Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 322
Filtrar
1.
Radiography (Lond) ; 29(1): 171-177, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36410128

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Set-up skin markings are performed, in several centers, for radiotherapy (RT) treatments. This study aimed to compare two permanent methods: lancets and an electric marking pen, the Comfort Marker 2.0® (CM). METHODS: This was a prospective, unicentric, randomized study. Patients aged 18 years or older referred to our department to receive RT were recruited. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive set-up markings using lancets or CM. The markings arrangement followed our departmental protocols. The coprimary endpoints were patients' comfort and effectiveness. Secondary endpoints included radiation therapists (RTTs) satisfaction and cosmesis. RESULTS: Between October 2021 and January 2022, 100 patients were enrolled (50 received lancets and 50 CM) and assessed for the comfort and satisfaction outcomes. CM was significantly less painful than the lancets, with 44% and 16% of the patients, respectively, considering the tattooing process painless (RR = 2.75; 95% IC: 1.36 - 5.58). On the RTT-reported satisfaction, CM had significantly easier processes than lancets (98.0% vs. 78.0%, respectively; RR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.08 - 1.46). For effectiveness and cosmesis assessment, 98 patients were analyzed (48 received lancets and 50 CM). Patients receiving CM had a significantly higher proportion of markings graded as good and excellent compared to those receiving lancets (98.0% and 50.0%, respectively, had ≥75% of the tattoos assessed as good/excellent, RR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.47 - 2.61). On the cosmetic evaluation, patients receiving CM had significantly better cosmetic markings, with a median score of 4.4 (vs. 3.5 for lancets, p <0.001). CONCLUSION: The trial results demonstrated that tattooing with the CM is significantly less painful, more effective, easier to apply, and cosmetically superior to tattooing with lancets. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Tattooing with CM allows for better results regarding pain, quality, ease and cosmesis.

2.
Theriogenology ; 192: 109-115, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113319

RESUMO

This study investigates the impact of eugenol (EU) supplementation on bovine oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) and antioxidant capacity, as well as in vitro embryo production and quality after conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF). A total of 1077 cumulus oocyte complexes were cultured in TCM-199+ without EU supplementation (control treatment) or supplemented with EU at the concentrations of 10 µM (EU-10), 20 µM (EU-20), or 40 µM (EU-40). After IVM, the oocytes were subjected to IVF and embryo culture. The addition of EU at 40 µM to the IVM medium improved (P < 0.05) the antioxidant capacity and cleavage rate when compared to the control treatment. Moreover, a positive correlation (r = 0.61, P < 0.03) was observed between cleavage rate and EU concentration. The addition of EU at concentrations of 10 and 20 µM decreased (P < 0.05) the calreticulin (CALR) levels in expanded blastocysts when compared to the control treatment and EU-40 treatment. However, the EU-10 and EU-20 treatments had a greater (P < 0.05) mean total cell number (TCN) per expanded blastocyst when compared to the control treatment and EU-40 treatment. In conclusion, the addition of EU to the enriched culture medium during IVM of bovine oocytes improved the antioxidant capacity of the spent medium, as well as the cleavage rate and embryonic quality (i.e., TCN/expanded blastocyst), and reduced the endoplasmic reticulum stress (i.e., CALR levels) in the embryos. Thus, we recommend enriching the IVM medium with 10 µM EU for in vitro bovine embryo production.


Assuntos
Eugenol , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Blastocisto , Calreticulina , Bovinos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária
3.
EJNMMI Res ; 12(1): 49, 2022 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962869

RESUMO

The experimental outcomes of small-animal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18F-labelled fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) can be particularly compromised by animal preparation and care. Several works intend to improve research reporting and amplify the quality and reliability of published research. Though these works provide valuable information to plan and conduct animal studies, manuscripts describe different methodologies-standardization does not exist. Consequently, the variation in details reported can explain the difference in the experimental results found in the literature. Additionally, the resources and guidelines defining protocols for small-animal imaging are scarce, making it difficult for researchers to obtain and compare accurate and reproducible data. Considering the selection of suitable procedures key to ensure animal welfare and research improvement, this paper aims to prepare the way for a future guideline on mice preparation and care for PET imaging with 18F-FDG. For this purpose, a global standard protocol was created based on recommendations and good practices described in relevant literature.

4.
Nutr Neurosci ; 25(11): 2442-2457, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514962

RESUMO

Objectives: The mechanism behind the progression of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains poorly understood. However some evidence pointed out that the co-occurrence of metabolic conditions affecting glucose homeostasis, as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), may be an important catalyst in this context. Notably, candidate drugs which modulate common pathways in the development of MCI-to-AD mediated by T2DM may offer likely therapy for AD. Nonetheless, limited pharmacological alternatives that modulate common pathways in T2DM, MCI, and AD are available. In the recent decades, studies have shown that resveratrol may act as a neuroprotective compound, but little is known about its potential in improving cognitive and metabolic aspects associated with AD progression mediated by the co-association between TDM2-MCI.Methods: In this review, we discuss possible protective mechanisms of resveratrol on shared pathways associated with AD progression mediated by T2DM-MCI co-occurrence.Results: Some studies indicated that insulin resistance and hyperglycemia may be also a T2DM risk factor for the progression of MCI-to-AD, promoting alterations in metabolic pathways associated with neuronal plasticity, and increasing pro-inflammatory environment. Interestingly, basic research and clinical trials indicate that resveratrol may modulate those pathways, showing a potential neuroprotective effect of this polyphenol.Conclusion: Therefore, there is not enough clinical data supporting the translational therapeutic use of resveratrol in this scenario.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Humanos , Resveratrol/uso terapêutico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(6): 1287-1293, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355687

RESUMO

The social and economic roles of goat farming in Northeastern Brazil, allied to the fact that the use of goat middle ear ossicles for research and human ear surgery training has not yet been proposed, justify the study of their applicability as an experimental model. The middle ears of 19 goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) from the bone collection of the Laboratory and Didactic Anatomy Museum of Domestic and Wild Animals of the Federal University of Vale do São Francisco (UNIVASF) were dissected. The malleus, incus, and stapes were evaluated regarding their macroscopic morphology and biometry (length, width, and height). Ossicle morphology was similar to sheep, human, and bovine morphology. The malleus was 1.3 times heavier and 2.2 times longer than the incus, and 9.0 times heavier and 3.7 times longer than the stapes. The size relationship was positive between the stapes and the malleus and negative between the stapes and the incus. It is concluded that the middle ear size and the anatomical similarities with human ossicles make goats a useful model for experimental scientific studies, reconstructive surgery practice of the ossicular chain, and human ear surgery training.(AU)


Tanto o papel social quanto o econômico da caprinocultura na região Nordeste do Brasil, somados ao fato de que o uso de ossículos da orelha média de caprinos para estudos e treinamento cirúrgico otológico humano ainda não foi proposto, justificam o estudo de sua aplicabilidade como modelo experimental. Foram dissecadas as orelhas médias de 19 caprinos (Capra aegagrus hircus), provenientes do ossuário do Laboratório e Museu Didático de Anatomia dos Animais Domésticos e Silvestres - Universidade Federal do Vale do São Francisco. Martelos, bigornas e estribos tiveram a morfologia macroscópica e a biometria (comprimento, largura e altura) avaliadas. A morfologia dos ossículos assemelhou-se a de ovinos, humanos e bovinos. O martelo foi 1,3 vez mais pesado e 2,2 vezes mais comprido que a bigorna e 9,0 vezes mais pesado e 3,7 vezes mais comprido que o estribo. A relação de tamanho entre o estribo e o martelo foi positiva, e entre o estribo e a bigorna negativa. Conclui-se que o tamanho da orelha média e as semelhanças anatômicas com os ossículos humanos tornam os caprinos um modelo útil para estudos científicos experimentais, prática cirúrgica reconstrutiva da cadeia ossicular e treinamento cirúrgico otológico humano.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Estribo/anatomia & histologia , Cabras/anatomia & histologia , Ossículos da Orelha/anatomia & histologia , Bigorna/anatomia & histologia , Martelo/anatomia & histologia , Biometria , Modelos Animais
6.
Reprod Fertil Dev ; 33(6): 392-400, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685580

RESUMO

Spix's cavy is a potentially good experimental model for research on reproductive biology and sexual development. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the ontogeny of the steroidogenic enzymes involved in testicular androgen synthesis during prenatal development. Testes were investigated on Days 25, 30, 40 and >50 of gestation. Immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting were used to establish the site and relative amount of androgenic enzymes, including 5α-reductase, cytosolic 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17ß-HSDI) and mitochondrial microsomal 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3ß-HSDII), throughout prenatal development. The testicular parenchyma began to organise on Day 25 of gestation, with the development of recognisable testicular cords. The mesonephros was established after Day 25 of gestation and the ducts differentiated to form the epididymis, as testicular cords were beginning to proliferate and the interstitium to organise by Day 30 of gestation, continuing thereafter. The androgen-synthesising enzymes 5α-reductase, 17ß-HSDI and 3ß-HSDII were evident in Leydig cells as they differentiated at all subsequent gestational ages studied. In addition, immunoblotting showed an increase in immunoreactivity for the enzymes at Days 30 and 40 of gestation (P<0.05) and a decrease at Day 50 of gestation (P<0.05). It is concluded that the increase in androgenic enzymes in Leydig cells coincides with the functional differentiation of the testes, and with the stabilisation and differentiation of mesonephric ducts forming the epididymis.


Assuntos
Androgênios/biossíntese , Cobaias/embriologia , Testículo/embriologia , Testículo/metabolismo , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/análise , Animais , Colestenona 5 alfa-Redutase/análise , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/enzimologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Progesterona Redutase/análise
7.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 40(1): 124-135, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762447

RESUMO

Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn. (Talinaceae), popularly known as "major gomes," is a Brazilian Cerrado plant used in traditional medicine and as a food source. Recent studies have demonstrated its diuretic effects. However, no studies have been performed on its effects on the reproductive system. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of the ethanol-soluble fraction of T. paniculatum leaves (ESTP) on general toxicity and on the pubertal development of male and female Wistar rats. For this purpose, the uterotrophic and the pubertal assays were performed. In the uterotrophic test, female immature rats were treated for three consecutive days with 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg of ESTP. Uterus without luminal fluid was weighed and the relative weight calculated. For the pubertal assay, male and female immature rats were submitted to 30-day treatment with 30 or 300 mg/kg of ESTP. Clinical signs of toxicity, biochemical, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. ESTP treatment did not promote estrogenic effects in female rats. In the pubertal test, no daily signs of toxicity or weight loss were observed. Moreover, ESTP did not affect the onset of vaginal opening and preputial separation and did not cause significant changes in biochemical parameters as well as in organ weight and histopathological analyses of animals.


Assuntos
Caryophyllales , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bioensaio , Brasil , Estrogênios , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Útero
8.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 23(1): eRBCA-2020-1337, 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-30475

RESUMO

Brazilian poultry production is growing, mainly due to the cost and benefit that chicken meat provides. The importance of free-range chickens and the susceptibility, to which they are exposed, makes it necessary to know about gastrointestinal parasites and the consequences that large infections can cause for them as such as weight loss. The present study aimed to determine the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in free-range hens raised in an extensive regime in the municipality of Santa Rita, state of Maranhão, Brazil. The studied population was composed of adult chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) acquired from slaughterhouses in the region. The gastrointestinal organs of each chicken were separated and subsequently conditioned in flasks containing Railliet and Henrys solution and sent to the laboratory, to be analyzed and processed. Of the 100 chickens examined, 227 specimens of helminthes were identified, with a frequency of 32.6% for nematodes and 67.4% for cestodes. Among the nematode the following parasites were identified: Ascaridia galli (27.03%); Heterakis gallinarum (48.65%) and Subulura spp. (24, 32%). Raillietina echinobothrida (100%) was the only cestoda identified. The average infection rate by species of parasite was 1.18 for A. galli, 2.22 for H. gallinarum, 1.06 for Subulura spp. and 9.00 for R. echinobothrida. It is concluded that free-range chickens are parasitized by nematodes and cestoda.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/parasitologia
9.
J Chem Phys ; 153(7): 074305, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828076

RESUMO

The ratios of single, double, and triple ionizations to the total photoionization of the halothane (C2HBrClF3) molecule have been investigated by a single-photon ionization in the energy range from 21.21 eV to 320 eV. In the valence region, the multiple ionization results can be described by a sum of contributions generated from the shake-off and the two-step one models. At low photon energies (from the threshold of triple ionization up to 100 eV), the triple photoionization dynamics of halothane can be reasonably well described by a model involving a classical electron impact double ionization of the singly ionized parent ion.

10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 411-418, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128328

RESUMO

Este trabalho investigou a influência da adiposidade em éguas Crioulas gestantes sobre o peso e o acúmulo de gordura de seus potros do nascimento aos quatro meses de vida. Foram avaliadas 28 éguas Crioulas no terço final de gestação, divididas em dois grupos (normais e obesas) quanto ao peso, à circunferência de pescoço, à altura da crista do pescoço e à gordura subcutânea na base da cauda, bem como quanto à relação dessas medidas com as de seus potros, do parto aos 120 dias de idade. Os filhos de éguas obesas apresentaram maior deposição de gordura na base da cauda, no segundo mês (P<0,05), e na crista do pescoço (P=0,0022), no quarto mês de idade. Houve correlação positiva da altura da crista do pescoço da égua com o peso dos potros ao nascer (P=0,01; r= 0,54) e do peso corporal das éguas com gordura na base da cauda dos potros ao nascimento (P=0,03; r=0,49), além de forte associação entre gordura na base da cauda das éguas obesas com essa medida nos seus potros aos quatro meses (P=0,01; r=0,71). Essa diferença entre os grupos de potros quanto à adiposidade sugere que filhos de éguas obesas são mais propensos a acumular mais gordura já nos primeiros meses de vida.(AU)


This work investigated the influence of adiposity on pregnant Crioulo mares on the weight and fat deposition of their foals from birth to four months of life. Twenty-eight Crioulo mares were evaluated during the final third of gestation, divided into two groups (normal and obese) regarding weight, neck circumference, neck crest height and fat at the tail base, and the relation of these measurements with those of their foals from birth to 120 days old. The obese mares presented higher fat deposition at the tail base in the 2nd month (P< 0.05) and crest of the neck (P= 0.0022) in the 4th month of age. There was positive correlation between height of mare's neck crest and foal weight at birth (P= 0.01, r= 0.54) and body weight of mares between the fat at tail base of foals at birth (P= 0.03, r= 0.49), as well as strong association between fat at the tail base in obese mares with this measurement in their foals at 4 months (P= 0.01, r= 0.71). This difference of adiposity between groups suggests that obese mare's offspring are more likely to accumulate more fat in the first months of life.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Peso Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/veterinária , Gordura Subcutânea , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Adiposo , Hereditariedade , Obesidade Materna/genética
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 411-418, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-29640

RESUMO

Este trabalho investigou a influência da adiposidade em éguas Crioulas gestantes sobre o peso e o acúmulo de gordura de seus potros do nascimento aos quatro meses de vida. Foram avaliadas 28 éguas Crioulas no terço final de gestação, divididas em dois grupos (normais e obesas) quanto ao peso, à circunferência de pescoço, à altura da crista do pescoço e à gordura subcutânea na base da cauda, bem como quanto à relação dessas medidas com as de seus potros, do parto aos 120 dias de idade. Os filhos de éguas obesas apresentaram maior deposição de gordura na base da cauda, no segundo mês (P<0,05), e na crista do pescoço (P=0,0022), no quarto mês de idade. Houve correlação positiva da altura da crista do pescoço da égua com o peso dos potros ao nascer (P=0,01; r= 0,54) e do peso corporal das éguas com gordura na base da cauda dos potros ao nascimento (P=0,03; r=0,49), além de forte associação entre gordura na base da cauda das éguas obesas com essa medida nos seus potros aos quatro meses (P=0,01; r=0,71). Essa diferença entre os grupos de potros quanto à adiposidade sugere que filhos de éguas obesas são mais propensos a acumular mais gordura já nos primeiros meses de vida.(AU)


This work investigated the influence of adiposity on pregnant Crioulo mares on the weight and fat deposition of their foals from birth to four months of life. Twenty-eight Crioulo mares were evaluated during the final third of gestation, divided into two groups (normal and obese) regarding weight, neck circumference, neck crest height and fat at the tail base, and the relation of these measurements with those of their foals from birth to 120 days old. The obese mares presented higher fat deposition at the tail base in the 2nd month (P< 0.05) and crest of the neck (P= 0.0022) in the 4th month of age. There was positive correlation between height of mare's neck crest and foal weight at birth (P= 0.01, r= 0.54) and body weight of mares between the fat at tail base of foals at birth (P= 0.03, r= 0.49), as well as strong association between fat at the tail base in obese mares with this measurement in their foals at 4 months (P= 0.01, r= 0.71). This difference of adiposity between groups suggests that obese mare's offspring are more likely to accumulate more fat in the first months of life.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Peso Corporal , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/veterinária , Gordura Subcutânea , Cavalos/anatomia & histologia , Animais Recém-Nascidos/anatomia & histologia , Tecido Adiposo , Hereditariedade , Obesidade Materna/genética
12.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 24(2): 218-222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Frailty is a common geriatric syndrome, characterized by a decrease in energy reserve and stress resistance, resulting in an accumulated decline of multiple physiological systems and greater vulnerability. Frailty syndrome has a multifactorial etiology involving a biological basis associated with sociobehavioral factors. We verify the association of frailty syndrome with family functionality level, nutritional status and medication adherence in older adults. DESIGN: Observational and analytical study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Conducted at ambulatory the university hospital, with patients aged 60 years or older. MEASUREMENTS: Cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE); nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) and Body Mass Index, BMI; the 5-item FRAIL scale was used for frailty screening; family functioning was assessed using the Family APGAR Index, which evaluates Adaptability, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve; Self-reported medication adherence was measured by the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). RESULTS: The study involved 308 older adults, with a mean age of 70.40 years, There was an association between frailty and highly dysfunctional family with an OR of 5.9 (95% CI 1.9-18.5)(p<0.05), nutritional risk assessed by BMI, where low weight presented an OR of 2.5 (95% CI 1.1-5.8) and obesity an OR of 2.8 (95% CI 1.1-7.0)(P <0.05) and a nutritional risk assessed by MNA with an OR 6.3(95% CI 1.9-20.4) and low medication adherence with an OR of 8.9 (95% CI, 3.6-21.6)(P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Frailty syndrome is associated with high levels of family dysfunction, nutritional risk and poor medication adherence amongst older people.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fragilidade/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal ; 25(2): e283-e290, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967981

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this experimental study was to compare the immunohistochemical expression of SOX2 and BCL-2 in Odontogenic Keratocyst (OKC) and Ameloblastoma (AB) specimens, and to identify a possible correlation in their expression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to evaluate SOX2 and BCL-2 expression in OKC (n = 20) and AB (n = 20). The immunoexpression was analyzed by a quantitative and qualitative scoring system. The comparison between the immunoexpression of SOX 2 and BCL-2 was assessed by the Mann-Whitney U-test. Spearman's correlation coefficient evaluated the correlation between SOX2 and BCL-2 expressions. RESULTS: SOX2 and BCL-2 expression was observed in all specimens of OKC in the full thickness of the epithelium lining. SOX2 immunostaining was higher in OKC, in comparison with AB samples (P<0.05). BCL-2 immunostaining between OKC and AB was not statistically significant. There was no significant correlation between SOX2 and BCL-2 in OKC and AB specimens. CONCLUSIONS: SOX2 and BCL-2 expressions in OKC may suggest their relationship with the biological behavior of this lesion, and the higher expression of SOX2 might be an upstream influence on the Hh signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Ameloblastoma , Cistos Odontogênicos , Tumores Odontogênicos , Humanos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2 , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1
14.
Front Neurosci ; 14: 589897, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33584173

RESUMO

Chronic cocaine use has been shown to lead to neurotoxicity in rodents and humans, being associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. However, recreational use, which may lead to addictive behavior, is often neglected. This occurs, in part, due to the belief that exposure to low doses of cocaine comes with no brain damage risk. Cocaine addicts have shown glucose metabolism changes related to dopamine brain activity and reduced volume of striatal gray matter. This work aims to evaluate the morphological brain changes underlying metabolic and locomotor behavioral outcome, in response to a single low dose of cocaine in a pre-clinical study. In this context, a Balb-c mouse model has been chosen, and animals were injected with a single dose of cocaine (0.5 mg/kg). Control animals were injected with saline. A behavioral test, positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, and anatomopathological studies were conducted with this low dose of cocaine, to study functional, metabolic, and morphological brain changes, respectively. Animals exposed to this cocaine dose showed similar open field activity and brain metabolic activity as compared with controls. However, histological analysis showed alterations in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of mice exposed to cocaine. For the first time, it has been demonstrated that a single low dose of cocaine, which can cause no locomotor behavioral and brain metabolic changes, can induce structural damage. These brain changes must always be considered regardless of the dosage used. It is essential to alert the population even against the consumption of low doses of cocaine.

15.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 396-406, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590802

RESUMO

We determined depth profiles of total mercury (T-Hg) in six 210Pb-dated sediment cores from Todos os Santos Bay to reconstruct the history of anthropogenic Hg accumulation. We also assessed superficial sediments samples from five estuaries. T-Hg concentrations (5-3500 µg kg-1) presented a large spatial and temporal variability. T-Hg concentrations in Ribeira Bay increased up to 200-fold along time, whereas the fluxes of T-Hg are substantially higher (up to 10,000 fold) than present-day wet deposition for industrialized areas. Sedimentary records indicate that a chlor-alkali plant has been the main source of Hg pollution until the present, although the T-Hg records suggest that harbor, shrimp farming, and oil refinery activities, besides Hg atmospheric depositions, are important across the bay. Sediments in the Ribeira Bay act as an important Hg sink. If sediments are eroded or disturbed, they may release Hg, thus posing a serious risk to wildlife and ecosystem health. CAPSULE: Sedimentary cores provide data on preindustrial levels and also anthropogenic fluxes of Hg for the appraisal of the magnitude, processes and potential risks of the contamination.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Atividades Humanas/história , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/história , Baías , Brasil , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluição Ambiental/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
J Pharm Anal ; 9(3): 143-155, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297291

RESUMO

The development of biotechnology-based active pharmaceutical ingredients, such as GLP-1 analogs, brought changes in type 2 diabetes treatment options. For better therapeutic efficiency, these active pharmaceutical ingredients require appropriate administration, without the development of adverse effects or toxicity. Therefore, it is required to develop several quantification methods for GLP-1 analogs products, in order to achieve the therapeutic goals, among which ELISA and HPLC arise. These methods are developed, optimized and validated in order to determine GLP-1 analogs, not only in final formulation of the active pharmaceutical ingredient, but also during preclinical and clinical trials assessment. This review highlights the role of ELISA and HPLC methods that have been used during the assessment for GLP-1 analogs, especially for exenatide.

17.
Environ Geochem Health ; 41(6): 2875-2892, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230341

RESUMO

Soils from the old Mortórios uranium mine area were studied to look for contamination, as they are close to two villages, up to 3 km away, and used for agriculture. They are mainly contaminated in U and As and constitute an ecological threat. This study attempts to outline the degree to which soils have been affected by the old mining activities through the computation of significant hot clusters, Traditional geostatistical approaches commonly use raw data (concentrations) accepting that the analyzed elements represent the soil's entirety. However, in geochemical studies these elements are just a fraction of the total soil composition. Thus, considering compositional data is pivotal. The spatial characterization, considering raw and compositional data together, allowed a broad discussion about not only the concentrations' spatial distribution, but also a better understanding on the possibility of trends of "relative enrichment" and, furthermore an insight in U and As fate. The highest proportions (compositional data) on U (up to 33%), As (up to 35%) and Th (up to 13%) are reached in the south-southeast segment. However, the highest concentrations (raw data) occur in north and northwest of the studied area, pointing out to a "relative enrichment" toward the south-southeast zone. The Mondego Sul area is mainly contaminated in U and As, but also in Co, Cu, Pb and Sb. The Mortórios area is less contaminated than the Mondego Sul area.


Assuntos
Metaloides/análise , Metais/análise , Mineração , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Portugal , Urânio
18.
J Phys Chem A ; 123(24): 5164-5170, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136176

RESUMO

We have performed an experimental investigation into the interaction of vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation with pyridine molecules in the gas phase. Specifically, a double-ion chamber spectrometer was used to measure the absolute photoabsorption cross sections and the photoionization quantum yields from the ionization threshold to 21.5 eV. Moreover, photoionization and neutral-decay cross sections in absolute scale were derived from these data. In addition, the fragmentation pattern was investigated as a function of the photon energy by using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer and the photoelectron-photoion coincidence technique. Thus, the absolute partial ionization cross sections for each ionic fragment were obtained. Comparisons are made with experimental data available in the literature.

19.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 263-272, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-989458

RESUMO

Abstract The distribution of most species occurs in delimited regions with unique characteristics called "centers of endemism". In Eastern Amazon is located the Belém Endemism Center (BEC), one of the most intensely deforested in Brazilian Amazon. Here, we show information about orchid bee assemblages based on historical records from entomological collections. For each species, we calculated occurrence frequency and dominance, and we classified them in 3 statuses: common, intermediate or rare species. Curves of observed and estimated richness were built, based on Jackknife estimator. We found 1,257 specimens from 56 species, constituting records from 1917 to 2009, and one species is a new record for BEC. Higher number of specimens and species was concentrated in a few locations and surveys increased from the 70's. The results suggest a high richness of orchid bees in the BEC, although this scenario is far from what is expected for the entire area. The high occurrence of rare species may be related to their low representativeness in the collections, and the proximity between the areas had favored samplings. Even so, the species list and the conservation status presented here may be useful information in studies comparing past and current orchid bee fauna, and, allied to data on bees' responses to land use changes occurred in BEC over the years, can fit as a basis for defining priority areas for conservation.


Resumo A distribuição da maioria das espécies ocorre em regiões delimitadas com características únicas conhecidas como "centros de endemismo". Na Amazônia Oriental está localizado o Centro de Endemismo Belém (CEB), uma das áreas mais intensivamente desmatadas na Amazônia Brasileira. Aqui, apresentamos informações sobre assembleias de abelhas orquídeas baseadas em registros históricos de coleções entomológicas. Para cada espécie, foram calculadas a frequência de ocorrência e a dominância, classificando-as em 3 estados: espécies comuns, intermediárias ou raras. Foram geradas curvas de riqueza observada e estimada, com base no estimador Jackknife. Encontramos 1.257 espécimes de 56 espécies, constituindo registros de 1917 a 2009, e uma espécie é um novo registro no CEB. Maior número de espécimes e espécies foi concentrado em poucos locais, com intensificação nas coletas a partir dos anos70. Os resultados sugerem alta riqueza de abelhas orquídeas no CEB, embora esse cenário esteja longe do que é esperado para toda a área. A elevada ocorrência de espécies raras pode estar relacionada à baixa representatividade nas coleções e a proximidade entre as áreas favoreceu as amostragens. Mesmo assim, a lista de espécies e o estado de conservação aqui apresentados podem ser informações úteis em estudos interessados em comparar a fauna passada e atual de abelhas das orquídeas e, aliado a dados sobre as respostas das abelhas às mudanças de uso da terra ocorridas no CEB ao longo dos anos, podem servir de base para definição de áreas prioritárias para conservação.


Assuntos
Animais , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Abelhas/classificação , Abelhas/fisiologia , Brasil , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
20.
Sleep Med ; 56: 123-127, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879993

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Several studies reported a high prevalence of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) or restrictive end-stage lung disease (ESLD). Besides the known risk factors for OSA like high Body Mass Index (BMI), reduced static and dynamic volumes for IPF patients and reduced DLCO and low minimal O2 saturation during sleep for ESLD patients were associated with higher Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index (AHI). The aim of our study was to determine potential predictive factors of OSA in patients with Fibrotic Lung Diseases (FLD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 49 patients with FLD and BMI ≤30 kg/m2 were included. All patients underwent portable cardiorespiratory polysomnography (PSG) and were asked to fill in Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Their epidemiological, medication and subsidiary exams data were retrieved from their hospital records. Univariate and multivariate correlation models were obtained. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of patients had an AHI ≥5 events/h. In an univariate correlation model, AHI showed a statistically significant correlation with age, BMI, the duration of immunosuppressant treatment, and Forced Expiratory Volume in the first second (FEV1). Only BMI remained an independent predictor of OSA in a multivariate correlation model adjusted for the other statistically meaningful variables. CONCLUSIONS: FLD patients, in general, show a prevalence of OSA superior to that of the general population. Excess of weight might predict a higher risk for OSA in FLD patients. Larger and more homogenous studies are warranted to clarify the associations between OSA severity and lung function impairment and the duration of immunosuppressant treatment.


Assuntos
Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fibrose Pulmonar Idiopática/epidemiologia , Sarcoidose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA