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1.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 70(6): 407-412, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133659

RESUMO

Inactivation of Bacillales and Clostridiales spores is of interest, since some cause food spoilage and human diseases. A recent publication (mSphere 3: e00597-1, 2018) reported that glycerol monolaurate (GML) in a non-aqueous gel (GMLg) effectively killed spores of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Clostridioides difficile, and Bacillus anthracis spores to a lesser extent. We now show that (i) the B. subtilis spores prepared as in the prior work were impure; (ii) if spore viability was measured by diluting spores 1/10 in GMLg, serially diluting incubations 10-fold and spotting aliquots on recovery plates, there was no colony formation from the 1/10 to 1/1000 dilutions due to GMLg carryover, although thorough ethanol washes of incubated spores eliminated this problem and (iii) GMLg did not kill highly purified spores of B. subtilis, B. cereus, Bacillus megaterium and C. difficile in 3-20 h in the conditions used in the recent publication. GMLg also gave no killing of crude B. subtilis spores prepared as in the recent publication in 5 h but gave ~1·5 log killing at 24 h. Thus, GMLg does not appear to be an effective sporicide, although the gel likely inhibits spore germination and could kill spores somewhat upon long incubations. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Given potential deleterious effects of spores of Bacillales and Clostridiales, there is an ongoing interest in new ways of spore killing. A recent paper (mSphere 3: e00597-1, 2018) reported that glycerol monolaurate (GML) in a non-aqueous gel (GMLg) effectively killed spores of many species. We now find that (i) the Bacillus subtilis spores prepared as in the previous report were impure and (ii) GMLg gave no killing of purified spores of Bacillales and Clostridiales species in ≤5 h under the published conditions. Thus, GMLg is not an effective sporicide, though may prevent spore germination or kill germinated spores.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bacillales/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridiales/efeitos dos fármacos , Lauratos/farmacologia , Monoglicerídeos/farmacologia , Esporos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Esporos Bacterianos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus megaterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridiales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clostridioides difficile/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Géis/farmacologia
2.
Protein Eng Des Sel ; 26(2): 133-42, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23161916

RESUMO

Superantigens (SAgs) are a class of immunostimulatory exotoxins that activate large numbers of T cells, leading to overproduction of cytokines and subsequent inflammatory reactions and systemic toxicity. Staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC), a SAg secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, has been implicated in various illnesses including non-menstrual toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and necrotizing pneumonia. SEC has been shown to cause TSS illness in rabbits and the toxin contributes to lethality associated with methicillin-resistant S.aureus (MRSA) in a rabbit model of pneumonia. With the goal of reducing morbidity and mortality associated with SEC, a high-affinity variant of the extracellular variable domain of the T-cell receptor beta-chain for SEC (~14 kDa) was generated by directed evolution using yeast display. This protein was characterized biochemically and shown to cross-react with the homologous (65% identical) SAg staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). The soluble, high-affinity T-cell receptor protein neutralized SEC and SEB in vitro and also significantly reduced the bacterial burden of an SEC-positive strain of MRSA (USA400 MW2) in an infective endocarditis model. The neutralizing agent also prevented lethality due to MW2 in a necrotizing pneumonia rabbit model. These studies characterize a soluble high-affinity neutralizing agent against SEC, which is cross-reactive with SEB, and that has potential to be used intravenously with antibiotics to manage staphylococcal diseases that involve these SAgs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Enterotoxinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/administração & dosagem , Superantígenos/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Antibacterianos/química , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Visualização da Superfície Celular , Evolução Molecular Direcionada , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite Bacteriana/imunologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/metabolismo , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/imunologia , Pneumonia Estafilocócica/microbiologia , Ligação Proteica , Engenharia de Proteínas , Coelhos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/biossíntese , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/química , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Superantígenos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
3.
Br J Dermatol ; 161(2): 435-43, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19416245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colonization with Staphylococcus aureus in atopic dermatitis (AD) is often associated with worsening of clinical symptoms. Staphylococcus aureus produces superantigens that contribute to cutaneous inflammation and corticosteroid (CS) resistance. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between CS insensitivity, S. aureus colonization and superantigen production in AD, and to explore the efficacy of pimecrolimus cream in CS-insensitive AD. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicentre, parallel-group study. Seventy-three patients with AD, aged 2-49 years, who had a documented clinical insensitivity to topical CS, were recruited. The primary efficacy parameters combined laboratory (including S. aureus colonization, superantigens) and clinical assessments [including Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI), whole body Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA), pruritus assessment score, patient's assessment score of disease control]. RESULTS: An increase in S. aureus counts correlated with worsening of clinical score (week 6 vs. baseline) when assessed by IGA, pruritus severity and patient assessment. The presence of superantigens correlated with this worsening. During the 6-week double-blind phase, disease improvement in the pimecrolimus cream group was demonstrated by decreasing EASI scores compared with vehicle. Mean EASI scores for the head and neck showed greater improvement in the pimecrolimus cream group than in the vehicle group at all observed time points. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of patients with clinical insensitivity to CS there was a significant positive correlation between S. aureus and disease severity. Results suggest that for some of these patients, treatment with pimecrolimus cream 1% is useful, especially in the head/neck area.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Tacrolimo/análogos & derivados , Administração Cutânea , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Resistência a Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veículos Farmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Superantígenos/imunologia , Tacrolimo/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Microbiol Methods ; 57(2): 283-8, 2004 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15063069

RESUMO

Human behaviours and consumer products may affect vaginal microbial ecology, thereby influencing women's health. Relevant experimentation systems are needed to understand such possible links. Here, we describe the development of a practical semi-solid in vitro model to assess the effects of interactions between vaginal environment and the presence of tampons, on bacterial communities, including the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) by Staphylococcus aureus.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/biossíntese , Enterotoxinas/biossíntese , Modelos Biológicos , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Superantígenos/biossíntese , Feminino , Humanos , Menstruação , Tampões Cirúrgicos/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia
6.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 47(1): 196-203, 2003 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12499191

RESUMO

Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is a growing public health concern that has been associated with pediatric fatalities. It is hypothesized that the evolution of CA-MRSA is a recent event due to the acquisition of mec DNA by previously methicillin-susceptible strains that circulated in the community. This study investigated the genetic relatedness between CA-MRSA, hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA), and nonmenstrual toxic shock syndrome (nmTSS) isolates. Thirty-one of 32 CA-MRSA isolates were highly related as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and spa typing yet were distinguishable from 32 HA-MRSA strains. The 31 related CA-MRSA isolates produced either staphylococcal enterotoxin B (n = 5) or C (n = 26), and none made TSS toxin 1. All CA-MRSA isolates tested contained a type IV staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element. In comparison, none of the HA-MRSA isolates (n = 32) expressed the three superantigens. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns were different between the CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA isolates; CA-MRSA was typically resistant only to beta-lactam antibiotics. Six of twenty-one nmTSS isolates were indistinguishable or highly related to the CA-MRSA isolates. MnCop, an nmTSS isolate obtained in Alabama in 1986, was highly related to the CA-MRSA isolates except that it did not contain an SCCmec element. These data suggest that CA-MRSA strains may represent a new acquisition of SCCmec DNA in a previously susceptible genetic background that was capable of causing nmTSS. CA-MRSA poses a serious health risk not only because it is resistant to the antibiotics of choice for community-acquired staphylococcal infections but also because of its ability to cause nmTSS via superantigen production.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/genética , Infecção Hospitalar/genética , Índios Norte-Americanos/genética , Resistência a Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Humanos , Nebraska , Fenótipo , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
7.
Obstet Gynecol ; 98(5 Pt 2): 959-61, 2001 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11704221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laminaria tents used to facilitate surgical abortion are rarely associated with significant infectious morbidity. CASE: A parous woman in midpregnancy had laminaria placed in her cervix followed by a second set after 24 hours. Eight hours later, she presented with dyspnea, hives, fever, tachycardia, and hypotension. Antibiotic treatment was initiated and a dilation and evacuation procedure was performed. Amniotic membrane cultures showed a heavy growth of Staphylococcus aureus with staphylococcal enterotoxin C expression, compatible with toxic shock syndrome. CONCLUSION: Laminaria cervical dilation might be associated with toxic shock syndrome.


Assuntos
Laminaria , Choque Séptico/etiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/etiologia , Aborto Induzido , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 108(4 Suppl): S107-10, 2001 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11586276

RESUMO

Pyrogenic toxin superantigens comprise a large family of exotoxins made by Staphylococcus aureus and group A streptococci. These toxins include toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, the staphylococcal enterotoxins, and the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (synonyms: scarlet fever toxins and erythrogenic toxins), all of which have the ability to cause toxic shock syndromes and related illnesses. These toxins have a similar three-dimensional structure that allows them to interact with relatively invariant regions of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and with certain variable regions of the T-cell receptor-beta chain. The consequence of these interactions (and other immunobiological properties of the toxins) is the exaggerated release of bioactive cytokines. The latter molecules are responsible for the clinical signs of illness associated with these toxins.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Choque Séptico/terapia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/terapia , Superantígenos/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/terapia , Psoríase/terapia , Pirogênios/imunologia
9.
Infect Immun ; 69(11): 7169-72, 2001 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11598096

RESUMO

Host susceptibility to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is correlated with the levels of circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) that develop in response to circulating LPS. Mice are resistant, relative to rabbits, to the lethal effects of LPS. This study indicates that mice and rabbits are equally sensitive to the lethal effects of circulating TNF-alpha but that mice are more resistant than rabbits to the induction of circulating TNF-alpha by LPS.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Enterotoxinas/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Superantígenos/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Enterotoxinas/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Coelhos , Salmonella typhimurium , Superantígenos/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Annu Rev Microbiol ; 55: 77-104, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11544350

RESUMO

Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is an acute onset illness characterized by fever, rash formation, and hypotension that can lead to multiple organ failure and lethal shock, as well as desquamation in patients that recover. The disease is caused by bacterial superantigens (SAGs) secreted from Staphylococcus aureus and group A streptococci. SAGs bypass normal antigen presentation by binding to class II major histocompatibility complex molecules on antigen-presenting cells and to specific variable regions on the beta-chain of the T-cell antigen receptor. Through this interaction, SAGs activate T cells at orders of magnitude above antigen-specific activation, resulting in massive cytokine release that is believed to be responsible for the most severe features of TSS. This review focuses on clinical and epidemiological aspects of TSS, as well as important developments in the genetics, biochemistry, immunology, and structural biology of SAGs. From the evolutionary relationships between these important toxins, we propose that there are five distinct groups of SAGs.


Assuntos
Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Superantígenos/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Alinhamento de Sequência , Choque Séptico/diagnóstico , Choque Séptico/epidemiologia , Superantígenos/química , Superantígenos/genética
11.
Infect Immun ; 69(5): 3305-14, 2001 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11292753

RESUMO

The aggregation substance (AS) surface protein from Enterococcus faecalis has been implicated as an important virulence factor for the development of infective endocarditis. To evaluate the role of antibodies specific for Asc10 (the AS protein from the conjugative plasmid pCF10) in protective immunity to infective endocarditis, an N-terminal region of Asc10 lacking the signal peptide and predicted to be surface exposed (amino acids 44 to 331; AS(44-331)) was cloned with a C-terminal histidine tag translational fusion and expressed from Escherichia coli. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the purified protein revealed the correct sequence, and rabbit polyclonal antisera raised against AS(44-331) reacted specifically to Asc10 expressed from E. faecalis OG1SSp, but not to other proteins as judged by Western blot analysis. Using these antisera, flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that antibodies to AS(44-331) bound to a surface-exposed region of Asc10. Furthermore, antibodies specific for AS(44-331) were opsonic for E. faecalis expressing Asc10 in vitro but not for cells that did not express Asc10. New Zealand White rabbits immunized with AS(44-331) were challenged intravenously with E. faecalis cells constitutively expressing Asc10 in the rabbit model of experimental endocarditis. Highly immune animals did not show significant differences in clearance of organisms from the blood or spleen or in formation of vegetations on the aortic valve, in comparison with nonimmune animals. Although in vivo expression of Asc10 was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, these experiments provide evidence that immunity to Asc10 does not play a role in protection from experimental infective endocarditis due to E. faecalis and may have important implications for the development of immunological approaches to combat enterococcal endocarditis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/prevenção & controle , Enterococcus faecalis/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Imunização , Antígeno de Macrófago 1/fisiologia , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Fagocitose , Coelhos
12.
J Bacteriol ; 183(4): 1113-23, 2001 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11157922

RESUMO

We have previously demonstrated that the presence of oxygen is necessary for the production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) by Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. To investigate the mechanism by which oxygen might regulate toxin production, we identified homologs in S. aureus of the Bacillus subtilis resDE genes. The two-component regulatory system encoded by resDE, ResD-ResE, has been implicated in the global regulation of aerobic and anaerobic respiratory metabolism in B. subtilis. We have designated the S. aureus homologs srrAB (staphylococcal respiratory response). The effects of srrAB expression on expression of RNAIII (the effector molecule of the agr locus) and on production of TSST-1 (an exotoxin) and protein A (a surface-associated virulence factor) were investigated. Expression of RNAIII was inversely related to expression of srrAB. Disruption of srrB resulted in increased levels of RNAIII, while expression of srrAB in trans on a multicopy plasmid resulted in repression of RNAIII transcription, particularly in microaerobic conditions. Disruption of srrB resulted in decreased production of TSST-1 under microaerobic conditions and, to a lesser extent, under aerobic conditions as well. Overexpression of srrAB resulted in nearly complete repression of TSST-1 production in both microaerobic and aerobic conditions. Protein A production by the srrB mutant was upregulated in microaerobic conditions and decreased in aerobic conditions. Protein A production was restored to nearly wild-type levels by complementation of srrAB into the null mutant. These results indicate that the putative two-component system encoded by srrAB, SrrA-SrrB, acts in the global regulation of staphylococcal virulence factors, and may repress virulence factors under low-oxygen conditions. Furthermore, srrAB may provide a mechanistic link between respiratory metabolism, environmental signals, and regulation of virulence factors in S. aureus.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Enterotoxinas/biossíntese , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Aerobiose , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anaerobiose , Toxinas Bacterianas/biossíntese , Sequência de Bases , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Mutagênese , Proteínas Repressoras/biossíntese , Transdução de Sinais , Superantígenos/biossíntese , Virulência/genética
13.
Immunity ; 14(1): 93-104, 2001 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11163233

RESUMO

MHC class II molecules possess two binding sites for bacterial superantigens (SAGs): a low-affinity site on the alpha chain and a high-affinity, zinc-dependent site on the beta chain. Only the former has been defined crystallographically. We report the structure of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SPE-C) complexed with HLA-DR2a (DRA*0101, DRB5*0101) bearing a self-peptide from myelin basic protein (MBP). SPE-C binds the beta chain through a zinc bridge that links the SAG and class II molecules. Surprisingly, SPE-C also makes extensive contacts with the MBP peptide, such that peptide accounts for one third of the surface area of the MHC molecule buried in the complex, similar to TCR-peptide/MHC complexes. Thus, SPE-C may optimize T cell responses by mimicking the peptide dependence of conventional antigen presentation and recognition.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Exotoxinas/química , Antígeno HLA-DR2/química , Proteínas de Membrana , Superantígenos/química , Zinco/imunologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Sítios de Ligação , Cristalografia por Raios X , Exotoxinas/imunologia , Antígeno HLA-DR2/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Proteína Básica da Mielina/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Superantígenos/imunologia
14.
Infect Immun ; 69(3): 1256-64, 2001 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11179286

RESUMO

The superantigenic function of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) is generally regarded as an important determinant of its lethal effects in humans or experimental animals. This study examined the role of superantigenicity in a BALB/c mouse model of lethal TSST-1-induced hypersensitivity to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this model, TSST-1 greatly potentiated both LPS-induced lethality, as well as LPS-induced serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) activity. Although BALB/c-SCID mice were resistant to these LPS enhancement effects of TSST-1, BALB/c-SCID mice reconstituted with T cells were completely susceptible to the enhancement effect of TSST-1 on LPS-induced serum TNF-alpha. Mice pretreated with cyclosporine (Cs) or neutralizing antibodies against gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) did not develop lethal LPS hypersensitivity when injected with TSST-1, and these agents reduced the enhancement effect of TSST-1 on LPS-induced serum TNF-alpha by 99 and 85%, respectively. Cs pretreatment also completely inhibited the known capacity of TSST-1 to amplify LPS-induced levels of IFN-gamma in serum. In contrast, mice given Cs after a priming injection of TSST-1, but before LPS, still exhibited lethal hypersensitivity to LPS. Cs given after TSST-1 also did not inhibit enhancement of LPS-induced serum TNF-alpha by TSST-1 but inhibited the enhancement effect of TSST-1 on LPS-induced serum IFN-gamma by 50%. These experiments support the theory that TSST-1-induced hypersensitivity to LPS is mediated primarily by IFN-gamma derived from superantigen-activated T cells.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Enterotoxinas/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/etiologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Ciclosporina/farmacologia , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade/mortalidade , Interferon gama/imunologia , Transfusão de Linfócitos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos SCID , Superantígenos/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
15.
Infect Immun ; 69(3): 1381-8, 2001 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11179302

RESUMO

Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is a highly lethal, acute-onset illness that is a subset of invasive streptococcal disease. The majority of clinical STSS cases have been associated with the pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAgs) streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A or C (SPE A or C), although cases have been reported that are not associated with either of these exotoxins. Recent genome sequencing projects have revealed a number of open reading frames that potentially encode proteins with similarity to SPEs A and C and to other PTSAgs. Here, we describe the cloning, expression, purification, and functional characterization of a novel exotoxin termed streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin J (SPE J). Purified recombinant SPE J (rSPE J) expressed from Escherichia coli stimulated the expansion of both rabbit splenocytes and human peripheral blood lymphocytes, preferentially expanded human T cells displaying Vbeta2, -3, -12, -14, and -17 on their T-cell receptors, and was active at concentrations as low as 5 x 10(-6) microg/ml. Furthermore, rSPE J induced fevers in rabbits and was lethal in two models of STSS. Biochemically, SPE J had a predicted molecular weight of 24,444 and an isoelectric point of 7.7 and lacked the ability to form the cystine loop structure characteristic of many PTSAgs. SPE J shared 19.6, 47.1, 38.8, 18.1, 19.6, and 24.4% identity with SPEs A, C, G, and H, streptococcal superantigen, and streptococcal mitogenic exotoxin Z-2, respectively, and was immunologically cross-reactive with SPE C. The characterization of a seventh functional streptococcal PTSAg raises important questions relating to the evolution of the streptococcal superantigens.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Exotoxinas/genética , Pirogênios/genética , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Superantígenos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Reações Cruzadas , Evolução Molecular , Exotoxinas/toxicidade , Febre , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Pirogênios/classificação , Pirogênios/toxicidade , Coelhos , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/toxicidade , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/imunologia , Staphylococcus/patogenicidade , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/patogenicidade , Superantígenos/classificação , Superantígenos/toxicidade
16.
Infect Immun ; 69(3): 1521-7, 2001 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11179322

RESUMO

The present study identified and characterized a unique operon (spl) encoding six serine protease-like proteins. In addition, native Spl proteins were isolated and characterized. Typical of most exoproteins, the spl gene products contain putative 35- or 36-amino-acid signal peptides. The Spl proteins share 44 to 95% amino acid sequence identity with each other and 33 to 36% sequence identity with V8 protease. They also contain amino acids found in catalytic triads of enzymes in the trypsin-like serine protease family, and SplB and SplC were shown to degrade casein. The spl operon is transcribed on a 5.5-kb transcript, but several nonrandom degradation products of this transcript were also identified. Similar to other S. aureus exoprotein genes, the spl operon is maximally expressed during the transition into stationary phase and is positively controlled by the Agr virulence factor regulator. The Sar regulatory system did not affect spl operon expression. PCR analysis revealed the presence of the spl operon in 64% of the S. aureus isolates tested, although one spl operon-negative isolate was shown to contain at least two of the spl genes. Finally, intraperitoneal injection of an spl operon deletion mutant revealed no major differences in virulence compared to the parental strain.


Assuntos
Óperon/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Genes Bacterianos , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Análise de Sequência de Proteína , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Serina Endopeptidases/isolamento & purificação , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/enzimologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética
17.
Infect Immun ; 69(1): 360-6, 2001 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11119525

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen which is implicated in a wide variety of diseases. Major determinants of the virulence of this organism include extracellular virulence factors. Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are important causative agents in staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning. Our study identified a novel enterotoxin, SEK, and examined its biochemical and biological properties. SEK had a molecular weight of 26,000 and an experimentally determined pI of between 7.0 and 7.5. SEK was secreted by clinical isolates of S. aureus. We demonstrated that SEK had many of the biological activities associated with the SEs, including superantigenicity, pyrogenicity, the ability to enhance the lethal effect of endotoxin, and lethality in a rabbit model when administered by subcutaneous miniosmotic pump. Recombinant SEK was shown to stimulate human CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in a Vbeta-specific manner; T-cells bearing Vbeta 5.1, 5.2, and 6.7 were significantly stimulated to proliferate.


Assuntos
Enterotoxinas/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Enterotoxinas/química , Enterotoxinas/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Coelhos , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T alfa-beta/análise , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Superantígenos/farmacologia
18.
J Mol Evol ; 51(6): 520-31, 2000 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11116326

RESUMO

Pathogenic bacteria have evolved a wide variety of toxins to invade and attack host organisms. In particular, strains of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes produce a family of pyrogenic toxin superantigens (PTSAgs) that can cause illness, e.g., toxic shock syndrome, or synergize with a number of other immune system disorders. The PTSAgs are all similar in size and have a conserved two-domain tertiary fold despite minimal amino acid sequence identity. The tertiary structure of PTSAg domain 1 is similar to the immunoglobulin binding motif of streptococcal proteins G and L. PTSAg domain 2 resembles members of the oligosaccharide/oligonucleotide binding fold family that includes the B subunits of the AB(5) heat-labile enterotoxins, cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and verotoxin. The strong structural homology between the pyrogenic toxins and other bacterial proteins suggests that the PTSAgs evolved through the recombination of two smaller beta-strand motifs.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Streptococcus pyogenes/genética , Superantígenos/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Enterotoxinas/química , Enterotoxinas/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Superantígenos/química
19.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 192(1): 1-7, 2000 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11040420

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence implicates streptococcal and staphylococcal superantigens in the development of psoriasis, atopic dermatitis and Kawasaki syndrome. In each of these illnesses, an abnormal state of immunologic activity is observed. Superantigens, which have a unique ability to activate large numbers of lymphocytes, are likely to contribute to these disorders in a number of ways. The demonstrated activities of bacterial superantigens include increasing the number of circulating lymphocytes, with activation of autoreactive subsets, upregulation of tissue homing receptors on circulating lymphocytes, and local activation of immune cells within affected tissues. Through these and other mechanisms, superantigens have a proven ability to induce high levels of inflammatory cytokines and/or initiate autoimmune responses that contribute to the development of skin and vascular disorders. Though development of the illnesses discussed in this review are highly complex processes, superantigens may well play a critical role in their onset or maintenance. Understanding superantigen function may elucidate potential therapeutic strategies for these disorders.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/imunologia , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/imunologia , Psoríase/imunologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Streptococcus pyogenes/imunologia , Superantígenos/imunologia , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Humanos , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/microbiologia , Psoríase/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Streptococcus pyogenes/patogenicidade
20.
Protein Sci ; 9(9): 1847-51, 2000 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11045630

RESUMO

The streptococcal pyrogenic toxins A, B, and C (SPEA, SPEB, and SPEC) are responsible for the fever, rash, and other toxicities associated with scarlet fever and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. This role, together with the ubiquity of diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, have prompted structural analyses of SPEA by several groups. Papageorgiou et al. (1999) have recently reported the structure of SPEA crystallized in the absence of zinc. Zinc has been shown to be important in the ability of some staphylococcal and streptococcal toxins to stimulate proliferation of CD4+ T-cells. Since cadmium is more electron dense than zinc and typically binds interchangeably, we grew crystals in the presence of 10 mM CdCl2. Crystals have been obtained in three space groups, and the structure in the P2(1)2(1)2(1) crystal form has been refined to 1.9 A resolution. The structural analysis revealed an identical tetramer as well as a novel tetrahedral cluster of cadmium in all three crystal forms on a disulfide loop encompassing residues 87-98. No cadmium was bound at the site homologous to the zinc site in staphylococcal enterotoxins C (SECs) despite the high structural homology between SPEA and SECs. Subsequent soaking of crystals grown in the presence of cadmium in 10 mM ZnCl2 showed that zinc binds in this site (indicating it can discriminate between zinc and cadmium ions) using the three ligands (Asp77, His106, and His110) homologous to the SECs plus a fourth ligand (Glu33).


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Exotoxinas/química , Proteínas de Membrana , Metais/química , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica
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