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1.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35020464

RESUMO

The rate of enteric infections reported to public health surveillance decreased during 2020 amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Changes in medical care-seeking behaviors may have impacted the diagnosis of enteric infections contributing to these declines. We examined trends in outpatient medical care-seeking behavior for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in Colorado during 2020 compared with the that of previous 3 years using electronic health record data from the Colorado Health Observation Regional Data Service (CHORDS). Outpatient medical encounters for AGE were identified using diagnoses codes from the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision and aggregated by year, quarter, age group, and encounter type. The rate of encounters was calculated by dividing the number of AGE encounters by the corresponding total number of encounters. There were 9064 AGE encounters in 2020 compared with an annual average of 18,784 from 2017 to 2019 (p < 0.01), representing a 52% decrease. The rate of AGE encounters declined after the first quarter of 2020 and remained significantly lower for the rest of the year. Moreover, previously observed trends, including seasonal patterns and the preponderance of pediatric encounters, were no longer evident. Telemedicine modalities accounted for 23% of all AGE encounters in 2020. AGE outpatient encounters in Colorado in 2020 were substantially lower than during the previous 3 years. Decreases remained stable over the second, third, and fourth quarters of 2020 (April-December) and were especially pronounced for children <18 years of age. Changes in medical care-seeking behavior likely contributed to declines in the number of enteric disease cases and outbreaks reported to public health. It is unclear to what extent people were ill with AGE and did not seek medical care because of concerns about the infection risk during a health care visit or to what extent there were reductions in certain exposures and opportunities for disease transmission resulting in less illness.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1332-1336, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555002

RESUMO

Foodborne illnesses are a substantial and largely preventable public health problem; before 2020 the incidence of most infections transmitted commonly through food had not declined for many years. To evaluate progress toward prevention of foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food reported by 10 U.S. sites.* FoodNet is a collaboration among CDC, 10 state health departments, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS), and the Food and Drug Administration. This report summarizes preliminary 2020 data and describes changes in incidence with those during 2017-2019. During 2020, observed incidences of infections caused by enteric pathogens decreased 26% compared with 2017-2019; infections associated with international travel decreased markedly. The extent to which these reductions reflect actual decreases in illness or decreases in case detection is unknown. On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. After the declaration, state and local officials implemented stay-at-home orders, restaurant closures, school and child care center closures, and other public health interventions to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Federal travel restrictions were declared (1). These widespread interventions as well as other changes to daily life and hygiene behaviors, including increased handwashing, have likely changed exposures to foodborne pathogens. Other factors, such as changes in health care delivery, health care-seeking behaviors, and laboratory testing practices, might have decreased the detection of enteric infections. As the pandemic continues, surveillance of illness combined with data from other sources might help to elucidate the factors that led to the large changes in 2020; this understanding could lead to improved strategies to prevent illness. To reduce the incidence of these infections concerted efforts are needed, from farm to processing plant to restaurants and homes. Consumers can reduce their risk of foodborne illness by following safe food-handling and preparation recommendations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Conduta Expectante , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 18(12): 841-858, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34529512

RESUMO

Estimates of the overall human health impact of agents transmitted commonly through food complement surveillance and help guide food safety interventions and regulatory initiatives. The purpose of this scoping review was to summarize the methods and reporting practices used in studies that estimate the total number of illnesses caused by these agents. We identified and included 43 studies published from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2019, by searching PubMed and screening selected articles for other relevant publications. Selected articles presented original estimates of the number of illnesses caused by ≥1 agent transmitted commonly through food. The number of agents (species or subspecies for pathogens) included in each study ranged from 1 to 31 (median: 4.5; mean: 9.2). Of the 40 agents assessed across the 43 studies, the most common agent was Salmonella (36; 84% of studies), followed by Campylobacter (33; 77%), Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (25; 58%), and norovirus (20; 47%). Investigators used a variety of data sources and methods that could be grouped into four distinct estimation approaches-direct, surveillance data scaled-up, syndrome or population scaled-down, and inferred. Based on our review, we propose four recommendations to improve the interpretability, comparability, and reproducibility of studies that estimate the number of illnesses caused by agents transmitted commonly through food. These include providing an assessment of statistical and nonstatistical uncertainty, providing a ranking of estimates by agent, including uncertainties; describing the rationale used to select agents and data sources; and publishing raw data and models, along with clear, detailed methods. These recommendations could lead to better decision-making about food safety policies. Although these recommendations have been made in the context of illness estimation for agents transmitted commonly through food, they also apply to estimates of other health outcomes and conditions.

4.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 257(1): 87-96, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess production animal medicine veterinarians' prescription practices and identify factors influencing their use of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) and their perceptions of and attitudes toward antimicrobial resistance (AMR). SAMPLE: 157 production animal veterinarians in the United States. PROCEDURES: An online cross-sectional survey and digital diary were used to gather information regarding perceptions on AMD use and AMR and on treatment recommendations for production setting-specific disease scenarios. Results were compared across respondents grouped by their selected production setting scenarios and reported years as veterinarians. RESULTS: The most commonly selected production setting disease scenarios were dairy cattle (96/157 [61.1%]), backgrounding cattle (32/157 [20.4%]), and feedlot cattle (20/157 [12.7%]). Because few respondents selected swine (5/157 [3.2%]) or poultry (4/157 [2.5%]) scenarios, those responses were excluded from statistical analysis of AMD prescription practices. Most remaining respondents (147/148 [99.3%]) reported that they would recommend AMD treatment for an individual ill animal; however, responses differed for respondents grouped by their selected production setting scenarios and reported years as veterinarians when asked about AMD treatment of an exposed group or high-risk disease-free group. Most respondents reported that government regulations influenced their AMD prescribing, that owner and producer compliance was a veterinary-related factor that contributed to AMR, and that environmental modifications to prevent disease could be effective to mitigate AMR. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results of the present study helped fill important knowledge gaps pertaining to prescription practices and influencing factors for AMD use in production animal medicine and provided baseline information for future assessments. This information could be used to inform future interventions and training tools to mitigate the public health threat of AMR.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Atitude , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Percepção , Prescrições , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suínos
5.
Am J Public Health ; 110(6): 790-795, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298168

RESUMO

Cannabis-infused "edibles" are a popular means of cannabis use, and the variety of edible food products available to consumers continues to grow. Although there has been much discussion on dose standardization, childproof packaging, and the prevention of overconsumption, the important topic of food safety has received less attention.We discuss potential food safety hazards associated with cannabis-infused edible food products, drawing on examples from Colorado, and describe edible-associated foodborne illness outbreaks and other contamination events.It is important for public health agencies, particularly environmental health and enteric disease programs, to be familiar with the cannabis industry, including regulatory partners, signs and symptoms of cannabis ingestion, the scope of edible products sold and consumed, and the food safety risks unique to cannabis products.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos/normas , Uso da Maconha , Saúde Pública , Doces/análise , Doces/normas , Colorado , Humanos , Maconha Medicinal
6.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 17(9): 530-532, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32091947

RESUMO

Many enteric pathogens disproportionately infect children. Hospital discharge data can provide information on severe infections, including cost. However, the diagnosis must be recorded on the discharge record and coded accurately. We estimated the rate of underascertainment in hospital discharge data among children with culture-confirmed Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157 infections using linked laboratory and hospital discharge data from an integrated health care organization. We reviewed the International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revisions, Clinical Modification (ICD-9/10-CM) diagnosis codes on each patient's discharge record. We determined the percentage of patients who had a pathogen-specific diagnosis code (for Campylobacter, Salmonella, or E. coli O157) or nonspecific gastroenteritis code. We included the first admission or positive test and calculated the number of days between specimen submission (outpatient ≤7 days before admission or inpatient) and hospital discharge. Of 65 hospitalized children with culture-confirmed Campylobacter (n = 30), Salmonella (n = 24), or E. coli O157 (n = 11) infections, 55% had that pathogen-specific diagnosis code listed on the discharge record (79% Salmonella, 54% E. coli O157, 37% Campylobacter). The discharge records of the 35 children with a specimen submitted for culture ≥3 days before discharge were 16 times more likely to have a pathogen-specific diagnosis than the records of the 30 children with a specimen submitted <3 days before discharge (83% vs. 23%; odds ratio 15.9, 95% confidence interval: 4.7-53.8). Overall, 34% of records of children with culture-confirmed infection had ≥1 nonspecific gastroenteritis code (Campylobacter 43%, Salmonella 29%, E. coli O157 18%), including 59% of those for children without a pathogen-specific diagnosis (Campylobacter 63%; Salmonella 60%; E. coli O157 40%). This study showed that hospital discharge data under-ascertain enteric illnesses in children even when the infections are culture confirmed, especially for infections that usually have a short length of stay.


Assuntos
Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/diagnóstico , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Alta do Paciente , Campylobacter , Criança , Criança Hospitalizada , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Escherichia coli O157 , Gastroenterite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Salmonella
7.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 17(1): 23-28, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509036

RESUMO

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is sometimes preceded by Campylobacter infection. We estimated the cumulative incidence of Campylobacter-associated GBS in the United States using a retrospective cohort design. We identified a cohort of patients with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis code of "intestinal infection due to Campylobacter" (008.43) using MarketScan Research Databases for 2004-2013. Campylobacter patients with an encounter for "acute infective polyneuritis" (AIP; ICD-9-CM 357.0) were identified. Patients with an inpatient encounter having AIP as the principal diagnosis were considered probable GBS cases. Patients with probable GBS ≤8 weeks after the Campylobacter encounter were considered probable Campylobacter-associated GBS cases. For comparison, we repeated this analysis for patients with "other Salmonella infections" (ICD-9-CM: 003). Among 9315 Campylobacter patients, 16 met the case definition for probable GBS. Two were hospitalized with probable GBS ≤8 weeks after the encounter listing a Campylobacter diagnosis (9 and 54 days) and were considered probable cases of Campylobacter-associated GBS; this results in an estimated cumulative incidence of 21.5 per 100,000 Campylobacter patients (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-86.6), or 5% of all estimated GBS cases. The remaining 14 patients were diagnosed with probable GBS on the same encounter (n = 12) or 1-3 days (n = 2), before the encounter listing the Campylobacter diagnosis. Including these cases increased the cumulative incidence to 172 per 100,000 Campylobacter cases (95% CI: 101.7-285.5), 41% of estimated GBS cases. This study, using a method not previously applied to United States data, supports other data that Campylobacter is an important contributor to GBS, accounting for at least 5% and possibly as many as 41% of all GBS cases. These data can be used to inform estimates of the burden of Campylobacter infections, including economic cost.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/complicações , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Campylobacter/economia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/complicações , Síndrome de Guillain-Barré/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(10): 1649-1656, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is an important sequela of Campylobacter infection. Our goal is to estimate the incidence of Campylobacter-associated PI-IBS in the United States. METHODS: Data from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014, were obtained from the MarketScan Research Commercial Claims and Encounters Database. We identified patients with an encounter that included an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis code for "intestinal infection due to Campylobacter" (008.43) and individually matched them (on age group, sex, and length of enrollment) to a group of persons without a diagnosed Campylobacter infection (non-cases). The primary outcome of interest was a new diagnosis of IBS (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification 564.1). RESULTS: Our final matched cohort included 4,143 cases and 20,491 non-cases. At 1 year, the incidence rate of IBS was 33.1 and 5.9 per 1,000 among cases and non-cases, respectively, with an unadjusted risk ratio of 5.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3-7.3). After adjusting for healthcare utilization, the Cox proportional hazard ratio was 4.6 (95% CI: 3.5-6.1). Excluding those who received an IBS diagnosis within 90 days, the 1-year incidence rate of IBS was 16.7 and 3.9 per 1,000 among cases and non-cases, respectively, with an unadjusted risk ratio of 4.3 (95% CI: 3.0-6.2). DISCUSSION: Persons with a Campylobacter infection have a much higher risk of developing IBS compared with those not diagnosed with Campylobacter infection. The burden of Campylobacter-associated PI-IBS should be considered when assessing the overall impact of Campylobacter infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/complicações , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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