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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246002, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285612

RESUMO

Abstract Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Resumo A valoração econômica dos serviços ecossistêmicos é um novo conceito no manejo florestal. A avaliação econômica fornece base para o pagamento por serviços ecossistêmicos (PES). Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o ecoturismo e os serviços de estoque de carbono do vale de Miandam, distrito Swat, Paquistão. Para o cálculo do estoque de carbono, um tamanho de amostra de 155 parcelas de 0,1 hectare (ha) foi tirado, usando pesquisa preliminar com intervalo de confiança de 95% e erro admissível de 10%. Os dados para serviços de turismo foram coletados de proprietários de todos os hotéis, 100 turistas e informantes-chave da área em 10% de intensidade de amostragem em questionário pré-testado para um período de 20 anos (1997-2017). Os resultados mostraram que o vale de Miandam tem estoque de carbono no valor de US$ 16.306.000, enquanto o valor do ecoturismo foi de US$ 1.578.458 anualmente. Os resultados também mostraram que a tendência do turismo diminuiu drasticamente para estrangeiros e locais após o incidente de 11 de Setembro, e a situação se agravou ainda mais durante a era da talibanização ou militância de 2008-2011. Este estudo recomenda a implementação da estratégia de PES na taxa de 5%, portanto um total de US$ 78.922 pode ser ganho com ecoturismo e crédito de carbono na área de estudo anualmente, o que pode desempenhar um papel importante no manejo florestal sustentável.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242708, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339382

RESUMO

Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential nonprotein-coding genes. In a range of organisms, miRNAs has been reported to play an essential role in regulating gene expressions at post-transcriptional level. They participate in most of the stress responsive processes in plants. Drought is an ultimate abiotic stress that affects the crop production. Therefore understanding drought stress responses are essential to improve the production of agricultural crops. Throughout evolution, plants have developed their own defense systems to cope with the adversities of environmental stresses. Among defensive mechanisms include the regulations of gene expression by miRNAs. Drought stress regulates the expression of some of the functionally conserved miRNAs in different plants. The given properties of miRNAs provide an insight to genetic alterations and enhancing drought resistance in cereal crops. The current review gives a summary to regulatory mechanisms in plants as well as miRNAs response to drought stresses in cereal crops. Some possible approaches and guidelines for the exploitation of drought stress miRNA responses to improve cereal crops are also described.


Resumo MicroRNAs (miRNAs) são genes essenciais não codificadores de proteínas. Em uma variedade de organismos, foi relatado que miRNAs desempenham papel essencial na regulação da expressão gênica em nível pós-transcricional. Eles participam da maioria dos processos responsivos ao estresse nas plantas. A seca é um estresse abiótico final que afeta a produção agrícola. Portanto, compreender as respostas ao estresse da seca é essencial para melhorar a produção de safras agrícolas. Ao longo da evolução, as plantas desenvolveram seus próprios sistemas de defesa para lidar com as adversidades do estresse ambiental. Entre os mecanismos de defesa está a regulação da expressão gênica por miRNAs. O estresse hídrico regula a expressão de alguns dos miRNAs funcionalmente conservados em diferentes plantas. As propriedades dadas dos miRNAs fornecem uma visão das alterações genéticas e aumentam a resistência à seca nas safras de cereais. A revisão atual apresenta um resumo dos mecanismos regulatórios nas plantas, bem como a resposta dos miRNAs ao estresse hídrico nas plantações de cereais. Algumas abordagens e diretrizes possíveis para a exploração das respostas do miRNA ao estresse da seca para melhorar as safras de cereais também são descritas.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246436, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339391

RESUMO

Abstract Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Resumo A aplicação de diferentes fertilizantes para verificar a eficiência da expressão do gene Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) em uma das principais culturas comercializadas (algodão) contra espécies de lepidópteros é uma grande preocupação. A expressão do nível de proteína Cry pode ser controlada pela melhoria dos níveis de nutrientes. Portanto, o mito da resposta da toxina Cry a diferentes combinações de fertilizantes NP foi explorado em três cultivares de algodão Bt. As combinações incluem três níveis de nitrogênio e três níveis de fertilizantes de fósforo. A análise de PCR (reação em cadeia da polimerase) específica para o gene (s) Immunostrips e Cry (s) foi usada para a presença do gene Bt que revelou a presença do gene Cry1Ac apenas. Além disso, o kit ELISA (ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática) foi usado para quantificar a expressão da proteína Cry1Ac. Sob várias taxas de fertilizantes NP, o nível de proteína de toxina exibiu diferenças altamente significativas. A média do nível mais alto de toxina foi de 2,3740 e 2,1732 µg / g sob o tratamento da combinação N150P75 kg ha-1, enquanto a média do nível mais baixo de toxina foi de 0,9158 e 0,7641 µg / g no nível de N50P25 kg ha-1 em 80 e 120 DAS (dias após a semeadura), respectivamente. Concluiu-se com a pesquisa que o uso de fertilizantes NP tem relação positiva com a expressão da toxina Cry1Ac no algodão Bt. Recomendamos o uso do nível de N150P50 kg ha-1 como o fertilizante mais econômico e praticável em vez da dose padrão N100P50 kg ha-1 para obter o nível desejado de nível de Cry1Ac para resistência de planta de longa duração (<1,5). A dose revisada de fertilizante pode ajudar os agricultores a evitar o desenvolvimento de resistência cruzada em contradição com as pragas de insetos.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246440, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339395

RESUMO

Abstract Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative's wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.


Resumo A utilização de técnicas modernas de melhoramento para o desenvolvimento de tipos de plantas uniformes e de alto rendimento, em última análise, estreitando a composição genética da maioria das culturas. A composição genética restrita dessas plantações tornou-as vulneráveis a doenças e epidemias de insetos. Para uma produção agrícola sustentável, a variabilidade genética dessas culturas deve ser ampliada contra vários estresses bióticos e abióticos. Uma das maneiras de ampliar a configuração genética dessas culturas é identificar novas fontes adicionais de resistência durável. A esse respeito, os parentes selvagens das culturas estão fornecendo fontes valiosas de diversidade alélica para vários componentes de qualidade e tolerância ao estresse abiótico e biótico. Para incorporar a nova variabilidade da ampla técnica de hibridização de parente selvagem tornou-se um método de reprodução promissor. Para esse efeito, trigo-Th. As linhas anfiploides, de adição e translocação de bessarabicum foram selecionadas em condições de campo e de casa de tela para obter novas fontes de ferrugem amarela e resistência ao bunt de Karnal. A triagem de ferrugem em faixas em condições de campo revelou as linhas de adição 4JJ e 6JJ como resistentes a moderadamente resistentes, enquanto as linhas de adição 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ e as linhas de translocação Tr-3, Tr-6 como estoque genético de trigo-Thinopyrum bessarabicum moderadamente resistente. A triagem Karnal bunt descreveu as linhas de adição 5JJ e 4JJ como estoque genético altamente resistente. Esses estoques genéticos podem ser usados para introgressão da nova ferrugem e resistência ao bunt de Karnal do pool genético terciário em origens de trigo suscetíveis.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245372, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339409

RESUMO

Abstract Hybridization and Polyploidization are most common of the phenomenon observed in plants, especially in the genus Nicotiana leading to the duplication of genome. Although genomic changes associated with these events has been studied at various levels but the genome size and GC content variation is less understood because of absence of sufficient genomic data. In this study the flow cytometry technique was used to uncover the genome size and GC contents of 46 Nicotiana species and we compared the genomic changes associated with the hybridization events along evolutionary time scale. The genome size among Nicotiana species varied between 3.28 pg and 11.88 pg whereas GC contents varied between 37.22% and 51.25%. The tetraploid species in genus Nicotiana including section Polydiclae, Repandae, Nicotiana, Rustica and Sauveolentes revealed both up and downsizing in their genome sizes when compared to the sum of genomes of their ancestral species. The genome sizes of three homoploid hybrids were found near their ancestral species. Loss of large genome sequence was observed in the evolutionary more aged species (>10 Myr) as compared to the recently evolved one's (<0.2 Myr). The GC contents were found homogenous with a mean difference of 2.46% among the Nicotiana species. It is concluded that genome size change appeared in either direction whereas the GC contents were found more homogenous in genus Nicotiana.


Resumo A hibridização e a poliploidização são os fenômenos mais comuns observados em plantas, principalmente no gênero Nicotiana, levando à duplicação do genoma. Embora as mudanças genômicas associadas a esses eventos tenham sido estudadas em vários níveis, o tamanho do genoma e a variação do conteúdo de GC são menos compreendidos devido à ausência de dados genômicos suficientes. Neste estudo, a técnica de citometria de fluxo foi usada para descobrir o tamanho do genoma e o conteúdo de GC de 46 espécies de Nicotiana, e comparamos as mudanças genômicas associadas aos eventos de hibridização ao longo da escala de tempo evolutiva. O tamanho do genoma entre as espécies de Nicotiana variou entre 3,28 pg e 11,88 pg, enquanto os conteúdos de GC variaram entre 37,22% e 51,25%. As espécies tetraploides do gênero Nicotiana, incluindo as seções Polydiclae, Repandae, Nicotiana, Rustica e Sauveolentes, revelaram aumento e redução do tamanho do genoma quando comparados à soma dos genomas de suas espécies ancestrais. Os tamanhos do genoma de três híbridos homoploides foram encontrados perto de suas espécies ancestrais. A perda da grande sequência do genoma foi observada nas espécies evolutivas mais velhas (> 10 Myr) em comparação com as que evoluíram recentemente (< 0,2 Myr). Os teores de GC foram homogêneos com diferença média de 2,46% entre as espécies de Nicotiana. Conclui-se que a mudança no tamanho do genoma apareceu em ambas as direções, enquanto os conteúdos de GC foram encontrados mais homogêneos no gênero Nicotiana.

6.
bioRxiv ; 2022 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075457

RESUMO

Substantial clinical evidence supports the notion that ciliary function in the airways plays an important role in COVID-19 pathogenesis. Although ciliary damage has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo models, consequent impaired mucociliary transport (MCT) remains unknown for the intact MCT apparatus from an in vivo model of disease. Using golden Syrian hamsters, a common animal model that recapitulates human COVID-19, we quantitatively followed the time course of physiological, virological, and pathological changes upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the deficiency of the MCT apparatus using micro-optical coherence tomography, a novel method to visualize and simultaneously quantitate multiple aspects of the functional microanatomy of intact airways. Corresponding to progressive weight loss up to 7 days post-infection (dpi), viral detection and histopathological analysis in both the trachea and lung revealed steadily descending infection from the upper airways, as the main target of viral invasion, to lower airways and parenchymal lung, which are likely injured through indirect mechanisms. SARS-CoV-2 infection caused a 67% decrease in MCT rate as early as 2 dpi, largely due to diminished motile ciliation coverage, but not airway surface liquid depth, periciliary liquid depth, or cilia beat frequency of residual motile cilia. Further analysis indicated that the fewer motile cilia combined with abnormal ciliary motion of residual cilia contributed to the delayed MCT. The time course of physiological, virological, and pathological progression suggest that functional deficits of the MCT apparatus predispose to COVID-19 pathogenesis by extending viral retention and may be a risk factor for secondary infection. As a consequence, therapies directed towards the MCT apparatus deserve further investigation as a treatment modality.

7.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238812, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278475

RESUMO

Abstract Optimum planting arrangement is an important attribute for efficient utilization of available resources and to obtain high yield of cotton. Application of plant growth promoter and retardant on cotton in improved planting density are the innovative techniques in the establishment of more productive cotton crop. Therefore, we planned a field study to assess the role of bio-stimulant and growth retardant in the resource utilization efficiency of cotton cultivars planted under variable row spacing at Agronomic Research Area Bahauddin Zakariya University and Usmania Agricultural Farm Shujabad during Kharif 2012. Experimental treatments consisted of cotton genotypes viz. CIM-573 and CIM-598, cultivated under conventional (75 cm), medium (50 cm) and ultra-narrow row spacing (25 cm) with foliar spray of bio-stimulant (moringa leaf extract) and growth retardant (mepiquate chloride), either sole or in combination, keeping distilled water as a control. Exogenously applied MLE alone and MLE + MC significantly enhanced the number of squares, flowers and green bolls per plant leading to higher cotton seed and lint yield of CIM 598 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. While application of MC alone and MLE + MC produced maximum micronaire value, fiber strength and fiber uniformity ratio of CIM 573 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. The results suggested that application of MLE is a possible approach to enhance the cotton productivity and the use of MC to enhance the fiber quality attributes under conventional row spacing.


Resumo A configuração ideal de plantio é um atributo importante para a utilização eficiente dos recursos disponíveis e para obter alto rendimento de algodão. A aplicação de promotores de crescimento de plantas e reguladores de crescimento no algodão em uma densidade de plantio adequada são técnicas inovadoras na obtenção de safras de algodão mais produtivas. Portanto, foi planejado um estudo de campo para avaliar o papel de um bioestimulante e um regulador de crescimento na eficiência da utilização de recursos de cultivares de algodão plantadas com espaçamento variável entre linhas na Área de Pesquisa Agronômica Universidade Bahauddin Zakariya e Usmania Agricultural Farm Shujabad durante Kharif 2012. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram em genótipos de algodão viz. CIM-573 e CIM-598, cultivadas sob espaçamento convencional (75 cm), médio (50 cm) e ultraestreito (25 cm) e pulverização foliar de bioestimulante (extrato de folha de moringa) e regulador de crescimento (cloreto de mepiquato)), sozinho ou combinado, mantendo a água destilada como controle. O MLE aplicado exogenamente sozinho e o MLE + MC aumentaram significativamente o número de quadrados, flores e cápsulas verdes por planta, levando a um maior rendimento de sementes e fibra de algodão da cultivar CIM 598 cultivada sob espaçamento convencional entre fileiras. Enquanto a aplicação de MC sozinho e MLE + MC produziu valor máximo de micronaire, resistência da fibra e razão de uniformidade da fibra da cultivar CIM 573 cultivada sob espaçamento convencional entre linhas. Os resultados sugeriram que a aplicação do MLE é uma abordagem possível para aumentar a produtividade do algodão e o uso de MC para aprimorar os atributos de qualidade da fibra no espaçamento convencional entre linhas.

8.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243511, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285591

RESUMO

Abstract Vegetable oils have their specific physicochemical properties due to which they are playing vital role in human nutritional diet for health benefits. Cottonseed oil is obtained from various species of cotton seeds that are famous to be grown mainly for their fiber quality. The most prominently used specie is Gossypium hirsutum. It is obvious that the seeds of different variety of cotton vary as grown in diverse agroclimatic conditions with respect to oil, fats and protein contents. Cottonseed oil is routinely used for cooking and food manufacturing products. Cottonseed oil obtained after proper extraction/processing steps from crude state to refined oil in a variety of ways. Cotton crop is considered for their dual-use purpose, for fiber quality and oil production to promote health benefits in the world. Keeping in view the above facts, this review clearly demonstrated an overview about physicochemical and functional properties of cottonseed oil to promote health benefits associated with the use of this oil. The overall characteristics and all concerned health benefits of CSO will further improve their usefulness is a compact way. We have summarized a brief multi-dimensional features of CSO in all aspects up to the best of our knowledge for the end researchers who can further research in the respective aspect.


Resumo Os óleos vegetais têm propriedades físico-químicas específicas que desempenham um papel vital na dieta nutricional humana em benefício à saúde. O óleo de semente de algodão, utilizado rotineiramente no preparo e na fabricação de alimentos, é obtido através de várias espécies de sementes de algodão, famosas pela alta qualidade de sua fibra., cuja espécie mais utilizada é Gossypium hirsutum. As sementes variam, em relação ao teor do óleo, da gordura e das proteínas, de acordo com o cultivo e as diversas condições agroclimáticas. O óleo de algodão é obtido após etapas adequadas de extração das sementes e processamento do estado bruto ao refinado. Assim, a presente revisão demonstra, de maneira geral, as propriedades físico-químicas e funcionais do óleo de semente de algodão e seus benefícios à saúde humana, resumindo suas características multidimensionais. As características gerais e todos os benefícios do composto podem melhorar ainda mais se utilizadas de forma compacta, auxiliando futuros pesquisadores.

9.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243811, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249262

RESUMO

Abstract An ethnobotanical study was conducted to document indigenous medicinal plants and their usage from knowledgeable and elderly persons in Razzar and Gadoon valley of Swabi and Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region of Pakistan during 2016-2019. Several systematic field visits and questionnaire surveys were carried out in selected sites of the study area to gather relevant information from the local community. Rapid assessment method was adopted for data collection by interviewing the local people having enough knowledge of medicinal plants use for treatment of different ailments. UV (UV) formula was applied to calculate the relative importance of medicinal plant species in each site of the study area. In the present study, 221 medicinal plants belonging to 105 families have been reported through 580 respondents (385 males, 138 females and 57 local health healer) from the Swabi and Hazara region. The main sources of herbal medicines were leaves (21%) followed by fruits (21%), seeds (17%), whole plants (14%), roots (9%), bark (9%), flowers (7%) and gum (2%). Mentha spicata L. and Berberis lycium Royle were reported with highest UV (UV) i.e. 0.92 and 0.68 in Razzar tehsil and Gadoon valley of Swabi, whereas Mentha longifolia L and Geranium wallichianum D were reported with highest UV i.e. (0.65) and (0.88) in Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region, respectively. It was concluded that Swabi and Hazara region is rich in medicinal plants species and associated traditional knowledge. Moreover, ethno-medicines have played significant role in the indigenous healthcare system of the study area. However, uprooting the entire plant for ethno-medicine is a big threat to conservation of medicinal plants diversity in the study area.


Resumo Um estudo etnobotânico foi realizado para documentar as plantas medicinais indígenas e seu uso por pessoas experientes e idosas em Razzar e Gadoon, no vale de Swabi e no vale Allai e Tanawal da região de Hazara, no Paquistão, durante 2016 a 2019. Várias visitas sistemáticas de campo e pesquisas por questionário foram realizadas em locais selecionados da área de estudo para coletar informações relevantes da comunidade local. O método de avaliação rápida foi adotado para a coleta de dados por meio de entrevistas com a população local, com conhecimento suficiente do uso de plantas medicinais para o tratamento de diferentes enfermidades. A fórmula UV (UV) foi aplicada para calcular a importância relativa das espécies de plantas medicinais em cada local da área de estudo. No presente estudo, 221 plantas medicinais pertencentes a 105 famílias foram relatadas por 580 entrevistados (385 homens, 138 mulheres e 57 curandeiros locais) da região de Swabi e Hazara. As principais fontes de medicamentos fitoterápicos foram folhas (21%), seguidas de frutas (21%), sementes (17%), plantas inteiras (14%), raízes (9%), cascas (9%), flores (7%) e goma (2%). Mentha spicata L. e Berberis lycium Royle foram relatados com maior UV (UV), ou seja, 0,92 e 0,68 em Razzar tehsil e vale Gadoon de Swabi, enquanto Mentha longifolia L. e Geranium wallichianum D. foram relatados com maior UV, isto é, 0,65 e 0,88 no vale Allai e Tanawal da região de Hazara, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que a região de Swabi e Hazara é rica em espécies de plantas medicinais e conhecimentos tradicionais associados. Além disso, etnomedicamentos têm desempenhado um papel significativo no sistema de saúde indígena da área de estudo. No entanto, arrancar a planta inteira para etnomedicina é uma grande ameaça à conservação da diversidade de plantas medicinais na área de estudo.

10.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877822

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to describe haemodynamic features of patients with advanced heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) as defined by the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). METHODS AND RESULTS: We used pooled data from two dedicated HFpEF studies with invasive exercise haemodynamic protocols, the REDUCE LAP-HF (Reduce Elevated Left Atrial Pressure in Patients with Heart Failure) trial and the REDUCE LAP-HF I trial, and categorized patients according to advanced heart failure (AdHF) criteria. The well-characterized HFpEF patients were considered advanced if they had persistent New York Heart Association classification of III-IV and heart failure (HF) hospitalization < 12 months and a 6 min walk test distance < 300 m. Twenty-four (22%) out of 108 patients met the AdHF criteria. On evaluation, clinical characteristics and resting haemodynamics were not different in the two groups. Patients with AdHF had lower work capacity compared with non-advanced patients (35 ± 16 vs. 45 ± 18 W, P = 0.021). Workload-corrected pulmonary capillary wedge pressure normalized to body weight (PCWL) was higher in AdHF patients compared with non-advanced (112 ± 55 vs. 86 ± 49 mmHg/W/kg, P = 0.04). Further, AdHF patients had a smaller increase in cardiac index during exercise (1.1 ± 0.7 vs. 1.6 ± 0.9 L/min/m2 , P = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: A significantly higher PCWL and lower cardiac index reserve during exercise were observed in AdHF patients compared with non-advanced. These differences were not apparent at rest. Therapies targeting the haemodynamic compromise associated with advanced HFpEF are needed.

11.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(4): 977-988, Oct.-Dec. 2021. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-762626

RESUMO

Genetic distances among different chickpea varieties and evaluation of their free amino acid profiles were determined on the basis of Sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Total soluble proteins were resolved on 10% SDS Polyacrylamide gel. Low variability in tested varieties was observed. Dendogram based on electrophoretic data clustered the genotypes into 2 groups. The results showed that the average protein content of all the varieties was 26.01% within the range 22.8% for Thal-2006 to 34.06% Sheenghar-2000 of dry seed weight. On the basis of total protein content Bittal-98, Dasht and Sheen Ghar-2000, Karak-3 and CM-98, Paidar -91 and Fakhr-e-Thal, C-44, Balaksar and KK-1showed similar concentrations for protein contents among each other but showed variation from the rest of the varieties. Different proteins were separated on the basis of changes in their molecular weights by means of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Dasht, CM-98, and Sheen Ghar showed 100% similarity. Balaksar and Fakhr-e- Thal, KK-2 and Chattan and KC-98, KK-1 and Lawaghar were 100% similar among each other but showed variation from the rest of the accessions. The overall dendrogram showed high and low level of variation among the accessions. The concentration of free amino acids varied among the 16 chickpea varieties. A significant difference of both essential and non-essential amino acids was found among the chickpea cultivars. The total concentration of essential amino acid was recorded 40.81 g/100 g protein while non-essential was recorded 59.18343 g/100 g protein in the given cultivars. The highest concentration of essential amino acids was found in C-44 followed by KK-2, KK-1 and Fakhr E Tal while the lowest concentration was recorded in Cm-98, Paidar-91 and Sheen Ghar-2000 respectively. Cultivars TAL-2006, Chattan and Karak-3 showed maximum concentration of both essential and endogenous amino acids. In conclusion; for broadening the genetic pools in breeding programs or to search for exotic characters, for instance new disease resistance alleles, accession with low similarity coefficients (Lawaghar and Battal-98) may be utilized. Furthermore the information acquired from this study could be used to device a proficient breeding approach intended at improving nutritional as well as broadening the genetic base of this essential food crop of Pakistan.(AU)


As distâncias genéticas entre as diferentes variedades de grão-de-bico e a avaliação de seus perfis de aminoácidos livres foram determinadas com base na eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). As proteínas solúveis totais foram resolvidas em SDS-PAGE a 10%. Foi observada baixa variabilidade nas variedades testadas. O dendrograma fundamentado em dados eletroforéticos agrupou os genótipos em dois grupos. Os resultados mostraram que o teor médio de proteínas de todas as variedades foi de 26,01%, na faixa de 22,8% para Thal-2006 a 34,06% para Sheenghar-2000 do peso de sementes secas. Com base no conteúdo total de proteínas, Bittal-98, Dasht, Sheen Ghar-2000, Karak-3, CM-98, Paidar-91, Fakhr-e-Thal, C-44, Balaksar e KK-1 apresentaram concentrações semelhantes para o conteúdo de proteínas entre si, mas tiveram variação quanto ao restante das variedades. Diferentes proteínas foram separadas com base nas alterações de seus pesos moleculares por meio de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). Dasht, CM-98 e Sheen Ghar mostraram 100% de similaridade. Balaksar, Fakhr-e-Thal, KK-2, Chattan e KC-98, KK-1 e Lawaghar foram 100% semelhantes entre si, mas apresentaram variação em relação ao restante dos acessos. O dendrograma geral mostrou alto e baixo nível de variação entre os acessos. A concentração de aminoácidos livres variou entre as 16 variedades de grão-de-bico. Foi encontrada uma diferença significativa entre os aminoácidos essenciais e não essenciais nas cultivares de grão-de-bico. A concentração total de aminoácidos essenciais foi registrada em 40,81 g / 100 g de proteína, enquanto a não essencial foi registrada em 59,18343 g / 100 g de proteína nas cultivares. A maior concentração de aminoácidos essenciais foi encontrada em C-44, seguida de KK-2, KK-1 e Fakhr-e-Thal, enquanto a menor concentração foi registrada em CM-98, Paidar-91 e Sheen Ghar-2000. As cultivares TAL-2006, Chattan e Karak-3 apresentaram concentração máxima de aminoácidos essenciais e endógenos. Em conclusão, para ampliar os pools genéticos em programas de melhoramento ou procurar caracteres exóticos, por exemplo, novos alelos de resistência a doenças, pode ser utilizada a adesão com baixos coeficientes de similaridade (Lawaghar e Battal-98). Além disso, as informações adquiridas neste estudo poderiam ser usadas para criar uma abordagem de criação eficiente, com o objetivo de melhorar a nutrição e ampliar a base genética dessa cultura alimentar essencial do Paquistão.(AU)


Assuntos
Cicer/genética , Variação Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Paquistão
12.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34916262

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The majority of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have chronic bronchitis, for which specific therapies are unavailable. Acquired cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) dysfunction is observed in chronic bronchitis, but has not been proven in a controlled animal model with airway disease. Furthermore, the potential of CFTR as a therapeutic target has not been tested in vivo, given limitations to rodent models of COPD. Ferrets exhibit cystic fibrosis-related lung pathology when CFTR is absent and COPD with bronchitis following cigarette smoke exposure. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate CFTR dysfunction induced by smoking and test its pharmacologic reversal by a novel CFTR potentiator, GLPG2196, in a ferret model of COPD with chronic bronchitis. METHODS: Ferrets were exposed for six months to cigarette smoke to induce COPD and chronic bronchitis and then treated with eneral GLPG2196 once daily for one month. Electrophysiologic measurements of ion transport and CFTR function, assessment of mucociliary function by one-micron optical coherence tomography imaging and particle tracking microrhelogy, microcomputed tomography imaging, histopathological analysis, and quantification of CFTR protein and mRNA expression were used to evaluate mechanistic and pathophysiological changes. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Following cigarette smoke exposure, ferrets exhibited CFTR dysfunction, increased mucus viscosity, delayed mucociliary clearance, airway wall thickening, and airway epithelial hypertrophy. In COPD ferrets, GLPG2196 treatment reversed CFTR dysfunction, increased mucus transport by decreasing mucus viscosity, and reduced brochial wall thickening and airway epithelial hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS: The pharmacologic reversal of acquired CFTR dysfunction is beneficial against pathologic features of chronic bronchitis in a COPD ferret model.

13.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 977-988, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153440

RESUMO

Abstract Genetic distances among different chickpea varieties and evaluation of their free amino acid profiles were determined on the basis of Sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Total soluble proteins were resolved on 10% SDS Polyacrylamide gel. Low variability in tested varieties was observed. Dendogram based on electrophoretic data clustered the genotypes into 2 groups. The results showed that the average protein content of all the varieties was 26.01% within the range 22.8% for Thal-2006 to 34.06% Sheenghar-2000 of dry seed weight. On the basis of total protein content Bittal-98, Dasht and Sheen Ghar-2000, Karak-3 and CM-98, Paidar -91 and Fakhr-e-Thal, C-44, Balaksar and KK-1showed similar concentrations for protein contents among each other but showed variation from the rest of the varieties. Different proteins were separated on the basis of changes in their molecular weights by means of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Dasht, CM-98, and Sheen Ghar showed 100% similarity. Balaksar and Fakhr-e- Thal, KK-2 and Chattan and KC-98, KK-1 and Lawaghar were 100% similar among each other but showed variation from the rest of the accessions. The overall dendrogram showed high and low level of variation among the accessions. The concentration of free amino acids varied among the 16 chickpea varieties. A significant difference of both essential and non-essential amino acids was found among the chickpea cultivars. The total concentration of essential amino acid was recorded 40.81 g/100 g protein while non-essential was recorded 59.18343 g/100 g protein in the given cultivars. The highest concentration of essential amino acids was found in C-44 followed by KK-2, KK-1 and Fakhr E Tal while the lowest concentration was recorded in Cm-98, Paidar-91 and Sheen Ghar-2000 respectively. Cultivars TAL-2006, Chattan and Karak-3 showed maximum concentration of both essential and endogenous amino acids. In conclusion; for broadening the genetic pools in breeding programs or to search for exotic characters, for instance new disease resistance alleles, accession with low similarity coefficients (Lawaghar and Battal-98) may be utilized. Furthermore the information acquired from this study could be used to device a proficient breeding approach intended at improving nutritional as well as broadening the genetic base of this essential food crop of Pakistan.


Resumo As distâncias genéticas entre as diferentes variedades de grão-de-bico e a avaliação de seus perfis de aminoácidos livres foram determinadas com base na eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). As proteínas solúveis totais foram resolvidas em SDS-PAGE a 10%. Foi observada baixa variabilidade nas variedades testadas. O dendrograma fundamentado em dados eletroforéticos agrupou os genótipos em dois grupos. Os resultados mostraram que o teor médio de proteínas de todas as variedades foi de 26,01%, na faixa de 22,8% para Thal-2006 a 34,06% para Sheenghar-2000 do peso de sementes secas. Com base no conteúdo total de proteínas, Bittal-98, Dasht, Sheen Ghar-2000, Karak-3, CM-98, Paidar-91, Fakhr-e-Thal, C-44, Balaksar e KK-1 apresentaram concentrações semelhantes para o conteúdo de proteínas entre si, mas tiveram variação quanto ao restante das variedades. Diferentes proteínas foram separadas com base nas alterações de seus pesos moleculares por meio de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). Dasht, CM-98 e Sheen Ghar mostraram 100% de similaridade. Balaksar, Fakhr-e-Thal, KK-2, Chattan e KC-98, KK-1 e Lawaghar foram 100% semelhantes entre si, mas apresentaram variação em relação ao restante dos acessos. O dendrograma geral mostrou alto e baixo nível de variação entre os acessos. A concentração de aminoácidos livres variou entre as 16 variedades de grão-de-bico. Foi encontrada uma diferença significativa entre os aminoácidos essenciais e não essenciais nas cultivares de grão-de-bico. A concentração total de aminoácidos essenciais foi registrada em 40,81 g / 100 g de proteína, enquanto a não essencial foi registrada em 59,18343 g / 100 g de proteína nas cultivares. A maior concentração de aminoácidos essenciais foi encontrada em C-44, seguida de KK-2, KK-1 e Fakhr-e-Thal, enquanto a menor concentração foi registrada em CM-98, Paidar-91 e Sheen Ghar-2000. As cultivares TAL-2006, Chattan e Karak-3 apresentaram concentração máxima de aminoácidos essenciais e endógenos. Em conclusão, para ampliar os pools genéticos em programas de melhoramento ou procurar caracteres exóticos, por exemplo, novos alelos de resistência a doenças, pode ser utilizada a adesão com baixos coeficientes de similaridade (Lawaghar e Battal-98). Além disso, as informações adquiridas neste estudo poderiam ser usadas para criar uma abordagem de criação eficiente, com o objetivo de melhorar a nutrição e ampliar a base genética dessa cultura alimentar essencial do Paquistão.

14.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e253106, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34730700

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop and evaluate data driven models for prediction of forest yield under different climate change scenarios in the Gallies forest division of district Abbottabad, Pakistan. The Random Forest (RF) and Kernel Ridge Regression (KRR) models were developed and evaluated using yield data of two species (Blue pine and Silver fir) as an objective variable and climate data (temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed) as predictive variables. Prediction accuracy of both the models were assessed by means of root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), correlation coefficient (r), relative root mean squared error (RRMSE), Legates-McCabe's (LM), Willmott's index (WI) and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSE) metrics. Overall, the RF model outperformed the KRR model due to its higher accuracy in forecasting of forest yield. The study strongly recommends that RF model should be applied in other regions of the country for prediction of forest growth and yield, which may help in the management and future planning of forest productivity in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Paquistão
15.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731489

RESUMO

We performed a cost estimation of dermatology residency applications prior to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions (2016-2020) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (2021) and surveyed dermatology programme directors to assess the impact of virtual interviews. We found that COVID-19 virtual interviews significantly reduced the cost of applications. We understand that the changes forced by the pandemic were challenging and not ideal; however, the online aspect of interviews provided a way for applicants to save a significant amount of money.

16.
J Postgrad Med ; 67(4): 228-231, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34845891

RESUMO

Meningoencephaloceles (MECs) occur due to herniation of brain tissue through a bony defect in the skull base. They can be spontaneous or acquired. These are secondary to trauma, infection or neoplasia. Adult-onset spontaneous or idiopathic MECs are rare. Temporal bone MECs can present with watery discharge from the ear, conductive hearing loss or symptoms of meningitis like headache, fever, vomiting or seizures. These symptoms mimic chronic suppurative or serous otitis media. Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging differentiate between them. Awareness of this disease entity is necessary for early detection to avoid complications. We report a case of bilateral idiopathic temporal bone MECs with a rare presentation of autophony as the chief complaint. The differentiating features on computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging and the surgical management are discussed.

17.
Public Health Action ; 11(Suppl 1): 1-5, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778008

RESUMO

SETTING: Biratnagar Eye Hospital, Biratnagar, Nepal, which offers ear surgery for chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). OBJECTIVE: In patients with CSOM awaiting surgery, to determine the 1) sociodemographic characteristics 2) bacterial isolates and their antibiotic resistance patterns and 3) characteristics of those refused surgery, including antibiotic resistance. DESIGN: A cohort study using hospital data, January 2018-January 2020. RESULTS: Of 117 patients with CSOM and awaiting surgery, 64% were in the 18-35 years age group, and 79% were cross-border from India. Of 118 bacterial isolates, 80% had Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 16% had Staphylococcus aureus. All isolates showed multidrug resistance to nine of the 12 antibiotics tested. The lowest antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa was for vancomycin (29%) and moxifloxacin (36%), and for S. aureus, this was vancomycin (9%) and amikacin (17%). Fourteen (12%) patients underwent surgery: myringoplasty (n = 7, 50%), cortical mastoidectomy with tympanostomy (n = 4, 29%) and modified radical mastoidectomy (n = 3, 21%). Those infected with P. aeruginosa and with resistance to over six antibiotics were significantly more likely to be refused for surgery. CONCLUSION: Patients awaiting ear surgery were predominantly infected with multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa and were consequently refused surgery. This study can help inform efforts for improving surgical uptake and introducing cross-border antimicrobial resistance surveillance.

18.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702098

RESUMO

ABSTRACTWe used routinely collected programme data on people living with HIV in Oman who started ART in 2014-2018 to assess retention on ART, viral suppression, attrition (mortality or loss to follow-up [LTFU]) and treatment failure (attrition or HIV viral load of > 1000 copies/mL) 12 months after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. We identified 726 patients; 72% were male. Overall, 12 months retention on ART and viral suppression (intention-to-treat [ITT] analysis) were 85.7% and 74.5%, respectively. Attrition occurred in 14.3% (mortality of 7% and LTFU of 7.3%). Retention increased from 78.8% (93/118) to 90.6% (144/159) among patients who started ART in 2014 and 2018, respectively. Similarly, ITT and on-treatment analyses revealed that viral suppression 12 months after ART initiation increased from 57.6% (68/118) and 73.1% (68/93) among patients who initiated therapy in 2014-80.5% (128/159) and 88.8% (128/144) among patients started treatment in 2018, respectively. On multivariate analysis, older age, having "Other" as an HIV risk factor (compared to heterosexual) and receiving HIV care outside the capital Muscat independently predicted both attrition and treatment failure. Our findings have been useful in identifying factors at the individual and programme level that influenced the risk of attrition and treatment failure.

19.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e245372, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669791

RESUMO

Hybridization and Polyploidization are most common of the phenomenon observed in plants, especially in the genus Nicotiana leading to the duplication of genome. Although genomic changes associated with these events has been studied at various levels but the genome size and GC content variation is less understood because of absence of sufficient genomic data. In this study the flow cytometry technique was used to uncover the genome size and GC contents of 46 Nicotiana species and we compared the genomic changes associated with the hybridization events along evolutionary time scale. The genome size among Nicotiana species varied between 3.28 pg and 11.88 pg whereas GC contents varied between 37.22% and 51.25%. The tetraploid species in genus Nicotiana including section Polydiclae, Repandae, Nicotiana, Rustica and Sauveolentes revealed both up and downsizing in their genome sizes when compared to the sum of genomes of their ancestral species. The genome sizes of three homoploid hybrids were found near their ancestral species. Loss of large genome sequence was observed in the evolutionary more aged species (>10 Myr) as compared to the recently evolved one's (<0.2 Myr). The GC contents were found homogenous with a mean difference of 2.46% among the Nicotiana species. It is concluded that genome size change appeared in either direction whereas the GC contents were found more homogenous in genus Nicotiana.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Tabaco , Composição de Bases , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma de Planta/genética , Filogenia , Tabaco/genética
20.
ESMO Open ; 6(5): 100261, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abiraterone and enzalutamide use is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity in clinical trials, but the magnitude and clinical relevance of this association in real-world prostate cancer (PC) population remain unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the MarketScan claims databases (1 January 2013 to 30 September 2018) to identify adults with diagnosis of metastatic PC who received treatment with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and novel antiandrogen agents (abiraterone or enzalutamide). The primary CV outcome measure was composite outcome of acute myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke. Secondary outcomes were individual risks of MI or stroke. We used an intention-to-treat approach to analyze the CV outcomes associated with drug exposure among patients with metastatic PC. Cox regression model was used to estimate the independent association of two drugs with CV risk after adjustment for age, baseline atrial fibrillation, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. RESULTS: A total of 6294 patients with metastatic PC who were treated with ADT and either abiraterone or enzalutamide were included in the final analysis. Of these, 4017 (63.8%) patients used abiraterone and 2217 (32.2%) patients used enzalutamide. During the study period, 255 (6.3%) primary endpoint events occurred, resulting in an incidence rate of 4.3 per 100 patient-years. In multivariable analysis, abiraterone use was associated with a 31% increased risk of MI or stroke compared to enzalutamide (hazard ratio 1.31; 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.63; P = 0.01). The incidence rate was similar in patients who switched initial therapy from abiraterone to enzalutamide or vice versa (5.0 versus 5.6 per 100 patient-years, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first real-world assessment of MI and stroke among metastatic PC patients receiving novel anti-androgens. Our findings of increased MI and stroke risk with abiraterone compared with enzalutamide are consistent with data from clinical trials and suggest that enzalutamide may be preferable for prostate cancer patients at high CV risk.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Androstenos , Benzamidas , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Nitrilas , Feniltioidantoína , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
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