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J Exp Biol ; 226(6)2023 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36779237


Fish swimming modes and the shape of both the fins and body are expected to affect their swimming ability under different flow conditions. These swimming strategies and body morphologies often correspond to distributional patterns of distinct functional groups exposed to natural and variable water flows. In this study, we used a swimming-respirometer to measure energetic costs during prolonged, steady swimming and while station holding in a range of simulated oscillatory wave-surge water flows, within the natural range of flow speeds and wave frequencies on coral reefs. We quantified the net cost of swimming (NCOS, metabolic costs above resting) for four reef fish species with differences in swimming mode and morphologies of the fin and body: a body and caudal fin (BCF) swimmer, the Hawaiian flagtail, Kuhlia xenura, and three pectoral fin swimmers, the kole tang, Ctenochaetus strigosus, the saddle wrasse, Thalassoma duperrey, and the Indo-Pacific sergeant major, Abudefduf vaigiensis. We found that the BCF swimmer had the highest rates of increase in NCOS with increasing wave frequency (i.e. increased turning frequency) compared with the pectoral fin swimmers. The wrasse, with a more streamlined, higher body fineness, had lower rates of increase in NCOS with increasing swimming speeds than the low body fineness species, but overall had the highest swimming NCOS, which may be a result of a higher aerobic swimming capacity. The deep-bodied (low fineness) pectoral fin swimmers (A. vaigiensis and C. strigosus) were the most efficient at station holding in oscillating, wave-surge water flows.

Perciformes , Natação , Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Nadadeiras de Animais , Água , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
J Exp Biol ; 224(Pt 3)2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431597


Fast escape responses to a predator threat are fundamental to the survival of mobile marine organisms. However, elasmobranchs are often underrepresented in such studies. Here, we measured the escape latency (time interval between the stimulus and first visible reaction) of mechanically induced escape responses in the Pacific spiny dogfish, Squalus suckleyi, and in two teleosts from the same region, the great sculpin, Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus, and the pile perch, Rhacochilus vacca We found that the dogfish had a longer minimum latency (66.7 ms) compared with that for the great sculpin (20.8 ms) and pile perch (16.7 ms). Furthermore, the dogfish had a longer latency than that of 48 different teleosts identified from 35 different studies. We suggest such long latencies in dogfish may be due to the absence of Mauthner cells, the giant neurons that control fast escape responses in fishes.

Squalus acanthias , Squalus , Animais , Cação (Peixe) , Peixes
J Exp Biol ; 223(Pt 6)2020 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041805


Unsteady, dynamic flow regimes commonly found in shallow marine ecosystems such as coral reefs pose an energetic challenge for mobile organisms that typically depend on station-holding for fitness-related activities. The majority of experimental studies, however, have measured energetic costs of locomotion at steady speeds, with only a few studies measuring the effects of oscillatory flows. In this study, we used a bidirectional swimming respirometer to create six oscillatory water flow regimes consisting of three frequency and amplitude combinations for both unidirectional and bidirectional oscillatory flows. Using the goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus, a pectoral-fin (labriform) swimmer, we quantified the net cost of swimming (swimming metabolic rate minus standard metabolic rate) associated with station-holding under these various conditions. We determined that the swimming costs of station-holding in the bidirectional flow regime increased by 2-fold compared with costs based on swimming over the same range of speeds at steady velocities. Furthermore, as we found minimal differences in energetic costs associated with station-holding in the unidirectional, oscillating flow compared with that predicted from steady swimming costs, we conclude that the added acceleration costs are minimal, while the act of turning is an energetically expensive endeavor for this reef fish species.

Perciformes , Natação , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Ecossistema , Peixes , Água