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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244977, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285621

RESUMO

Abstract Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the serious global public health burden of liver disease. Approximately 170 million people in the world are infected with (HCV). In Pakistan, where the disease has high occurrence rate. The present study envisages an up-to-date prevalence of HCV and genotypic distribution in the general population of Mardan District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan. The blood samples from 6,538 individuals including 3,263 males and 3,275 females were analyzed for hepatitis C surface antigen by Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was found that 396 (12.13%) out of 3263 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HCV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HCV antibodies were found in the 31-40 age group (11.01%). The ICT positive samples were further screened by nested PCR to determine the existence of active HCV-RNA. It was identified that 7.11% (3263) of the total population (6538) tested was positive, among which the 461 (14.07%) females possessed antibodies in their blood against HCV. Our data showed total HCV infection in the investigated population was 5.78%. Higher percentage of HCV prevalence was detected in males than females in the age group 31-40 and 41-50. To compare the prevalence of HCV genotypes age-wise in male and female genotype 3a was found most prevalent genotype followed by 1a, 2a and 3b, respectively.


Resumo O vírus da hepatite C (HCV) é o grave problema de saúde pública das doenças hepáticas. Aproximadamente 170 milhões de pessoas no mundo estão infectadas com HCV; no Paquistão, a doença tem alto índice de ocorrência. O presente estudo prevê uma prevalência atualizada do HCV e distribuição genotípica na população geral do distrito de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Paquistão. As amostras de sangue de 6.538 indivíduos, incluindo 3.263 homens e 3.275 mulheres, foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite C por teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) e reação em cadeia da polimerase de transcrição reversa (PCR). Verificou-se que 396 (12,13%) de 3.263 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV, enquanto entre as diferentes faixas etárias as maiores incidências de anticorpos anti-HCV foram encontradas na faixa etária de 31 a 40 anos (11,01%). As amostras positivas para ICT foram posteriormente rastreadas por nested PCR para determinar a existência de HCV-RNA ativo. Identificou-se que 7,11% (3.263) do total da população (6.538) testada foram positivos, dentre os quais 461 (14,07%) mulheres possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra o HCV. Nossos dados mostraram que a infecção total pelo HCV na população investigada foi de 5,78%. Maior porcentagem de prevalência de HCV foi detectada em homens do que em mulheres nas faixas etárias de 31-40 e 41-50. Para comparar a prevalência de genótipos de HCV com relação à idade no genótipo masculino e feminino 3a foi encontrado o genótipo mais prevalente seguido por 1a, 2a e 3b, respectivamente.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231509, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249242

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was aimed at comparing the brain size of mahseer (Tor putitora) in relation to their body weight and standard length, to investigate the potential impact of rearing environment on brain development in fish. The weight of the brain and three of its subdivisions cerebellum (CB), optic tectum (OT), and telencephalon (TC) were measured for both wild and hatchery-reared fish. The data was analysed using multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and discriminate function analysis (DFA). We found the fish reared under hatchery conditions exhibit smaller brain size related to body weight, when compared to the wild ones. A significant (p<0.5) difference was observed in the length of CB and OT concerning the standard body length while no significant difference was found in TC of the fish from both the origins. The results of the current study highlight a logical assumption that neural deficiency affects the behaviour of fish, that's why the captive-reared fish show maladaptive response and face fitness decline when released to the natural environment for wild stock enhancement. The current study concluded that hatchery-reared fish exhibit variations in gross brain morphology as compared to their wild counterpart.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar o tamanho do cérebro de mahseer (Tor putitora) em relação ao seu peso corporal e comprimento padrão, para investigar o impacto potencial do ambiente de criação no desenvolvimento do cérebro em peixes. O peso do cérebro e três de suas subdivisões — cerebelo (CB), tectum óptico (OT) e telencéfalo (TC) — foram medidos para peixes selvagens e criados em incubadoras. Os dados foram analisados usando análise múltipla de covariância (MANCOVA), análise de covariância (ANCOVA) e análise de função discriminante (DFA). Descobrimos que os peixes criados em condições de incubação apresentam menor tamanho do cérebro em relação ao peso corporal quando comparados aos selvagens. Uma diferença significativa (p <0,5) foi observada no comprimento do CB e OT em relação ao comprimento corporal padrão, enquanto nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada no CT dos peixes de ambas as origens. Os resultados do estudo atual destacam uma suposição lógica de que a deficiência neural afeta o comportamento dos peixes. É por isso que os peixes criados em cativeiro mostram uma resposta mal adaptativa e enfrentam declínio de aptidão quando liberados no ambiente natural para o aprimoramento do estoque selvagem. O estudo atual concluiu que os peixes criados em incubadoras exibem variações na morfologia cerebral bruta em comparação com suas contrapartes selvagens.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e236496, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249245

RESUMO

Abstract Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (the skittering frog) is one of the most widespread species in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to know the presence of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis in urban and rural areas of Lower Dir, the North-western Pakistan. A total of 33 frogs were collected, including 15 from rural and 18 from urban areas. The frogs were caught by hands covered with gloves instead of using nets. The collection was managed from August to October 2016 and from April to May 2018. Morphometric analysis, coloration as well as photographs of the frogs have been provided in detail. Skittering frogs were seen frequent in swampy areas near the water bodies. These frogs were mostly seen after sunset.


Resumo Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (a rã que desliza) é uma das espécies mais comuns no Paquistão. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a presença de Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis em áreas urbanas e rurais de Lower Dir, noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 33 sapos foram coletados, incluindo 15 de áreas rurais e 18 de áreas urbanas. As rãs foram apanhadas com as mãos cobertas com luvas em vez de redes. A coleta foi gerenciada de agosto a outubro de 2016 e de abril a maio de 2018. Análises morfométricas, coloração e também fotografias das rãs foram fornecidas em detalhes. Rãs saltitantes foram vistas freqüentemente em áreas pantanosas próximas aos corpos d'água. Essas rãs eram vistas principalmente após o pôr do sol.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238337, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249249

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243633, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249273

RESUMO

Abstract Snow trout (Schizothorax plagiostomus) is an economically important freshwater fish, mostly found in northern areas of water reservoirs of Pakistan. The current study was conducted in River Swat to analyze the bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn) in tissues of Schizothorax plagiostomus. Tissues were extracted and dissolved in perchloric acid (HClO4) and nitric acid (HNO3) along with hotplate. The heavy metals, zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and Nickel (Ni) were determined using Perkin Elmer 2380 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results shows great variation in the content of the metal related to tissue type and sampling sites. A high concentration of bioaccumulation was reported at Charbagh, whereas lowest at Odigram: Charbagh>Landakai>Odigram. In the same way, Cr was the most accumulated heavy metal followed by lead, nickel, and Zinc:


Resumo A truta das neves (Schizothorax plagiostomus) é um peixe de água doce economicamente importante, encontrado principalmente nas áreas ao norte de reservatórios de água do Paquistão. O presente estudo foi realizado em River Swat para analisar a bioacumulação de metais pesados (Pb, Cr, Ni e Zn) em tecidos de Schizothorax plagiostomus. Os tecidos foram extraídos e dissolvidos em ácido perclórico (HClO4) e ácido nítrico (HNO3) com placa de aquecimento. Os metais pesados zinco (Zn), chumbo (Pb), cromo (Cr) e níquel (Ni) foram determinados usando espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica Perkin Elmer 2380. Os resultados mostram grande variação no conteúdo do metal relacionado ao tipo de tecido e locais de amostragem. Uma alta concentração de bioacumulação foi relatada em Charbagh, enquanto a mais baixa, em Odigram: Charbagh > Landakai > Odigram. Da mesma forma, Cr foi o metal pesado mais acumulado, seguido por Pb, Ni e Zn.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241110, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278500

RESUMO

Abstract Plasmodium vivax is the most common human malaria parasite in Asian countries including Pakistan. Present study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax genotypes based on Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3βgenes using allelic specific nested PCR and RFLP assays markers from field isolates in district Mardan, Pakistan. Blood samples of 200 P. vivax malarial patients were collected after taking their written informed consent. Genetic diversity in nested PCR products was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) utilizing Alu1 and PstI restriction enzymes for alpha and beta gene products digestion, respectively. For analysis the genetic diversity of the sub allelic variants of Pvmsp3α and Pvmsp3β genes, Chi-Square test was performed by utilizing Minitab programming software 18. The P value 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. For Pvmsp-3α genes after gel electrophoresis of digested products, four distinct genotypes were obtained from total of 50 samples; type A: 35 (70%) (1.5-2.0 kb), 12 of type B (24%) (1.5-1.7 kb), 2 of type C (4%) (0.5-1.5) and one for type D (2%) (0.5-0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 9 allelic pattern (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), in which A3 remained the most predominant. For Pvmsp-3βgenes, three distinct genotypes were obtained from 50 samples; 40(80%) of type A (1.5-2.5 kb), 9 (18%) of type B (1.0-1.5kb) and 1(2%) of type C (0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 6 allelic patterns (A1-A3, B1-B2, and C1). Most dominant one in Type A was A1 alleles which were noted (46%), while in Type B, the most dominant were B1 (10%).This study is the first ever report of molecular epidemiology and genetic variation in Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3β genes of P. vivax isolates by using PCR/RFLP from District Mardan and showed a remarkable level of genetic diversity in the studied genes of circulating parasites in the study area. The results of this study will contribute in future studies about the genetic structure of parasite and vaccine development against the malaria.


Resumo O Plasmodium vivax é o parasita da malária humana mais comum nos países asiáticos, incluindo o Paquistão. O presente estudo foi desenhado para explorar a diversidade genética de genótipos de Plasmodium vivax baseados nos genes Pvmsp-3α e Pvmsp-3β, usando marcadores de ensaios alélicos nested PCR e RFLP de isolados de campo no distrito de Mardan, Paquistão. Amostras de sangue de 200 pacientes com malária por P. vivax foram coletadas após assinatura do termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido. A diversidade genética em produtos de PCR nested foi determinada por polimorfismo de fragmento de restrição (RFLP) utilizando as enzimas de restrição Alu1 e PstI para a digestão dos produtos dos genes alfa e beta, respectivamente. Para análise da diversidade genética das variantes subalélicas dos genes Pvmsp3α e Pvmsp3β, o teste Qui-quadrado foi realizado utilizando o software de programação Minitab 18. O valor P = 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Para os genes Pvmsp-3α, após eletroforese em gel de produtos digeridos, quatro genótipos distintos foram obtidos de um total de 50 amostras; tipo A: 35 (70%) (1,5-2,0 kb), 12 do tipo B (24%) (1,5-1,7 kb), 2 do tipo C (4%) (0,5-1,5) e um para o tipo D (2%) (0,5-0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em nove padrões alélicos (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), em que A3 permaneceu como o mais predominante. Para Pvmsp-3βgenes, três genótipos distintos foram obtidos a partir de 50 amostras; 40 (80%) do tipo A (1,5-2,5 kb), 9 (18%) do tipo B (1,0-1,5 kb) e 1 (2%) do tipo C (0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em seis padrões alélicos (A1-A3, B1-B2 e C1). Os mais dominantes no tipo A foram o alelo A1, observados em 46%, enquanto, no tipo B, os mais dominantes foram B1 (10%). Este estudo é o primeiro relato de epidemiologia molecular e variação genética em Pvmsp-3α. Os genes Pvmsp-3β de isolados de P. vivax utilizando PCR/RFLP do Distrito Mardan mostraram um nível notável de diversidade genética nos genes estudados de parasitas circulantes na área de estudo. Os resultados desse estudo contribuirão em estudos futuros sobre a estrutura genética do parasita e o desenvolvimento de vacinas contra a malária.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243283, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278505

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Infectious agents cause serious diseases in humans worldwide and are responsible for the high rate of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and epidemiology of infectious disease (HCV) in the hospital visited patients referred by the physicians through the initial findings and their associated risk factors were studied in Swat. The data of 174 infected patients were collected during the period of 2015 to 2017 from two clinical laboratories of Tehsil Matta Swat. Inform consent form was taken before blood collection. After taking informed consent blood samples were collected and ICT test was performed and then ICT positive cases were conform through PCR. A total of 174 ICT positive samples [106 male and 68 females] were included in this study. Age was considered from 10 to 72 years. Of the 174 ICT strip positive, 99 [63 males, 36 females] were confirmed through PCR. The prevalence rate was recorded 56.89%. I.V/I.M injection was recorded in 100% of the individuals. Visits to the barber shop was reported in (58%) of the individuals, married individuals were (81.0), surgical operation was reported in (44.8%), sharing toothbrush was observed in (29.9%), piercing was reported in (39.7%), family history was reported in (26.4%), dental treatment was observed in (21.8%), jaundice were (13.2%) and tattooing was (1.7%). Blood transfusion, surgical operations, Jaundice, family history and dental treatment were found significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection. It was concluded that proper implementation of precautionary measures should be needed to control the spread of HCV in far near future.


RESUMO Agentes infecciosos causam doenças graves em humanos em todo o mundo, e são responsáveis pelo alto índice de morbimortalidade. A prevalência e a epidemiologia das doenças infecciosas no hospital que atendeu pacientes encaminhados pelos médicos por meio dos achados iniciais e seus fatores de risco associados foram estudadas em Peshawar. Os dados de 174 pacientes infectados foram coletados durante o período de 2015 a 2017 oriundos de dois laboratórios clínicos de Tehsil Matta Swat. O formulário de consentimento informado foi obtido antes da coleta de sangue. Após a obtenção do consentimento informado, foram coletadas amostras de sangue e foi realizado o teste ICT e, em seguida, os casos ICT positivos foram confirmados por PCR. Um total de 174 amostras ICT positivas [106 homens e 68 mulheres] foi incluído neste estudo. A idade considerada foi de 10 a 72 anos. Das 174 tiras de ICT positivas, 99 casos [63 homens, 36 mulheres] foram confirmados por PCR. A taxa de prevalência foi de 56,89%. A injeção IV / IM foi registrada em 100% dos indivíduos. A visita à barbearia foi relatada em (58%) dos indivíduos, os números de casados foram (81,0%), e a operação cirúrgica foi relatada em (44,8%), o compartilhamento de escova de dente foi observado em (29,9%), o piercing foi relatado em (39,7%), antecedentes familiares foram relatados em (26,4%), tratamento odontológico em (21,8%), icterícia (13,2%) e tatuagem em (1,7%). Transfusão de sangue, operações cirúrgicas, icterícia, histórico familiar e tratamento odontológico foram fatores de risco significativos para adquirir infecção por Vírus da Hepatite C (VHC). Concluiu-se que a implementação adequada de medidas de precaução deve ser necessária para controlar a propagação do VHC em um futuro próximo.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243670, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278509

RESUMO

Abstract For the proper growth of fish, it is necessary to feed the fish with a proper and balanced diet. A study was conducted to find out the effect of different protein-based diets on fingerlings of Tor putitora (mahseer). A feed with dietary protein levels of 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50% were prepared. The effect of different protein-based feed on weight gain, standard growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), percent weight gain, food conversion efficiency (FCE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) was studied. An increase was observed in the growth rate with an increase in protein concentration up to 45%. The fingerlings fed a 45% protein diet shown the highest growth, followed by 50%, 40%, and 35%. The SGR value was greatest for 45% protein diet (8.56) followed by 50% and 40%, while the least values were observed for 35% protein feed (1.57). The same trend was observed for FCE. The highest PER values was observed in fishes fed 45% protein-based feed (0.65) followed by 50% (0.56), 40% (0.38) and35% (0.17). The food conversion ratio was lowest for 45% protein diet (3.41), while the greatest for 35% protein feed (16.85). It was concluded that a 45% protein-based diet was the best feed formulation for higher production of Tor putitora. However, research on the same percentage of protein diet is recommended for yearlings.


Resumo Para o bom crescimento dos peixes, é necessário alimentá-los com uma alimentação adequada e balanceada. Um estudo foi realizado para descobrir o efeito de diferentes dietas à base de proteínas em alevinos de Tor putitora (mahseer). Foi preparado um alimento com níveis de proteína dietética de 35%, 40%, 45% e 50%. O efeito de diferentes alimentos à base de proteína no ganho de peso, taxa de crescimento padrão (SGR), taxa de conversão alimentar (FCR), ganho de peso percentual, eficiência de conversão alimentar (FCE) e taxa de eficiência proteica (PER) foi estudado. Foi observado um aumento na taxa de crescimento com um aumento na concentração de proteína de até 45%. Os alevinos alimentados com dieta de 45% de proteína apresentaram o maior crescimento, seguidos de 50%, 40% e 35%. O valor de SGR foi maior para dieta com 45% de proteína (8,56), seguido de 50% e 40%, enquanto os menores valores foram observados para ração com 35% de proteína (1,57). A mesma tendência foi observada para FCE. Os maiores valores de PER foram observados em peixes alimentados com 45% de ração à base de proteína (0,65), seguido por 50% (0,56), 40% (0,38) e 35% (0,17). A taxa de conversão alimentar foi menor para a dieta com 45% de proteína (3,41), enquanto a maior para a dieta com 35% de proteína (16,85). Concluiu-se que a dieta à base de proteína de 45% foi a melhor formulação alimentar para maior produção de Tor putitora. No entanto, a pesquisa sobre a mesma porcentagem de dieta proteica é recomendada para animais de um ano.

10.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238339, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278513

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi realizada para explorar a fauna de aranhas do vale Buner, em um estudo taxonômico realizado de fevereiro de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. Para esse fim, foram coletadas amostras, quatro vezes por mês, a partir de 4 subdistritos: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan e Totalai. Foram utilizados dois métodos, coleta manual e rede de varredura, para a obtenção das amostras. Durante o dia e a noite, foram pesquisados ​​três habitats: área árida, área agrícola e área de construção. Foram coletadas 534 amostras de aranha em quatro locais de amostragem, sendo que 379 pertenciam à família Araneidae. Após a confirmação, as espécies identificadas pertenciam a 8 gêneros (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia e Poltys) e a 19 espécies (18 delas foram identificados em seu nível de espécie, enquanto uma única foi identificada em seu nível genérico). O gênero Neoscona foi dominante (26,31%), com 5 espécies, seguido pelos gêneros Argiope (21,05%), com 4 espécies, Cyclosa (15,78%), com 3 espécies, e Cyrtophora e Araneus (10,52%), com 2 espécies. Poltys e Larinia (5,26%) são os gêneros mais raros, representando a mesma espécie. A análise estatística mostrou que a riqueza de espécies (D) foi de 5,77, o índice de Simpson (1-D) foi de 0,87 e o índice de Shannon (H) foi de 2,33. A diversidade de aranhas foi distribuída uniformemente, e o valor calculado da uniformidade foi H / InS = 0,5408. Também existem poucas espécies atípicas, e o alfa de Fisher (Fisher α) estimou o valor de 4,42. Já Chao-1 estimou 22 espécies.

11.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e245813, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285592

RESUMO

Abstract Hepatitis B virus infection is perilous among the five types of Hepatitis, as it remains clinically asymptomatic. The present study draws up-to-date prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the general population of Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. The blood samples from 4803 individuals including 2399 male and 2404 females were investigated. All the suspected samples were analyzed for hepatitis B surface antigen using Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT), Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and followed by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results showed that 312 (13.00%) out of 2399 individuals contained antibodies in their blood against HBV, while among the different age groups, the highest incidences of HBV antibodies were found in the age of 21-30 groups (10.73%). Furthermore, the ICT positive samples were screened by nested polymerase chain reaction to detect the existence of active HBV-DNA. It was observed that 169 (7.04%) out of (2399) male of the total population (4803) tested was positive. On the other hand, the female 463 (19.25%) possessed antibodies in their blood against HBV. Accumulatively, our results showed a higher percentage of HBV prevalence in males than females in the age group 21-30 years. The total HCV infected in Mardan general population was recorded at 5.7% comprising both male and female.


Resumo A infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B é perigosa entre os cinco tipos de hepatite, pois permanece clinicamente assintomática. O presente estudo traça a prevalência atualizada do vírus da hepatite B (HBV) na população geral de Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Amostras de sangue de 4.803 indivíduos, incluindo 2.399 homens e 2.404 mulheres, foram investigadas. Todas as amostras suspeitas foram analisadas para o antígeno de superfície da hepatite B usando teste imunocromatográfico (ICT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), seguido por transcrição reversa-reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR). Os resultados mostraram que 312 (13,00%) de 2.399 indivíduos continham anticorpos no sangue contra o VHB, enquanto, entre as diferentes faixas etárias, as maiores incidências de anticorpos VHB foram encontradas nos grupos de 21 a 30 anos (10,73%). Além disso, amostras positivas para ICT foram rastreadas por reação em cadeia da polimerase aninhada para detectar a existência de HBV-DNA ativo. Observou-se que 169 (7,04%) de 2.399 homens do total da população (4803) testados foram positivos. Por outro lado, 463 mulheres (19,25%) possuíam anticorpos no sangue contra VHB. Acumulativamente, nossos resultados mostraram uma porcentagem maior de prevalência de HBV em homens do que em mulheres na faixa etária de 21 a 30 anos. O total de HCV infectados na população geral de Mardan foi registrado em 5,7%, incluindo homens e mulheres.

12.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e242205, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339332

RESUMO

Abstract Tapeworms of zoonotic importance have been described as a leading public health problem. Current research was aim to assess the prevalence of tapeworms among 5-12years school children residing in district Lower Dir, Pakistan from January 2019-December 2019. The wet mount preparation in saline/iodine/methods were used for stool examination. Data was analyzed using appropriate descriptive, static methods. Of the 400 children studied 71.7% were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. Single infection of cestode species was found in 69 individuals with 17.2% prevalence and multiple parasitic infections were identified in 19.7% (n=79/400) individuals. The multiple infection were comprised as 10% (n=40) double, 6.75% (n=27) triple and 3% (n=12) quadruple. A total of 9 species of helminths and one species of protozoan infection. Among the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent 33.1% (n=95), Taenia saginata 22.6% (n=65), hookworm 19.8% (n=57), Hymenolepis nana 18.8% (n=54), Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis diminuta 1.39% (n=4each), Trichuris trichura 1.04% (n=3), Toxocara spp 0.69% (n=2) and Schistosoma japonicum 0.34% (n=1) were reported. One protozoan species was Cryptosporidium spp 0.69% (n=2) in current study. In case of A.lumbricoides, hookworm, E.vermicularis, T.trichura, T.saginata, H.nana and H.diminuta the male children of below 8 years of age were highly infected. Other infections are reported in the same prevalence with slight difference if any. We conclude that there is a need for mass scale campaigns to create awareness regarding health and hygiene in children and the need for development of effective poverty control programs because deworming alone is not adequate to control parasitic infections.


Resumo As tênias de importância zoonótica têm sido descritas como um dos principais problemas de saúde pública. A pesquisa atual teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de tênias entre crianças em idade escolar de 5 a 12 anos que residem no distrito de Lower Dir, Paquistão, de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2019. Os métodos de preparação para montagem úmida em solução salina/iodo foram usados ​​para exame de fezes. Os dados foram analisados ​​usando métodos descritivos e estáticos apropriados. Das 400 crianças estudadas, 71,7% estavam infectadas com uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. Infecção única de espécies de cestóides foi encontrada em 69 indivíduos com prevalência de 17,2% e infecções parasitárias múltiplas foram identificadas em 19,7% (n = 79/400) indivíduos. As infecções múltiplas foram compostas por 10% (n = 40) dupla, 6,75% (n = 27) tripla e 3% (n = 12) quádrupla. Um total de 9 espécies de helmintos e uma espécie de infecção por protozoários. Entre os helmintos, Ascaris lumbricoides foi o mais prevalente 33,1% (n = 95), Taenia saginata 22,6% (n = 65), ancilóstomo 19,8% (n = 57), Hymenolepis nana 18,8% (n = 54), Enterobius vermicularis e Hymenolepis diminuta 1,39% (n = 4cada), Trichuris trichura 1,04% (n = 3), Toxocara spp 0,69% (n = 2) e Schistosoma japonicum 0,34% (n = 1). Uma espécie de protozoário foi Cryptosporidium spp 0,69% (n = 2) no estudo atual. No caso de A.lumbricoides, ancilostomíase, E.vermicularis, T.trichura, T.saginata, H.nana e H.diminuta, as crianças do sexo masculino com menos de 8 anos de idade estavam altamente infectadas. Outras infecções são relatadas na mesma prevalência, com ligeira diferença, se houver. Concluímos que há uma necessidade de campanhas em massa para criar consciência sobre saúde e higiene em crianças e a necessidade de desenvolvimento de programas eficazes de controle da pobreza, porque a desparasitação por si só não é adequada para controlar infecções parasitárias.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762571

RESUMO

Abstract Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (the skittering frog) is one of the most widespread species in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to know the presence of Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis in urban and rural areas of Lower Dir, the North-western Pakistan. A total of 33 frogs were collected, including 15 from rural and 18 from urban areas. The frogs were caught by hands covered with gloves instead of using nets. The collection was managed from August to October 2016 and from April to May 2018. Morphometric analysis, coloration as well as photographs of the frogs have been provided in detail. Skittering frogs were seen frequent in swampy areas near the water bodies. These frogs were mostly seen after sunset.


Resumo Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis (a rã que desliza) é uma das espécies mais comuns no Paquistão. O presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a presença de Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis em áreas urbanas e rurais de Lower Dir, noroeste do Paquistão. Um total de 33 sapos foram coletados, incluindo 15 de áreas rurais e 18 de áreas urbanas. As rãs foram apanhadas com as mãos cobertas com luvas em vez de redes. A coleta foi gerenciada de agosto a outubro de 2016 e de abril a maio de 2018. Análises morfométricas, coloração e também fotografias das rãs foram fornecidas em detalhes. Rãs saltitantes foram vistas freqüentemente em áreas pantanosas próximas aos corpos d'água. Essas rãs eram vistas principalmente após o pôr do sol.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762561

RESUMO

Abstract Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leislers Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leislers Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.


Resumo Extensas pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para explorar a distribuição do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819), em uma área selecionada das regiões das FATA, Paquistão. Espécimes do morcego de Leisler Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n = 5) foram coletados na Agência Kurram (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414), na elevação 1.427 m, e na Agência Khyber (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517), na elevação 1.091 m, por dois anos de pesquisa, estendendo-se de maio de 2013 a agosto de 2015. Os comprimentos médios da cabeça, do corpo, do pé traseiro, da orelha e da cauda dos espécimes de Nyctalus leisleri capturados na área de estudo foram de 65,08 ± 1,58 mm, 44,06 ± 0,52 mm, 8,38 ± 0,60 mm, 13,20 ± 0,99 mm e 39,46 ± 1,46 mm, respectivamente. Para análise molecular, foram obtidas e analisadas as sequências do gene COI. A média das divergências intraespecíficas de Nyctalus leisleri foi de 0,04%. As divergências interespecíficas médias de Nyctalus noctula e Nyctalus leisleri foram de 0,2%. A concentração média de cada nucleotídeos foi A = 26,3%, T = 32,8%, G = 15,9% e C = 25%. Os conteúdos médios de A + T foram de 59,2% e de C + G foram de 40,9%. Na árvore filogenética, Nyctalus leisleri e Nyctalus noctula agruparam-se com um valor significativo de suporte de bootstrap.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762063

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vectors behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

16.
Prehosp Emerg Care ; : 1-12, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734787

RESUMO

Objective: Provision of analgesia for injured children is challenging for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) clinicians. Little is known about the effect of prehospital analgesia on emergency department (ED) care. We aimed to determine the impact of prehospital pain interventions on initial ED pain scale scores, timing and dosing of ED analgesia for injured patients transported by EMS.Methods: This is a planned, secondary analysis of a prospective multicenter cohort of children with actual or suspected injuries transported to one of 11 PECARN-affiliated EDs from July 2019-April 2020. Using Wilcoxon rank sum for continuous variables and chi-square testing for categorical variables, we compared the change in EMS-to-ED pain scores and timing and dosing of ED-administered opioid analgesia in those who did and those who did not receive prehospital pain interventions.Results: We enrolled 474 children with complete prehospital and ED pain management data. Prehospital interventions were performed on 262/474 (55%) of injured children and a total of 88 patients (19%) received prehospital opioids. Children who received prehospital opioids with or without adjunctive non-pharmacologic pain management experienced a greater reduction in pain severity and were more likely to receive ED opioids in higher doses earlier and throughout their ED care. Non-pharmacologic pain interventions alone did not impact ED care.Conclusions: We demonstrate that prehospital opioid analgesia is associated with both a significant reduction in pain severity at ED arrival and the administration of higher doses of opioid analgesia earlier and throughout ED care.

17.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 608(Pt 2): 1868-1881, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752976

RESUMO

Tunable microwave absorption characteristics are highly desirable for industrial applications such as antenna, absorber, and biomedical diagnostics. Here, we report BiNdxCrxFe1-2xO3 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15) nanoparticles (NPs) with electromagnetic matching, which exhibit tunable magneto-optical and feasible microwave absorption characteristics for microwave absorber applications. The experimental results and theoretical calculations demonstrate the original bismuth ferrite (BFO) crystal structure, while Nd and Cr injection in the BFO structure may cause to minimize dielectric losses and enhance magnetization by producing interfacial defects in the spinel structure. Nd and Cr co-doping plays a key role in ordering the BFO crystal structure, resulting in improved microwave absorption characteristics. The BiNd0.10Cr0.10Fe1.8O3 (BNCF2) sample exhibits a remarkable reflection loss (RL) of -37.7 dB with a 3-mm thickness in the 10.15 GHz-10.30 GHz frequency region. Therefore, Nd and Cr doping in BFO nanoparticles opens a new pathway to construct highly efficient BFO-based materials for tunable frequency, stealth, and microwave absorber applications.

18.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601952

RESUMO

Banana (Musa sp.) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world. It is also a very popular fruit crop and cultivated widely in Bangladesh. Banana diseases are one of the limiting factors for its production. Recently, a new banana leaf blight was detected in various districts of Gazipur, Bangladesh, with an incidence of 5 to 10% in June 2020 and 15 to 20% in January 2021. The initial symptoms of the disease were narrow dark brown lesions (2 to 5 x 5 to 12 mm) that later became irregular brown spots (10 to 15 x 5 to 7 mm). The lesions gradually spread from the middle of the leaf to the margin and dark brown spots appeared on the diseased leaves. There was a clear golden yellowish boundary around the spot. Blighted tissue often covered one-thirds to one-half of the infected leaves. To isolate the pathogen, 100 diseased leaves were collected from five different locations in Gazipur, Bangladesh. Small pieces (5x5 mm) were cut from the margins of lesions and surface sterilized with 75% ethanol for 30 s followed by 1% NaClO for 1 min. The samples were then rinsed three times with sterile distilled water, dried on sterilized filter paper, and placed on 1% water agar at 25°C for 7 days. Hyphal tips were then excised, placed on PDA and incubated at 25°C for 7 days. From the 20 isolates obtained, the colony characteristics and conidial morphology of three isolates, BLS_BU1, BLS_BU2, and BLS_BU3, were examined. The colony of all of three isolates was white, cottony, and circular in growth. The acervuli were black and covered all the culture plate. Conidia of all the isolates were 5-celled, fusiform, and wider in the middle than the apical and basal cells. The three internal cells were olivaceous, concolourous, and slightly constricted at the septae; the terminal cells were hyaline (Shi et al. 2015). The conidium measured 20.3 ± 1.2 to 22.7 ± 1.8 by 7.2 ± 0.6 to 8.6 ± 0.4 µm. The mean lengths of the two to four hyaline apical appendages were 20.5 to 30.25 µm and the hyaline basal appendage was 6.1 to 7.6 µm (Han et al. 2019). DNA was extracted from the fungal colony using a DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen). PCR was performed with primers ITS1/ITS4 ITS region and Sanger sequenced by Macrogen (Seoul, Korea) (White et al. 1990). Isolates BLS_BU1 (MH707065), BLS_BU2 (MH707065), and BLS_BU3 (MH712283) had a sequence similarity of over 99% with GenBank reference Pestalotiopsis microspora (MH707065) of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree also confirmed their phylogenetic position. To assess pathogenicity, the leaves of four 2-month-old healthy plants were needle wounded and inoculated with a spore suspension (106 spores/ ml) harvested from 10-day-old cultures of isolate BLS_BU1. As a control treatment, five leaves of two healthy plants were inoculated with sterile distilled water. Treated plants were maintained in the field with average temperature ranging from 28°C to 30°C and relative humidity from 75% to 80%. After 2 weeks, all inoculated leaves produced characteristic symptoms similar to those observed in the field. However, the control plants did not develop any symptoms. Pestalotiopsis microspora from the inoculated leaves was successfully reisolated, thus confirmed that P. microspora was the cause of leaf blight of banana. To our knowledge, banana appears to be a new host of P. microspora. this This is the first report of leaf blight of banana caused by P. microspora in Bangladesh.

19.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e242205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644726

RESUMO

Tapeworms of zoonotic importance have been described as a leading public health problem. Current research was aim to assess the prevalence of tapeworms among 5-12years school children residing in district Lower Dir, Pakistan from January 2019-December 2019. The wet mount preparation in saline/iodine/methods were used for stool examination. Data was analyzed using appropriate descriptive, static methods. Of the 400 children studied 71.7% were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. Single infection of cestode species was found in 69 individuals with 17.2% prevalence and multiple parasitic infections were identified in 19.7% (n=79/400) individuals. The multiple infection were comprised as 10% (n=40) double, 6.75% (n=27) triple and 3% (n=12) quadruple. A total of 9 species of helminths and one species of protozoan infection. Among the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent 33.1% (n=95), Taenia saginata 22.6% (n=65), hookworm 19.8% (n=57), Hymenolepis nana 18.8% (n=54), Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis diminuta 1.39% (n=4each), Trichuris trichura 1.04% (n=3), Toxocara spp 0.69% (n=2) and Schistosoma japonicum 0.34% (n=1) were reported. One protozoan species was Cryptosporidium spp 0.69% (n=2) in current study. In case of A.lumbricoides, hookworm, E.vermicularis, T.trichura, T.saginata, H.nana and H.diminuta the male children of below 8 years of age were highly infected. Other infections are reported in the same prevalence with slight difference if any. We conclude that there is a need for mass scale campaigns to create awareness regarding health and hygiene in children and the need for development of effective poverty control programs because deworming alone is not adequate to control parasitic infections.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Criança , Fezes , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas
20.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e251219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669914

RESUMO

The most common form of psycho-social dysfunction is anxiety with depression being related closely without any age bar. They are present with combined state of sadness, confusion, stress, fear etc. Glyoxalase system contains enzyme named glyoxalase 1 (GLO1).It is a metabolic pathway which detoxifies alpha-oxo-aldehydes, particularly methylglyoxal (MG). Methylglyoxal is mainly made by the breakdown of the glycolytic intermediates, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Glyoxylase-1 expression is also related with anxiety behavior. A casual role or GLO-1 in anxiety behavior by using viral vectors for over expression in the anterior cingulate cortex was found and it was found that local GLO-1 over expression increased anxiety behavior. The present study deals with the molecular mechanism of protective activity of eugenol against anxiolytic disorder. A pre-clinical animal study was performed on 42 BALB/c mice. Animals were given stress through conventional restrain model. The mRNA expression of GLO-1 was analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Moreover, the GLO-1 protein expression was also examined by immunohistochemistry in whole brain and mean density was calculated. The mRNA and protein expressions were found to be increased in animals given anxiety as compared to the normal control. Whereas, the expressions were decreased in the animals treated with eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers in a dose dependent manner. However, the results were better in animals treated with nanocarriers as compared to the compound alone. It is concluded that the eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers exert anxiolytic activity by down-regulating GLO-1 protein expression in mice.


Assuntos
Eugenol , Lactoilglutationa Liase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Eugenol/farmacologia , Eugenol/uso terapêutico , Lipossomos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
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