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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238337, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249249

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762561

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leislers Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leislers Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

3.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 28(11): 6352-6358, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759754

RESUMO

The analgesic, antidiarrheal, and neuro-pharmacological potentials of Medicago denticulata leaves extract were screened in animal models. Potential analgesic response was noted (*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001) in formalin, acetic acid and heat-induced pain models in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum activity by means of writhing inhibition was documented for Medicago denticulata at 300 mg/kg that was found to be 71.79% (17.43 ± 1.31). In first phase, the Medicago denticulata at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg showed analgesic activity and reduced the pain by 54.18% (18.39 ± 1.67) and 62.90% (14.89 ± 1.56), respectively. In second phase, the Medicago denticulata at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg showed analgesic activity and reduced the pain by 69.48% (19.78 ± 1.44) and 70.89% (18.86 ± 1.58), respectively. In hot plate method, the Medicago denticulata at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg showed the maximum response of 61.16% (8.47 ± 1.23) and 67.39% (10.09 ± 1.04), respectively at 60 min. Scopolamine significantly reduces spontaneous alteration in Y-maze model for antiamnesic activity. Medicago denticulata significantly increased the discrimination index in a dose-dependent manner using novel object recognition test (NORT) model. Exploration time in sec for the novel object was increased significantly (P < 0.001) by donepezil decreased for familiar one with a discrimination index (DI) of 62.18%. Medicago denticulata significantly increased the discrimination index by 60.86% and 57.24% at 300 and 150 mg/kg b.w, respectively. The lowest DI of 53.80% at 75 mg/kg was observed in comparison to the amnesic group. The Medicago denticulata significant decreased the elevated levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and malondialdehyde (MDA and enhancing level of acetylcholine (ACh), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) acting as an antioxidant agent. Medicago denticulata reduced the total number of diarrheal feces to lesser extent at dose-dependent manner. From the study results, it is suggested that the Medicago denticulata extract possess good analgesic and antiamnesic activity however the antidiarrheal effects of plant were negligible. In the current study, the traditional use of the plant as a source of medicine has been validated.

4.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 720867, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777410

RESUMO

Oxidation of membrane lipids by reactive oxygen species (ROS) or O2/lipoxygenase leads to the formation of various bioactive compounds collectively called oxylipins. Reactive carbonyl species (RCS) are a group of oxylipins that have the α,ß-unsaturated carbonyl structure, including acrolein and 4-hydroxy-(E)-2-nonenal. RCS provides a missing link between ROS stimuli and cellular responses in plants via their electrophilic modification of proteins. The physiological significance of RCS in plants has been established based on the observations that the RCS-scavenging enzymes that are overexpressed in plants or the RCS-scavenging chemicals added to plants suppress the plants' responses to ROS, i.e., photoinhibition, aluminum-induced root damage, programmed cell death (PCD), senescence, abscisic acid-induced stomata closure, and auxin-induced lateral root formation. The functions of RCS are thus a key to ROS- and redox-signaling in plants. The chemical species involved in distinct RCS signaling/damaging phenomena were recently revealed, based on comprehensive carbonyl determinations. This review presents an overview of the current status of research regarding RCS signaling functions in plants and discusses present challenges for gaining a more complete understanding of the signaling mechanisms.

5.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 357, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an important parasite that belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa, distributed globally, causing major health issues for a wide range of hosts, including humans, native and wild animals. METHODS: In the present study, we detected IgG and IgM antibodies through an ELISA kit and DNA of T. gondii through PCR in 197 pets and stray cats in Peshawar, Charsadda, Mardan, and Kohat districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan) to estimate the existence of feline toxoplasmosis. RESULTS: The current study revealed that stray cats have a significant infection rate of T. gondii (74.6%) as compared to pet cats (25.4%). In all the four districts, the prevalence of T. gondii was pointedly higher in district Kohat (95.5%) in the feline population. In comparison to the female (75.18%) and male (both pets and stray) cats have a maximum infection of (81.66%) non-significantly. The prevalence of T. gondii was observed to be significantly higher (91.66%) in the older and greater than 4 year old population of cats as compared to the younger ones. In poor health condition, the cat populations has a higher risk of infection of 92.3% as compared to healthy and poor body condition (73.91%) and (82.6%) respectively. The chronic and reactivated chronic conditions of toxoplasmosis were higher (58.37%) as compared to the acute condition. CONCLUSION: It has been concluded that toxoplasmosis is widely spread in the studied population.The outcomes of the present study show that T. gondii infection has a significant impact on the type of cat, age, and area, which implies a serious threat to human beings. Therefore, genotyping of T. gondii strains from different hosts is needed to forecast the current approach for prevention and control of this zoonotic parasite.

6.
Food Sci Nutr ; 9(11): 6089-6098, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760240

RESUMO

The production of trans-fats and chemical changes during the process of frying are serious public health concerns and must be monitored efficiently. For this purpose, the canola oil was formulated with different ratio of extra virgin olive oil and palm olein using D-optimal mixture design, and the best formulation (67:22:11) based on free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV), and iodine value (IV) as responses was selected for multiple frying process. The data on FFA, PV, and IV along with Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectra were taken after each frying up to ten frying. The spectral data were preprocessed with standard normal variate followed by principal component analysis which is clearly showing the differentiation for various frying. Similarly, partial least square regression was applied to predict the FFA (0.37%-1.63%), PV (4.47-13.85 meqO2/kg), and IV (111.51-51.39 I2/100 g) which demonstrated high coefficient of determination (R2) 0.84, 0.83, and 0.81, respectively. It can be summarized that FT-IR can be used as a novel tool for fast and noninvasive quality determination of frying oils.

7.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 757800, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746289

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a neglected zoonotic disease prevalent in Pakistan, but the genetic diversity of the cestode is largely unexplored in the country. This study investigated the molecular epidemiology of CE infecting the livestock population of the Malakand division, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. A total of 1,200 livestock, including buffaloes, cattle, goats, and sheep, were examined for echinococcosis from November 2017-2018 at different slaughterhouses in the Malakand division. Hydatid cysts were collected from different organs, and hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) was examined microscopically and used for DNA extraction. The LSU (rrnl) and NAD1 genes were amplified and sequenced. The overall prevalence of CE was 17% (204/1,200), including cows (21.7%), buffaloes (17.4%), goats (10%), and sheep (9.6%). The infection was relatively more prevalent among males (17%) than females (16.9%) and animals of older age (>5 years) (p = 0.710). Liver (63.2%) and lungs (25%) were more affected as compared to kidneys (6.8%) and heart (4.9%). HCF analysis indicated that 52.0% of the cysts were sterile and (48.0%) were fertile. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses confirmed 80.0% of the isolates as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3) in all animal species, while Echinococcus equinus (G4) and Echinococcus ortleppi (G5) were present in buffaloes. The present study concluded that CE is prevalent in the livestock population of Malakand. Besides E. granulosus s. s. (G1-G3), E. ortleppi genotype (G5) and E. equinus (G4) in livestock were also reported.

8.
J Food Biochem ; : e13985, 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34713456

RESUMO

Medicago denticulata is commonly used as a leafy vegetable, salad, and food ingredient. In this study, different doses of leaves aqueous extract of M. denticulata (MD) were fed to intoxicated rabbits with paracetamol (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) for regular 21 days. The aqueous extract was evaluated for phenolic composition using HPLC-DAD. Serum biochemical and hematological parameters were studied to check its activity. The liver was examined histologically and for antioxidant status. Results revealed that paracetamol led to a significant alteration in all the hematological (RBC, WBC, Hb, PLT, and HCT), and serum lipid parameters (TC, HDL, LDL, and TG) while MD at the dose rate of 300 mg/kg had a curative effect on the stabilization of the affected parameters. The high dose of MD ameliorated different antioxidant parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH), DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of the liver on day 21st of the treatment. Histological studies revealed significant paracetamol-induced toxicity of the liver, whereas the MD had positive effects on induced toxicity. Improvement in all these alterations confirms the curative potential of Medicago denticulata extract. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Paracetamol is a well-known antipyretic and analgesic medicine. However, it has been found to cause toxicity including hepatotoxicity. Synthetic drugs such as statins, antibiotics, and anti-viral are used for curing hepatic diseases also cause severe side effects. Thus, nutraceuticals from plant foods are used to reduce the side effects of different hepatotoxic medicine are continuously researched. This study reported for the first time that aqueous extract of the plant leaves was protective against the hepatotoxicity induced by paracetamol.

9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn) deficiency and low soil fertility are the major factors responsible for low yield in chickpea. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Zn application and plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) (endophyte Enterobacter sp. MN17) on soil health and aboveground biomass of desi and kabuli chickpea under natural field conditions. Zn was applied as seed priming (0.001 mol L-1 ) and soil application (10 kg Zn ha-1 ) with and without PGPB. To determine the impacts of Zn and PGPB on soil biological health, soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and soil extracellular enzyme activities were analyzed at two growth stages: vegetative (90 days after sowing) and maturity (163 days after sowing). RESULTS: The highest aboveground biomass (5.1 t ha-1 ) was recorded with Zn seed priming + PGPB in kabuli chickpea and in desi chickpea (4.8 t ha-1 ) with Zn seed priming only. The application of Zn significantly increased soil MBC, which was higher in kabuli (795 and 731 µg C g-1 ) compared to desi chickpea (655 and 533 µg C g-1 ) at both vegetative and reproductive growth stages, respectively. The highest extracellular soil enzyme activities, - ß-glucosidase (4758 nmol g-1  h-1 ), acid phosphatase (5508 nmol g-1  h-1 ), chitinase (5997 nmol g-1  h-1 ) and leucine aminopeptidase (993 nmol g-1  h-1 ) - were recorded with Zn seed priming. Of the chickpea types, kabuli chickpea had higher soil extracellular enzyme activities in the rhizosphere than desi chickpea. CONCLUSION: Zn seed priming along with PGPB application may improve soil health and chickpea biomass in marginal soils. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

10.
Plant J ; 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587326

RESUMO

The Arabidopsis thaliana aldehyde oxidase 3 (AAO3) catalyzes the oxidation of abscisic aldehyde (ABal) to abscisic acid (ABA). Besides ABal, plants generate other aldehydes that can be toxic above a certain threshold. AAO3 knockout mutants (aao3) exhibited earlier senescence but equivalent relative water content compared with wild-type (WT) during normal growth or upon application of UV-C irradiation. Aldehyde profiling in leaves of 24-day-old plants revealed higher accumulation of acrolein, crotonaldehyde, 3Z-hexenal, hexanal and acetaldehyde in aao3 mutants compared with WT leaves. Similarly, higher levels of acrolein, benzaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, propionaldehyde, trans-2-hexenal and acetaldehyde were accumulated in aao3 mutants upon UV-C irradiation. Aldehydes application to plants hastened profuse senescence symptoms and higher accumulation of aldehydes, such as acrolein, benzaldehyde and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, in aao3 mutant leaves as compared with WT. The senescence symptoms included greater decrease in chlorophyll content and increase in transcript expression of the early senescence marker genes, Senescence-Related-Gene1, Stay-Green-Protein2 as well as NAC-LIKE, ACTIVATED-BY AP3/P1. Notably, although aao3 had lower ABA content than WT, members of the ABA-responding genes SnRKs were expressed at similar levels in aao3 and WT. Moreover, the other ABA-deficient mutants [aba2 and 9-cis-poxycarotenoid dioxygenase3-2 (nced3-2), that has functional AAO3] exhibited similar aldehydes accumulation and chlorophyll content like WT under normal growth conditions or UV-C irradiation. These results indicate that the absence of AAO3 oxidation activity and not the lower ABA and its associated function is responsible for the earlier senescence symptoms in aao3 mutant.

11.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254605, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398875

RESUMO

The re-emergence of virulent strains of the Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV) leads to significant economic losses of poultry industry in Pakistan during last few years. This disease causes the infection of bursa, which leads to major immune losses. A total number of 30 samples from five IBD outbreaks during the period of 2019-20 were collected from different areas of Faisalabad district, Pakistan and assayed by targeting the IBD virus VP2 region through RT-PCR. Among all the outbreaks, almost 80% of poultry birds were found positive for the IBDV. The bursa tissues were collected from the infected birds and histopathological examination of samples revealed severe lymphocytic depletion, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and necrosis of the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Positive samples were subjected to re-isolation and molecular characterization of IBDV. The Pakistan IBDV genes were subjected to DNA sequencing to determine the virus nucleotide sequences. The sequences of 100 Serotype-I IBDVs showing nearest homology were compared and identified with the study sequence. The construction of the phylogenetic tree for nucleotide sequences was accomplished by the neighbor-joining method in MEGA-6 with reference strains. The VP2 segment reassortment of IBDVs carrying segment A were identified as one important type of circulating strains in Pakistan. The findings indicated the molecular features of the Pakistan IBDV strains playing a role in the evolution of new strains of the virus, which will contribute to the vaccine selection and effective prevention of the disease.

12.
Pediatr Neurosurg ; 56(4): 385-391, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a cause of 20-30 of all spinal vascular malformation. The treatment option for the AVM depends upon the type of AVM. Here, we present a case series to discuss the type, management, and post-operative conclusion of the spinal AVMs. METHOD: Four patients with spinal AVMs were retrospectively reviewed. All 4 patients were with a nidus-type AVM. Treatment for all patients required embolization. Clinical features, imaging, treatment, and clinical results were observed. All 4 patient's clinical outcome was assessed using the Modified Ranked Scale. RESULT: The follow-up after management showed that all four-patient recovered without any residual deficit. All four-patient scored zero (0) on the Modified Ranked Scale. CONCLUSION: Pediatric spinal AVMs are rare and require complex multimodal approach to achieve favorable outcomes.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas , Embolização Terapêutica , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Malformações Arteriovenosas Intracranianas , Malformações Arteriovenosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações Arteriovenosas/cirurgia , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Accid Anal Prev ; 157: 106132, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000677

RESUMO

The road traffic injuries are one of the leading cause of death in children and young adults according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The risk of a crash increases approximately four times for drivers using mobile phones during driving. This study investigates the importance of different factors affecting the driver's choice to use mobile phones for conversation during driving in Lahore, Pakistan. A questionnaire survey was conducted to check the tendency of mobile phone usage during driving from different locations of the city. Participants were asked to indicate frequency, risk, importance and emotionality of ten different conversations. A Structural Equation Model (SEM), similar to a previous study, conducted in Beijing, was developed for the frequency of calling and texting during driving with perceived risk of calling and texting, perceived importance and emotionality as predictors. The frequency of different conversations shows that perceived importance of the call mainly influences the driver's choice to make a call during driving in Lahore. The result of the model show that perceived risk has a significant negative effect on driver's decision to call or text in Lahore, similarly to Beijing. The results also indicates that drivers prefer calling on mobile phones in comparison to texting during driving in Lahore.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Telefone Celular , Acidentes de Trânsito , Pequim , Criança , Cidades , Humanos , Paquistão , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(2): 1009-1014, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041113

RESUMO

Introduction: Patients with sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) have various structural and functional abnormalities of the upper airway during sleep which may get reflected on their pulmonary function tests. The aim of the study was to find the correlation between the spirometric indices and snoring, grades of apnea-hypoapnea index (AHI), and STOPBANG. There is scarcity of literature showing correlation of STOP BANG with spirometric variables. Material and Methods: Patient with SRBD fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled. The pretest probability sleep score STOPBANG and polysomnography (PSG) were calculated for all the patients. Spirometric indices like forced expiratory volume in one sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), postbronchodilator ratio FEVI/FVC (PBDR), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were studied. Their association with snoring, different grades of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and STOPBANG were evaluated using statistical analysis. Results: A total of 70 patients were enrolled. Abnormalities of spirometric indices were found to be common in patients with SRBD but their association with snoring, grades of OSA, and STOPBANG were not statistically significant. There is no statistically significant correlation between body mass index (BMI) and grades of AHI. Conclusion: This study found no statistically significant correlation between spirometric parameters and STOPBANG and degree of AHI. Primary care physicians should be aware that obstructive lung disease does coexist with the sleep disordered breathing but as per this study, their statistically significant association needs further validation.

16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(6)2021 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804681

RESUMO

Anti-angiogenic approaches targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway have been a significant research focus during the past decades and are well established in clinical practice. Despite the expectations, their benefit is ephemeral in several diseases, including specific cancers. One of the most prominent side effects of the current, VEGF-based, anti-angiogenic treatments remains the development of resistance, mostly due to the upregulation and compensatory mechanisms of other growth factors, with the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) being at the top of the list. Over the past decade, several anti-angiogenic approaches targeting simultaneously different growth factors and their signaling pathways have been developed and some have reached the clinical practice. In the present review, we summarize the knowledge regarding resistance mechanisms upon anti-angiogenic treatment, mainly focusing on bFGF. We discuss its role in acquired resistance upon prolonged anti-angiogenic treatment in different tumor settings, outline the reported resistance mechanisms leading to bFGF upregulation, and summarize the efforts and outcome of combined anti-angiogenic approaches to date.

17.
ACS Omega ; 6(13): 9039-9052, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33842774

RESUMO

Lactic acid bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPS) are used in the food industry to improve the stability and rheological properties of fermented dairy products. ß-Lactoglobulin (BLG), the dominant whey protein in bovine milk, is well known to bind small molecules such as fatty acids, vitamins, and flavors, and to interact with neutral and anionic polysaccharides used in food and pharmaceuticals. While sparse data are available on the affinity of EPS-milk protein interactions, structural information on BLG-EPS complexes, including the EPS binding sites, is completely lacking. Here, binding sites on BLG variant A (BLGA), for oligosaccharides prepared by mild acid hydrolysis of two EPS produced by Streptococcus thermophilus LY03 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus CNRZ 1187, respectively, are identified by NMR spectroscopy and supplemented by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and molecular docking of complexes. Evidence of two binding sites (site 1 and site 2) on the surface of BLGA is achieved for both oligosaccharides (LY03-OS and 1187-OS) through NMR chemical shift perturbations, revealing multivalency of BLGA for EPS. The affinities of LY03-OS and 1187-OS for BLGA gave K D values in the mM range obtained by both NMR (pH 2.65) and ITC (pH 4.0). Molecular docking suggested that the BLGA and EPS complexes depend on hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. The findings provide insights into how BLGA engages structurally different EPS-derived oligosaccharides, which may facilitate the design of BLG-EPS complexation, of relevance for formulation of dairy products and improve understanding of BLGA coacervation.

18.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 139, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is one of the principal causes of economic loss to the livestock industry because of its morbidity and mortality of food-producing animals and condemnation of important visceral organs. Pakistan being an agricultural country having an extensive livestock sector, is mostly practiced by poor people, which has a fundamental role in the economy. The present study was aimed to conduct a cross-sectional survey and PCR based confirmation of Echinococcus granulosus in sheep, goats, cows, and buffaloes from southern regions (three districts: Lakki Marwat, Bannu, and Karak) of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. During the study, a total of 2833 animals were examined randomly including; sheep (n = 529), goats (n = 428), cows (n = 1693), and buffaloes (n = 183). Hydatid cysts were collected and examined for the presence of protoscoleces using microscopy. Detection of DNA was performed by using PCR and two mitochondrial genetic markers namely; NAD-1 and COX-1 were amplified. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of CE was found to be (9%) among the examined animals. The hydatid cyst infection was highly prevalent in buffaloes (12%), followed by sheep (10%), cows (9%), and goats (5.1%). Cystic echinococcosis was more prevalent (10%; 96/992) in district Lakki Marwat followed by district Bannu (9%; 112/1246) and Karak (7%; 39/595). Female animals were more likely to be infected with CE (11.6%) than male animals (5.3%) (p = 0.001). Similarly, the infection was higher in the older group of animals as compared to younger (p = 0.001). Mostly (52.2%; n = 129) of hydatid cysts were found in the liver, while (64.4%; n = 159) cysts of the infected animals were infertile. PCR based identification confirmed the presence of E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s) in the study area. CONCLUSION: Cystic echinococcosis was found to be highly prevalent in southern regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and could be a potential threat to human health. Moreover, molecular sequencing and phylogenetic analyses should be carried out in future to identify the prevailing genotype (s) of E. granulosus s.s.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus granulosus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus granulosus/genética , Feminino , Cabras , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Ovinos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
19.
Heliyon ; 7(2): e06148, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33644454

RESUMO

Natural resources are non-renewable and facing a regular depletion due to their immense use which demands new and additional material's reserves, recycling technologies and materials with no or less bad environmental effects. Reuse of waste materials will be rewarding technically, economically and environmentally. Here, we report the incorporation of industrial ceramic wastes in polymer matrix as composite materials to investigate their potentials for various applications. Ceramic wastes were collected from the premises of ceramic producing industries located at Peshawar (Pakistan). The composites of ceramic particles and polyaniline (PANI) were produced via in-situ free polymerization technique. SEM and FT-IR analysis confirmed composite formation. Thermal, dielectric and mechanical properties of the prepared materials were studied. It was found that both the constituent materials (ceramic and polymer) have a synergistic effect on each other. At one hand, ceramic wastes support and enhance the thermal and mechanical properties of the polymer in composites and the polymer in turn beautify the wastes with good dielectric and electrical properties. Based on their properties, the low cost and environmentally friendly novel composites could be used for various applications such as semi-conductors, capacitors and microwave devices.

20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690156

RESUMO

Coronavirus infection (COVID-19) has significantly increased the mortality and morbidity rates worldwide. The present study was conducted to assess the general public's awareness of COVID-19 and its association with mental health, dietary habits, and physical activity. A web-based survey was conducted to gather information about demographics, knowledge about COVID-19, dietary habits, mental health, and anthropometry among the general public of Pakistan. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression were used for data analysis. The majority of the participants were suffering from anxiety (71.0%) and depression (52.0%) during the COVID-19 pandemic; 32.4% of participants had poor COVID-19-related knowledge. COVID-19 lockdown reduced the physical activity of 66.9% of participants and increased weight of 38.8% of the survey participants. Demographic variables, including age, gender, ethnicity, education, employment, family type, and geographical location, were significantly associated with knowledge about COVID-19 (P < 0.05). Depression was inversely associated with COVID-19 knowledge (P < 0.05). Healthy changes in dietary habits including decreased consumption of fast foods, soft and cola drinks, fruit drinks, cooked meat (outside the home), sugar, and fats, and were associated with increased knowledge of COVID-19. Vitamin C and immunity-boosting supplement consumption were significantly associated with increased knowledge regarding COVID-19 (< 0.05). Inadequate knowledge about COVID-19 and the presence of anxiety and depression were found among most of the study participants. There is a need to conduct educational seminars to limit the health consequences resulting from COVID-19 lockdown.

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