immune cells activation and infiltration, are limited. In this study, we investigate the effects of HT treatment using NIR on tumor regression and on the immune cells and molecules in breast tumors. Results from this study demonstrated that local HT by NIR at 43 °C reduced tumor progression and significantly increased the median survival of tumor-bearing mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a significant reduction in cells proliferation in treated tumor, which was accompanied by an abundance of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70). Increased numbers of activated dendritic cells were observed in the draining lymph nodes of the mice, along with infiltration of T cells, NK cells and B cells into the tumor. In contrast, tumor-infiltrated regulatory T cells were largely diminished from the tumor. In addition, higher IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion was observed in tumor of treated mice. Overall, results from this present study extends the understanding of using local HT by NIR to stimulate a favourable immune response against breast cancer.


Assuntos
Hipertermia Induzida , Raios Infravermelhos , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/terapia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Terapia Combinada , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/imunologia , Neoplasias Mamárias Experimentais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
15.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238337, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978080

RESUMO

Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Assuntos
Quirópteros , Animais , Paquistão , Filogenia
16.
Adv Radiat Oncol ; 6(4): 100663, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997481

RESUMO

Purpose: Treatment planning of skull based meningiomas can be difficult due to the irregular shaped target volumes and proximity to critical optic structures. This study evaluated the use of HyperArc (HA) radiosurgery optimization and delivery in conjunction with multicriteria optimization (MCO) to create conformal and efficient treatment plans for conventionally fractionated radiation therapy to difficult base-of-skull (BOS) lesions. Methods and Materials: Twelve patients with BOS meningioma were retrospectively planned with HA-specific optimization algorithm, stereotactic normal tissue objective (SRS-NTO), and conventional automatic normal tissue objective to evaluate normal brain sparing (mean dose and V20 Gy). MCO was used on both SRS-NTO and automatic normal tissue objective plans to further decrease organ-at-risk doses and target dose maximum to within clinically acceptable constraints. Delivery efficiency was evaluated based on planned monitor units. Results: The SRS-NTO in HA can be used to improve the mid- and low-dose spread to normal brain tissue in the irradiation of BOS meningiomas. Improvement in normal brain sparing can be seen in larger, more irregular shaped lesions and less so in smaller spherical targets. MCO can be used in conjunction with the SRS-NTO to reduce target dose maximum and dose to organ at risk without sacrificing the gain in normal brain sparing. Conclusions: HA can be beneficial both in treatment planning by using the SRS-NTO and in delivery efficiency through the decrease in monitor units and automated delivery.

17.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(9): 3497-3512, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999335

RESUMO

Targeting oxidative stress and inflammation by novel dietary compounds of natural origin convincingly appears to be one of the most important therapeutic strategies to keep inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis disease in remission. It is imperative to investigate naturally occuring plant-derived dietary phytochemicals that are receiving attention for their therapeutic benefits to overcome the debilitating conditions of IBD. In the present study, the effect of nerolidol (NRD), a monocyclic sesquiterpene found in German Chamomile tea, was investigated in acetic acid-induced colitis model in Wistar rats. NRD was orally administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day either for 3 days before or 30 min after induction of IBD for 7 days, after intrarectal administration of acetic acid. The body weight, macroscopic, and microscopic analyses of the colon in different experimental groups were observed on days 0, 2, 4, and 7. Acetic acid caused significant reduction in body weight and induced macroscopic and microscopic ulcer along with a significant decline of antioxidants, concomitant to increased malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, a marker of neutrophil activation. Treatment with NRD significantly improved IBD-induced reduction in body weight, improved histology, inhibited MDA formation, and restored antioxidants along with reduced MPO activity. Acetic acid also induced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased calprotectin, released by neutrophils under inflammatory conditions. NRD treatment significantly reduced calprotectin and pro-inflammatory cytokines. NRD treatment showed potential to improve disease activity and inhibit oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation along with histological preservation of the colon tissues.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/toxicidade , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
18.
R Soc Open Sci ; 8(2): 201888, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972870

RESUMO

In the present study, we conducted two facile and highly sensitive spectrofluorimetric approaches in order to quantify the vasoprotective agents; troxerutin (TROX) and calcium dobesilate (DOB) in the presence of hydroquinone (HQ) (as a highly toxic impurity and potential degradation product of DOB) in commercial formulations and human plasma. The first approach relies simply on using ethanol as an eco-friendly solvent for the estimation of DOB at 345 nm after being excited at 305 nm. The linearity was carefully investigated between DOB concentration and the relative fluorescence intensity in the range of 0.05-0.8 µg ml-1. Due to the high method simplicity and sensitivity, applying the first approach to quality control analysis and spiked human plasma samples with mean % recoveries 100.74 ± 3.71 adds another merit. The second approach involved rapid conventional fluorimetric estimation of ethanolic TROX solution in TROX/DOB combined dosage forms at 455/350 nm (emission/excitation) with a linear calibration chart covering the range of 0.1-1.2 µg ml-1. Moreover, the second approach involved a comprehensive study in a trial to solve the problem of superposition of DOB and HQ graph adopting the first derivative synchronous fluorimetric mechanism in ethanol at Δλ = 60 nm. Therefore, DOB was measured at 286 and 323 nm, while HQ could be quantitated at 301 nm. The Beer-Lambert Law has complied over the ranges of 0.1-1.0 and 0.02-0.4 µg ml-1 for DOB and HQ, respectively. Guidelines adopted by the International Council of Harmonization (ICH) were used to validate the target approaches. The developed methods are more convenient for routine quality control laboratory instead of the time-consuming and sophisticated reported techniques. Moreover, different aspects of evaluating the greenness of the proposed approaches were conducted to have a complete image of their environmental impact.

19.
Niger J Surg ; 27(1): 42-47, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34012241

RESUMO

Introduction: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a common injury which has been conventionally managed by various graft reconstruction using bone patellar tendon bone, or quadruple hamstring autograft, to name a few. However, all these grafts are associated with many complications. Lately, peroneus longus tendon (PLT) autograft has shown promising results in this field, although there is still a dearth of data on its use. We, therefore, aimed at carrying out a study to evaluate the functional outcome and knee stability results of ACL reconstruction using PLT graft. Patients and Methods: Patients with a completely torn ACL were included in the study. The PLT was harvested, and graft length, thickness, and harvesting time were noted intraoperatively. Knee stability and functional scores were evaluated clinically and using Lachman test (primarily) and KT-2000 arthrometer and subjectively with International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score at 6, 12, and 24 months (secondary outcome) postoperatively. Ankle scores were also recorded by making use of American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS)-Hindfoot Scale. Results: Forty-eight patients met the inclusion criteria. The graft harvest time was 7.4 min (5-9 min). The mean thickness of the graft on doubling was 7.9 mm (7-9 mm). Ninety-six percent of the patients were satisfied with their results of the knee surgery, and 95% of the patients had no complaints of ankle joint. The mean IKDC score postoperatively was 78.16 ± 6.23, and the mean AOFAS score was 98.4 ± 4.1. None of the patients had any neurovascular deficit. Conclusion: ACL reconstruction using PLT graft yields a good functional score (IKDC, KT-2000 arthrometer) even at 2-year follow-up. It is a safe and effective autograft option for ACL reconstruction.

20.
Appl Clin Inform ; 12(2): 355-361, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug alerts are clinical decision support tools intended to prevent medication misadministration. In teaching hospitals, residents encounter the majority of the drug alerts while learning under variable workloads and responsibilities that may have an impact on drug-alert response rates. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to explore drug-alert experience and salience among postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1), postgraduate year 2 (PGY-2), and postgraduate year 3 (PGY-3) internal medicine resident physicians at two different institutions. METHODS: Drug-alert information was queried from the electronic health record (EHR) for 47 internal medicine residents at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center (UPMC) Pinnacle in Pennsylvania, and 79 internal medicine residents at the MetroHealth System (MHS) in Ohio from December 2018 through February 2019. Salience was defined as the percentage of drug alerts resulting in removal or modification of the triggering order. Comparisons were made across institutions, residency training year, and alert burden. RESULTS: A total of 126 residents were exposed to 52,624 alerts over a 3-month period. UPMC Pinnacle had 15,574 alerts with 47 residents and MHS had 37,050 alerts with 79 residents. At MHS, salience was 8.6% which was lower than UPMC Pinnacle with 15%. The relatively lower salience (42% lower) at MHS corresponded to a greater number of alerts-per-resident (41% higher) compared with UPMC Pinnacle. Overall, salience was 11.6% for PGY-1, 10.5% for PGY-2, and 8.9% for PGY-3 residents. CONCLUSION: Our results are suggestive of long-term drug-alert desensitization during progressive residency training. A higher number of alerts-per-resident correlating with a lower salience suggests alert fatigue; however, other factors should also be considered including differences in workload and culture.


Assuntos
Internato e Residência , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Atenção à Saúde , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Carga de Trabalho
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