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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246002, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285612

RESUMO

Abstract Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Resumo A valoração econômica dos serviços ecossistêmicos é um novo conceito no manejo florestal. A avaliação econômica fornece base para o pagamento por serviços ecossistêmicos (PES). Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o ecoturismo e os serviços de estoque de carbono do vale de Miandam, distrito Swat, Paquistão. Para o cálculo do estoque de carbono, um tamanho de amostra de 155 parcelas de 0,1 hectare (ha) foi tirado, usando pesquisa preliminar com intervalo de confiança de 95% e erro admissível de 10%. Os dados para serviços de turismo foram coletados de proprietários de todos os hotéis, 100 turistas e informantes-chave da área em 10% de intensidade de amostragem em questionário pré-testado para um período de 20 anos (1997-2017). Os resultados mostraram que o vale de Miandam tem estoque de carbono no valor de US$ 16.306.000, enquanto o valor do ecoturismo foi de US$ 1.578.458 anualmente. Os resultados também mostraram que a tendência do turismo diminuiu drasticamente para estrangeiros e locais após o incidente de 11 de Setembro, e a situação se agravou ainda mais durante a era da talibanização ou militância de 2008-2011. Este estudo recomenda a implementação da estratégia de PES na taxa de 5%, portanto um total de US$ 78.922 pode ser ganho com ecoturismo e crédito de carbono na área de estudo anualmente, o que pode desempenhar um papel importante no manejo florestal sustentável.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238812, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278475

RESUMO

Abstract Optimum planting arrangement is an important attribute for efficient utilization of available resources and to obtain high yield of cotton. Application of plant growth promoter and retardant on cotton in improved planting density are the innovative techniques in the establishment of more productive cotton crop. Therefore, we planned a field study to assess the role of bio-stimulant and growth retardant in the resource utilization efficiency of cotton cultivars planted under variable row spacing at Agronomic Research Area Bahauddin Zakariya University and Usmania Agricultural Farm Shujabad during Kharif 2012. Experimental treatments consisted of cotton genotypes viz. CIM-573 and CIM-598, cultivated under conventional (75 cm), medium (50 cm) and ultra-narrow row spacing (25 cm) with foliar spray of bio-stimulant (moringa leaf extract) and growth retardant (mepiquate chloride), either sole or in combination, keeping distilled water as a control. Exogenously applied MLE alone and MLE + MC significantly enhanced the number of squares, flowers and green bolls per plant leading to higher cotton seed and lint yield of CIM 598 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. While application of MC alone and MLE + MC produced maximum micronaire value, fiber strength and fiber uniformity ratio of CIM 573 cultivar cultivated under conventional row spacing. The results suggested that application of MLE is a possible approach to enhance the cotton productivity and the use of MC to enhance the fiber quality attributes under conventional row spacing.


Resumo A configuração ideal de plantio é um atributo importante para a utilização eficiente dos recursos disponíveis e para obter alto rendimento de algodão. A aplicação de promotores de crescimento de plantas e reguladores de crescimento no algodão em uma densidade de plantio adequada são técnicas inovadoras na obtenção de safras de algodão mais produtivas. Portanto, foi planejado um estudo de campo para avaliar o papel de um bioestimulante e um regulador de crescimento na eficiência da utilização de recursos de cultivares de algodão plantadas com espaçamento variável entre linhas na Área de Pesquisa Agronômica Universidade Bahauddin Zakariya e Usmania Agricultural Farm Shujabad durante Kharif 2012. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiram em genótipos de algodão viz. CIM-573 e CIM-598, cultivadas sob espaçamento convencional (75 cm), médio (50 cm) e ultraestreito (25 cm) e pulverização foliar de bioestimulante (extrato de folha de moringa) e regulador de crescimento (cloreto de mepiquato)), sozinho ou combinado, mantendo a água destilada como controle. O MLE aplicado exogenamente sozinho e o MLE + MC aumentaram significativamente o número de quadrados, flores e cápsulas verdes por planta, levando a um maior rendimento de sementes e fibra de algodão da cultivar CIM 598 cultivada sob espaçamento convencional entre fileiras. Enquanto a aplicação de MC sozinho e MLE + MC produziu valor máximo de micronaire, resistência da fibra e razão de uniformidade da fibra da cultivar CIM 573 cultivada sob espaçamento convencional entre linhas. Os resultados sugeriram que a aplicação do MLE é uma abordagem possível para aumentar a produtividade do algodão e o uso de MC para aprimorar os atributos de qualidade da fibra no espaçamento convencional entre linhas.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243511, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285591

RESUMO

Abstract Vegetable oils have their specific physicochemical properties due to which they are playing vital role in human nutritional diet for health benefits. Cottonseed oil is obtained from various species of cotton seeds that are famous to be grown mainly for their fiber quality. The most prominently used specie is Gossypium hirsutum. It is obvious that the seeds of different variety of cotton vary as grown in diverse agroclimatic conditions with respect to oil, fats and protein contents. Cottonseed oil is routinely used for cooking and food manufacturing products. Cottonseed oil obtained after proper extraction/processing steps from crude state to refined oil in a variety of ways. Cotton crop is considered for their dual-use purpose, for fiber quality and oil production to promote health benefits in the world. Keeping in view the above facts, this review clearly demonstrated an overview about physicochemical and functional properties of cottonseed oil to promote health benefits associated with the use of this oil. The overall characteristics and all concerned health benefits of CSO will further improve their usefulness is a compact way. We have summarized a brief multi-dimensional features of CSO in all aspects up to the best of our knowledge for the end researchers who can further research in the respective aspect.


Resumo Os óleos vegetais têm propriedades físico-químicas específicas que desempenham um papel vital na dieta nutricional humana em benefício à saúde. O óleo de semente de algodão, utilizado rotineiramente no preparo e na fabricação de alimentos, é obtido através de várias espécies de sementes de algodão, famosas pela alta qualidade de sua fibra., cuja espécie mais utilizada é Gossypium hirsutum. As sementes variam, em relação ao teor do óleo, da gordura e das proteínas, de acordo com o cultivo e as diversas condições agroclimáticas. O óleo de algodão é obtido após etapas adequadas de extração das sementes e processamento do estado bruto ao refinado. Assim, a presente revisão demonstra, de maneira geral, as propriedades físico-químicas e funcionais do óleo de semente de algodão e seus benefícios à saúde humana, resumindo suas características multidimensionais. As características gerais e todos os benefícios do composto podem melhorar ainda mais se utilizadas de forma compacta, auxiliando futuros pesquisadores.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243811, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249262

RESUMO

Abstract An ethnobotanical study was conducted to document indigenous medicinal plants and their usage from knowledgeable and elderly persons in Razzar and Gadoon valley of Swabi and Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region of Pakistan during 2016-2019. Several systematic field visits and questionnaire surveys were carried out in selected sites of the study area to gather relevant information from the local community. Rapid assessment method was adopted for data collection by interviewing the local people having enough knowledge of medicinal plants use for treatment of different ailments. UV (UV) formula was applied to calculate the relative importance of medicinal plant species in each site of the study area. In the present study, 221 medicinal plants belonging to 105 families have been reported through 580 respondents (385 males, 138 females and 57 local health healer) from the Swabi and Hazara region. The main sources of herbal medicines were leaves (21%) followed by fruits (21%), seeds (17%), whole plants (14%), roots (9%), bark (9%), flowers (7%) and gum (2%). Mentha spicata L. and Berberis lycium Royle were reported with highest UV (UV) i.e. 0.92 and 0.68 in Razzar tehsil and Gadoon valley of Swabi, whereas Mentha longifolia L and Geranium wallichianum D were reported with highest UV i.e. (0.65) and (0.88) in Allai and Tanawal valley of Hazara region, respectively. It was concluded that Swabi and Hazara region is rich in medicinal plants species and associated traditional knowledge. Moreover, ethno-medicines have played significant role in the indigenous healthcare system of the study area. However, uprooting the entire plant for ethno-medicine is a big threat to conservation of medicinal plants diversity in the study area.


Resumo Um estudo etnobotânico foi realizado para documentar as plantas medicinais indígenas e seu uso por pessoas experientes e idosas em Razzar e Gadoon, no vale de Swabi e no vale Allai e Tanawal da região de Hazara, no Paquistão, durante 2016 a 2019. Várias visitas sistemáticas de campo e pesquisas por questionário foram realizadas em locais selecionados da área de estudo para coletar informações relevantes da comunidade local. O método de avaliação rápida foi adotado para a coleta de dados por meio de entrevistas com a população local, com conhecimento suficiente do uso de plantas medicinais para o tratamento de diferentes enfermidades. A fórmula UV (UV) foi aplicada para calcular a importância relativa das espécies de plantas medicinais em cada local da área de estudo. No presente estudo, 221 plantas medicinais pertencentes a 105 famílias foram relatadas por 580 entrevistados (385 homens, 138 mulheres e 57 curandeiros locais) da região de Swabi e Hazara. As principais fontes de medicamentos fitoterápicos foram folhas (21%), seguidas de frutas (21%), sementes (17%), plantas inteiras (14%), raízes (9%), cascas (9%), flores (7%) e goma (2%). Mentha spicata L. e Berberis lycium Royle foram relatados com maior UV (UV), ou seja, 0,92 e 0,68 em Razzar tehsil e vale Gadoon de Swabi, enquanto Mentha longifolia L. e Geranium wallichianum D. foram relatados com maior UV, isto é, 0,65 e 0,88 no vale Allai e Tanawal da região de Hazara, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que a região de Swabi e Hazara é rica em espécies de plantas medicinais e conhecimentos tradicionais associados. Além disso, etnomedicamentos têm desempenhado um papel significativo no sistema de saúde indígena da área de estudo. No entanto, arrancar a planta inteira para etnomedicina é uma grande ameaça à conservação da diversidade de plantas medicinais na área de estudo.

5.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(4): 977-988, Oct.-Dec. 2021. graf, tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-762626

RESUMO

Genetic distances among different chickpea varieties and evaluation of their free amino acid profiles were determined on the basis of Sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Total soluble proteins were resolved on 10% SDS Polyacrylamide gel. Low variability in tested varieties was observed. Dendogram based on electrophoretic data clustered the genotypes into 2 groups. The results showed that the average protein content of all the varieties was 26.01% within the range 22.8% for Thal-2006 to 34.06% Sheenghar-2000 of dry seed weight. On the basis of total protein content Bittal-98, Dasht and Sheen Ghar-2000, Karak-3 and CM-98, Paidar -91 and Fakhr-e-Thal, C-44, Balaksar and KK-1showed similar concentrations for protein contents among each other but showed variation from the rest of the varieties. Different proteins were separated on the basis of changes in their molecular weights by means of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Dasht, CM-98, and Sheen Ghar showed 100% similarity. Balaksar and Fakhr-e- Thal, KK-2 and Chattan and KC-98, KK-1 and Lawaghar were 100% similar among each other but showed variation from the rest of the accessions. The overall dendrogram showed high and low level of variation among the accessions. The concentration of free amino acids varied among the 16 chickpea varieties. A significant difference of both essential and non-essential amino acids was found among the chickpea cultivars. The total concentration of essential amino acid was recorded 40.81 g/100 g protein while non-essential was recorded 59.18343 g/100 g protein in the given cultivars. The highest concentration of essential amino acids was found in C-44 followed by KK-2, KK-1 and Fakhr E Tal while the lowest concentration was recorded in Cm-98, Paidar-91 and Sheen Ghar-2000 respectively. Cultivars TAL-2006, Chattan and Karak-3 showed maximum concentration of both essential and endogenous amino acids. In conclusion; for broadening the genetic pools in breeding programs or to search for exotic characters, for instance new disease resistance alleles, accession with low similarity coefficients (Lawaghar and Battal-98) may be utilized. Furthermore the information acquired from this study could be used to device a proficient breeding approach intended at improving nutritional as well as broadening the genetic base of this essential food crop of Pakistan.(AU)


As distâncias genéticas entre as diferentes variedades de grão-de-bico e a avaliação de seus perfis de aminoácidos livres foram determinadas com base na eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). As proteínas solúveis totais foram resolvidas em SDS-PAGE a 10%. Foi observada baixa variabilidade nas variedades testadas. O dendrograma fundamentado em dados eletroforéticos agrupou os genótipos em dois grupos. Os resultados mostraram que o teor médio de proteínas de todas as variedades foi de 26,01%, na faixa de 22,8% para Thal-2006 a 34,06% para Sheenghar-2000 do peso de sementes secas. Com base no conteúdo total de proteínas, Bittal-98, Dasht, Sheen Ghar-2000, Karak-3, CM-98, Paidar-91, Fakhr-e-Thal, C-44, Balaksar e KK-1 apresentaram concentrações semelhantes para o conteúdo de proteínas entre si, mas tiveram variação quanto ao restante das variedades. Diferentes proteínas foram separadas com base nas alterações de seus pesos moleculares por meio de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). Dasht, CM-98 e Sheen Ghar mostraram 100% de similaridade. Balaksar, Fakhr-e-Thal, KK-2, Chattan e KC-98, KK-1 e Lawaghar foram 100% semelhantes entre si, mas apresentaram variação em relação ao restante dos acessos. O dendrograma geral mostrou alto e baixo nível de variação entre os acessos. A concentração de aminoácidos livres variou entre as 16 variedades de grão-de-bico. Foi encontrada uma diferença significativa entre os aminoácidos essenciais e não essenciais nas cultivares de grão-de-bico. A concentração total de aminoácidos essenciais foi registrada em 40,81 g / 100 g de proteína, enquanto a não essencial foi registrada em 59,18343 g / 100 g de proteína nas cultivares. A maior concentração de aminoácidos essenciais foi encontrada em C-44, seguida de KK-2, KK-1 e Fakhr-e-Thal, enquanto a menor concentração foi registrada em CM-98, Paidar-91 e Sheen Ghar-2000. As cultivares TAL-2006, Chattan e Karak-3 apresentaram concentração máxima de aminoácidos essenciais e endógenos. Em conclusão, para ampliar os pools genéticos em programas de melhoramento ou procurar caracteres exóticos, por exemplo, novos alelos de resistência a doenças, pode ser utilizada a adesão com baixos coeficientes de similaridade (Lawaghar e Battal-98). Além disso, as informações adquiridas neste estudo poderiam ser usadas para criar uma abordagem de criação eficiente, com o objetivo de melhorar a nutrição e ampliar a base genética dessa cultura alimentar essencial do Paquistão.(AU)


Assuntos
Cicer/genética , Variação Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Paquistão
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(4): 977-988, Oct.-Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153440

RESUMO

Abstract Genetic distances among different chickpea varieties and evaluation of their free amino acid profiles were determined on the basis of Sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gels electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Total soluble proteins were resolved on 10% SDS Polyacrylamide gel. Low variability in tested varieties was observed. Dendogram based on electrophoretic data clustered the genotypes into 2 groups. The results showed that the average protein content of all the varieties was 26.01% within the range 22.8% for Thal-2006 to 34.06% Sheenghar-2000 of dry seed weight. On the basis of total protein content Bittal-98, Dasht and Sheen Ghar-2000, Karak-3 and CM-98, Paidar -91 and Fakhr-e-Thal, C-44, Balaksar and KK-1showed similar concentrations for protein contents among each other but showed variation from the rest of the varieties. Different proteins were separated on the basis of changes in their molecular weights by means of Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Dasht, CM-98, and Sheen Ghar showed 100% similarity. Balaksar and Fakhr-e- Thal, KK-2 and Chattan and KC-98, KK-1 and Lawaghar were 100% similar among each other but showed variation from the rest of the accessions. The overall dendrogram showed high and low level of variation among the accessions. The concentration of free amino acids varied among the 16 chickpea varieties. A significant difference of both essential and non-essential amino acids was found among the chickpea cultivars. The total concentration of essential amino acid was recorded 40.81 g/100 g protein while non-essential was recorded 59.18343 g/100 g protein in the given cultivars. The highest concentration of essential amino acids was found in C-44 followed by KK-2, KK-1 and Fakhr E Tal while the lowest concentration was recorded in Cm-98, Paidar-91 and Sheen Ghar-2000 respectively. Cultivars TAL-2006, Chattan and Karak-3 showed maximum concentration of both essential and endogenous amino acids. In conclusion; for broadening the genetic pools in breeding programs or to search for exotic characters, for instance new disease resistance alleles, accession with low similarity coefficients (Lawaghar and Battal-98) may be utilized. Furthermore the information acquired from this study could be used to device a proficient breeding approach intended at improving nutritional as well as broadening the genetic base of this essential food crop of Pakistan.


Resumo As distâncias genéticas entre as diferentes variedades de grão-de-bico e a avaliação de seus perfis de aminoácidos livres foram determinadas com base na eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). As proteínas solúveis totais foram resolvidas em SDS-PAGE a 10%. Foi observada baixa variabilidade nas variedades testadas. O dendrograma fundamentado em dados eletroforéticos agrupou os genótipos em dois grupos. Os resultados mostraram que o teor médio de proteínas de todas as variedades foi de 26,01%, na faixa de 22,8% para Thal-2006 a 34,06% para Sheenghar-2000 do peso de sementes secas. Com base no conteúdo total de proteínas, Bittal-98, Dasht, Sheen Ghar-2000, Karak-3, CM-98, Paidar-91, Fakhr-e-Thal, C-44, Balaksar e KK-1 apresentaram concentrações semelhantes para o conteúdo de proteínas entre si, mas tiveram variação quanto ao restante das variedades. Diferentes proteínas foram separadas com base nas alterações de seus pesos moleculares por meio de eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida com dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS-PAGE). Dasht, CM-98 e Sheen Ghar mostraram 100% de similaridade. Balaksar, Fakhr-e-Thal, KK-2, Chattan e KC-98, KK-1 e Lawaghar foram 100% semelhantes entre si, mas apresentaram variação em relação ao restante dos acessos. O dendrograma geral mostrou alto e baixo nível de variação entre os acessos. A concentração de aminoácidos livres variou entre as 16 variedades de grão-de-bico. Foi encontrada uma diferença significativa entre os aminoácidos essenciais e não essenciais nas cultivares de grão-de-bico. A concentração total de aminoácidos essenciais foi registrada em 40,81 g / 100 g de proteína, enquanto a não essencial foi registrada em 59,18343 g / 100 g de proteína nas cultivares. A maior concentração de aminoácidos essenciais foi encontrada em C-44, seguida de KK-2, KK-1 e Fakhr-e-Thal, enquanto a menor concentração foi registrada em CM-98, Paidar-91 e Sheen Ghar-2000. As cultivares TAL-2006, Chattan e Karak-3 apresentaram concentração máxima de aminoácidos essenciais e endógenos. Em conclusão, para ampliar os pools genéticos em programas de melhoramento ou procurar caracteres exóticos, por exemplo, novos alelos de resistência a doenças, pode ser utilizada a adesão com baixos coeficientes de similaridade (Lawaghar e Battal-98). Além disso, as informações adquiridas neste estudo poderiam ser usadas para criar uma abordagem de criação eficiente, com o objetivo de melhorar a nutrição e ampliar a base genética dessa cultura alimentar essencial do Paquistão.

7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242708, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495144

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential nonprotein-coding genes. In a range of organisms, miRNAs has been reported to play an essential role in regulating gene expressions at post-transcriptional level. They participate in most of the stress responsive processes in plants. Drought is an ultimate abiotic stress that affects the crop production. Therefore understanding drought stress responses are essential to improve the production of agricultural crops. Throughout evolution, plants have developed their own defense systems to cope with the adversities of environmental stresses. Among defensive mechanisms include the regulations of gene expression by miRNAs. Drought stress regulates the expression of some of the functionally conserved miRNAs in different plants. The given properties of miRNAs provide an insight to genetic alterations and enhancing drought resistance in cereal crops. The current review gives a summary to regulatory mechanisms in plants as well as miRNAs response to drought stresses in cereal crops. Some possible approaches and guidelines for the exploitation of drought stress miRNA responses to improve cereal crops are also described.


Assuntos
Secas , MicroRNAs , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246436, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495159

RESUMO

Application of different fertilizers to check the efficiency of expression of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) gene in one of the leading commercialized crops (cotton) against Lepidopteran species is of great concern. The expression of Cry protein level can be controlled by the improvement of nutrients levels. Therefore, the myth of response of Cry toxin to different combinations of NP fertilizers was explored in three Bt cotton cultivars. Combinations include three levels of nitrogen and three levels of phosphorus fertilizers. Immunostrips and Cry gene(s) specific primer based PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) analysis were used for the presence of Bt gene that unveiled the presence of Cry1Ac gene only. Further, the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit was used to quantify the expression of Cry1Ac protein. Under various NP fertilizers rates, the level of toxin protein exhibited highly significant differences. The highest toxin level mean was found to be 2.3740 and 2.1732 µg/g under the treatment of N150P75 kg ha-1 combination while the lowest toxin level mean was found to be 0.9158 and 0.7641 µg/g at the N50P25 kg ha-1 level at 80 and 120 DAS (Days After Sowing), respectively. It was concluded from the research that the usage of NP fertilizers has a positive relation with the expression of Cry1Ac toxin in Bt cotton. We recommend using the N150P50 kg ha-1 level as the most economical and practicable fertilizer instead of the standard dose N100P50 kg ha-1 to get the desired level of Cry1Ac level for long lasting plant resistance (<1.5). The revised dose of fertilizer may help farmers to avoid the cross-resistance development in contradiction of insect pests.


Assuntos
Proteínas Hemolisinas , Mariposas , Animais , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Fertilizantes , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Larva , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244011, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468510

RESUMO

Climatic factors play an essential role in the growth of tree ring width. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between climatic variables and tree-ring growth characteristics of Pinus sibirica in Altai mountains, northwestern China. This study being is first of its kind on climate growth analysis of Pinus sibirica in northwestern China. The study showed great potential to understand the species growing under the specific climatic conditions. Total of 70 tree cores collected from three sites in the sampling area, out of which 63 tree cores considered for this study. The effect of climatic variables which was studied include precipitation, temperature and PDSI. Our results showed that Tree Ring Width chronology has a significantly positive correlation with the late winter (March) temperature and significant negative correlation with the July temperatures. A significant correlation was observed with the late summer precipitation whereas no significant relation found with the Palmer Drought Severity Index. These significant correlations with temperature and precipitation suggested that this tree species had the potential for the reconstruction of the past climate in the area.


Assuntos
Pinus , China , Secas , Temperatura , Árvores
10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244593, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468512

RESUMO

': Kinnow' mandarin (Citrus nobilis L.× Citrus deliciosa T.) is an important marketable fruit of the world. It is mainstay of citrus industry in Pakistan, having great export potential. But out of total production of the country only 10% of the produce meets the international quality standard for export. Pre-harvest fruit drop and poor fruit quality could be associated with various issues including the plant nutrition. Most of the farmers do not pay attention to the supply of micro nutrients which are already deficient in the soil. Furthermore, their mobility within plants is also a question. Zinc (Zn) is amongst those micronutrients which affect the quality and postharvest life of the fruit and its deficiency in Pakistani soils is already reported by many researchers. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the influence of pre-harvest applications of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4; 0, 0.4%, 0.6% or 0.8%) on pre-harvest fruit drop, yield and fruit quality of 'Kinnow' mandarin at harvest. The treatments were applied during the month of October i.e. 4 months prior to harvest. The applied Zn sprays had significant effect on yield and quality of the "Kinnow" fruit. Amongst different foliar applications of ZnSO4applied four months before harvest, 0.6% ZnSO4 significantly reduced pre-harvest fruit drop (10.08%) as compared to untreated control trees (46.45%). Similarly, the maximum number of fruits harvested per tree (627), fruit weight (192.9 g), juice percentage (42.2%), total soluble solids (9.5 °Brix), ascorbic acid content (35.5 mg 100 g-1) and sugar contents (17.4) were also found significantly higher with 0.6% ZnSO4 treatment as compared to rest of treatments and control. Foliar application of 0.6% ZnSO4 also significantly improved total antioxidants (TAO) and total phenolic contents (TPC) in fruit. In conclusion, foliar spray of ZnSO4 (0.6%) four months prior to harvest reduced pre-harvest fruit drop, increase yield with improved quality of 'Kinnow' mandarin fruit.


Assuntos
Citrus , Frutas , Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Sulfato de Zinco/farmacologia
11.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 353-359, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508343

RESUMO

Curcumin is a potent antimicrobial herb used traditionally as a spice in culinary. This study was designed to evaluate the antiviral effects of curcuma longa extract against H9 influenza virus. A total of 60 embryonated eggs were equally divided into 5 groups with 12 eggs in each group. Group 1 (G1) served as uninfected negative control. Whereas Group 2 (G2) was kept as positive control infected with known virus @ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Group 3 (G3) was offered Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml and H9N2 virus (@ 0.2 ml with 10-9.3 EID50. Similarly, Group 4 (G4) was inoculated with extract of Curcuma longa @ 0.2 mg/0.2 ml per egg, whereas Group 5 (G5) was given Ribazole @ 0.2 ml/ egg. The crude extract and virus were administered on the 15th day of incubation and were checked after every 24 hours up to 96th hour post inoculation by random selection of 3 eggs. Death and survival rate were noted in all groups. Gross and histopathological lesions were also observed. Results revealed that Curcuma longa extract had significantly (p<0.05) reduced the mortality rate of embryos infected with H9N2 virus. In G3, increased lymphocytes and mild fatty changes were seen in liver. Whereas, mature RBCs, plasma cells and some lymphoblast's were observed in Spleen. Similarly, the bursa follicles were with lymphocytic aggregation. The G4 (Curcuma longa) and G5 (Ribazole) were with maximum embryo survival after 48 and 72 h post inoculation. This study revealed potential antiviral activity of Curcuma longa against H9N2 influenza viruses and can be opted as alternative to antibiotics and antiviral drugs to minimize the antimicrobial resistance in human and animal population.

12.
ESMO Open ; 6(5): 100261, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abiraterone and enzalutamide use is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity in clinical trials, but the magnitude and clinical relevance of this association in real-world prostate cancer (PC) population remain unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the MarketScan claims databases (1 January 2013 to 30 September 2018) to identify adults with diagnosis of metastatic PC who received treatment with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and novel antiandrogen agents (abiraterone or enzalutamide). The primary CV outcome measure was composite outcome of acute myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke. Secondary outcomes were individual risks of MI or stroke. We used an intention-to-treat approach to analyze the CV outcomes associated with drug exposure among patients with metastatic PC. Cox regression model was used to estimate the independent association of two drugs with CV risk after adjustment for age, baseline atrial fibrillation, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. RESULTS: A total of 6294 patients with metastatic PC who were treated with ADT and either abiraterone or enzalutamide were included in the final analysis. Of these, 4017 (63.8%) patients used abiraterone and 2217 (32.2%) patients used enzalutamide. During the study period, 255 (6.3%) primary endpoint events occurred, resulting in an incidence rate of 4.3 per 100 patient-years. In multivariable analysis, abiraterone use was associated with a 31% increased risk of MI or stroke compared to enzalutamide (hazard ratio 1.31; 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.63; P = 0.01). The incidence rate was similar in patients who switched initial therapy from abiraterone to enzalutamide or vice versa (5.0 versus 5.6 per 100 patient-years, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first real-world assessment of MI and stroke among metastatic PC patients receiving novel anti-androgens. Our findings of increased MI and stroke risk with abiraterone compared with enzalutamide are consistent with data from clinical trials and suggest that enzalutamide may be preferable for prostate cancer patients at high CV risk.

13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246440, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550282

RESUMO

Utilization of modern breeding techniques for developing high yielding and uniform plant types ultimately narrowing the genetic makeup of most crops. Narrowed genetic makeup of these crops has made them vulnerable towards disease and insect epidemics. For sustainable crop production, genetic variability of these crops must be broadened against various biotic and abiotic stresses. One of the ways to widen genetic configuration of these crops is to identify novel additional sources of durable resistance. In this regard crops wild relatives are providing valuable sources of allelic diversity towards various biotic, abiotic stress tolerance and quality components. For incorporating novel variability from wild relative's wide hybridization technique has become a promising breeding method. For this purpose, wheat-Th. bessarabicum amphiploid, addition and translocation lines have been screened in field and screen house conditions to get novel sources of yellow rust and Karnal bunt resistant. Stripe rust screening under field conditions has revealed addition lines 4JJ and 6JJ as resistant to moderately resistant while addition lines 3JJ, 5JJ, 7JJ and translocation lines Tr-3, Tr-6 as moderately resistant wheat-Thinopyrum-bessarabicum genetic stock. Karnal bunt screening depicted addition lines 5JJ and 4JJ as highly resistant genetic stock. These genetic stocks may be used to introgression novel stripe rust and Karnal bunt resistance from the tertiary gene pool into susceptible wheat backgrounds.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Triticum , Basidiomycota/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Triticum/genética
14.
Med J Malaysia ; 76(Suppl 4): 55-59, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558562

RESUMO

Sudden sensory neural hearing Loss (SSNHL) needs to be identified and managed correctly in a secondary or tertiary centre. Whilst 45% of presentations are said to be idiopathic in nature, several viruses have been linked to its aetiology. It was noted, anecdotally, that more patients were presenting with SSNHL during the COVID-19 pandemic to our ENT service at Wrightington Wigan and Leigh teaching hospitals, UK (WWL). We identified 4 COVID-19 positive patients who presented to our ENT service with SSNHL. Despite normal findings on external ear examination, three of the patients showed bilateral hearing loss, whilst one had a predominantly unilateral loss. Given our findings we would like to present these four cases, as well as providing hypotheses on possible aetiology of this association. This may aid in research, diagnosis and treatment of future COVID positive patients with SSNHL.

15.
ESMO Open ; 6(4): 100189, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the randomised phase III KEYNOTE-062 study, pembrolizumab was non-inferior to chemotherapy for overall survival in patients with programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-positive [combined positive score (CPS) ≥1] advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. We present findings of prespecified health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) analyses for pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy in this population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HRQOL, a secondary endpoint, was measured in patients who received ≥1 dose of study treatment and completed ≥1 HRQOL questionnaire [European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 30-question quality-of-life (QLQ-C30), EORTC 22-question quality-of-life gastric-cancer-specific module (QLQ-STO22)]. Least squares mean (LSM) change (baseline to week 18) in global health status/quality of life (GHS/QOL; EORTC QLQ-C30) and time to deterioration (TTD) in GHS/QOL, nausea/vomiting and appetite loss scores (EORTC QLQ-C30) and abdominal pain/discomfort scores (EORTC QLQ-STO22) were evaluated. RESULTS: The HRQOL population comprised 495 patients with CPS ≥1 (pembrolizumab, 252; chemotherapy, 243). Compliance rates at week 18 were similar for pembrolizumab and chemotherapy (EORTC QLQ-C30, 87.9% and 81.9%; EORTC QLQ-STO22, 87.9% and 81.3%, respectively). There was no between-arm difference in LSM score change in GHS/QOL [-0.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) -5.01 to 4.69; P = 0.948]. The LSM score change for most subscales showed comparable worsening in both arms. TTD for GHS/QOL [hazard ratio (HR), 0.96; 95% CI, 0.67-1.38; P = 0.826], appetite loss (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.58-1.20; P = 0.314) and pain (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.78-1.91; P = 0.381) were similar between arms. Longer TTD was observed for pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for nausea/vomiting (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44-0.85; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: HRQOL was maintained with first-line treatment with pembrolizumab in patients with PD-L1-positive advanced gastric/GEJ cancer and was similar between pembrolizumab and chemotherapy in this population.

16.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246002, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378665

RESUMO

Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a new concept in forest management. Economic valuation provides basis for payment for ecosystem services (PES). Therefore, objective of this study was to evaluate eco-tourism and carbon stock services of the Maindam valley, District Swat, Pakistan. For the carbon stock calculation, a sample size of 155 plots of 0.1 hectare (Ha) was taken using preliminary survey at 95% confidence interval and 10% allowable error. The data for tourism services was collected from owners of all the hotels, 100 tourists and key informants of the area at 10% sampling intensity on pretested questionnaire for twenty years period (1997-2017). Results showed that Miandam valley has carbon stock worth US$ 16,306,000 while the value of eco-tourism was US$ 1,578,458 on annual basis. The results also showed that trend of tourism has drastically declined after the 9/11 incident for foreigners and locals and the situation was further deteriorated during the era of Talibanization or militancy from 2008-2011. This study recommends implementation of PES strategy at the rate of 5%, thus a total of US$ 78,922 can be earned from eco-tourism and carbon crediting in the study area annually, which could play important role in sustainable forest management.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Carbono/análise , Florestas , Paquistão
17.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e243511, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378680

RESUMO

Vegetable oils have their specific physicochemical properties due to which they are playing vital role in human nutritional diet for health benefits. Cottonseed oil is obtained from various species of cotton seeds that are famous to be grown mainly for their fiber quality. The most prominently used specie is Gossypium hirsutum. It is obvious that the seeds of different variety of cotton vary as grown in diverse agroclimatic conditions with respect to oil, fats and protein contents. Cottonseed oil is routinely used for cooking and food manufacturing products. Cottonseed oil obtained after proper extraction/processing steps from crude state to refined oil in a variety of ways. Cotton crop is considered for their dual-use purpose, for fiber quality and oil production to promote health benefits in the world. Keeping in view the above facts, this review clearly demonstrated an overview about physicochemical and functional properties of cottonseed oil to promote health benefits associated with the use of this oil. The overall characteristics and all concerned health benefits of CSO will further improve their usefulness is a compact way. We have summarized a brief multi-dimensional features of CSO in all aspects up to the best of our knowledge for the end researchers who can further research in the respective aspect.


Assuntos
Óleo de Sementes de Algodão , Promoção da Saúde , Gossypium , Humanos , Óleos Vegetais , Sementes
18.
mBio ; 12(4): e0193721, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399623

RESUMO

Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is the most prevalent oral infection in immunocompromised patients, primarily associated with Candida albicans. Increasing evidence points to a significant role of mucosal bacteria on the transition of C. albicans from commensal to pathogenic. In this work, we hypothesized that changes in the abundance or composition of the mucosal bacterial microbiota induced by dietary sucrose during the development of OPC can modulate C. albicans virulence. C. albicans burdens and mucosal lesions were evaluated in a mouse cortisone immunosuppression model amended with sucrose. We also analyzed the mucosal bacterial composition using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and culture methods. In immunocompetent mice, sucrose significantly increased total bacterial burdens and reduced alpha diversity, by increasing the relative abundance of mitis group streptococci. In immunocompromised mice, C. albicans infection was associated with a significantly reduced bacterial alpha diversity due to an increase in the relative abundance of enterococci. When exposed to dietary sucrose, these mice had reduced C. albicans burdens and reduced bacterial alpha diversity, associated with an increase in the relative abundance of Lactobacillus. SparCC correlation networks showed a significant negative correlation between Lactobacillus and Enterococcus in all Candida-infected mice. Depletion of lactobacilli with antibiotic treatment partially restored C. albicans burdens in mice receiving sucrose. In coculture in vitro experiments, mouse oral Lactobacillus johnsonii isolates inhibited growth of Enterococcus faecalis isolates and C. albicans. These results support the hypothesis that the sucrose-induced attenuation of C. albicans virulence was a result of changes in the mucosal bacterial microbiome characterized by a reduction in enterococci and an increase in lactobacilli. IMPORTANCE By comparing Candida albicans virulence and the mucosal bacterial composition in a mouse oral infection model, we were able to dissect the effects of the host environment (immunosuppression), infection with C. albicans, and local modulating factors (availability of sucrose as a carbon source) on the mucosal bacterial microbiome and its role on fungal virulence. We showed that changes in endogenous microbial communities in response to sucrose can lead to attenuation of fungal disease. We also showed that Lactobacillus johnsonii may curtail Candida virulence both by inhibiting its growth and by inhibiting the growth of potentially synergistic bacteria such as enterococci. Our results support the concept that Candida pathogenesis should be viewed in the contexts of both a susceptible host and a mucosal bacterial microbiota conducive to virulence.

19.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254474, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The HIV cascade of care is a framework for monitoring HIV care, identifying gaps and informing appropriate interventions. This study aimed to describe the cascade of care in Oman in 2019 and highlight disparities at the sub-population level. METHODS: We used the UNAIDS Spectrum modelling software to estimate the number of people living with HIV. A national HIV surveillance database was used to identify Omani people (≥13 years old) diagnosed with HIV from 1984 through December 2019. We calculated the cascade indicators as of 31 December 2019 stratified by sex, age, HIV risk factor, residence, and region of HIV care. We also performed multivariate logistic regression to determine the predictors of attrition at linkage, retention, on ART, and viral suppression. RESULTS: As of December 2019, the estimated number of people living with HIV in Oman was 2440. Out of the estimated number of people living with HIV, 69% were diagnosed, 66% were linked to care, 61% were retained in care, 60% were on ART, and 55% were virally suppressed. Of the 1673 diagnosed individuals, 96% were linked to care, 88% were retained in care, 87% were on ART, and 81% were virally suppressed. People who received HIV care outside Muscat had the largest attrition (11% loss) in the transition from linkage (97%) to retention (86%). Similarly, people aged 13-24 years had the largest attrition (13% loss) from "on ART" (88%) to viral suppression (75%). Logistic regression showed that both not reporting a specific HIV risk factor and receipt of HIV care outside Muscat independently predicted attrition at each cascade stage from linkage to care through viral suppression. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings identified substantial disparities across various subpopulations along the cascade of care in Oman. This analysis will be invaluable in informing future interventions targeting patient subgroups who are at the highest risk of attrition.

20.
Nat Med ; 27(7): 1290-1297, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108714

RESUMO

Reports of ChAdOx1 vaccine-associated thrombocytopenia and vascular adverse events have led to some countries restricting its use. Using a national prospective cohort, we estimated associations between exposure to first-dose ChAdOx1 or BNT162b2 vaccination and hematological and vascular adverse events using a nested incident-matched case-control study and a confirmatory self-controlled case series (SCCS) analysis. An association was found between ChAdOx1 vaccination and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) (0-27 d after vaccination; adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 5.77, 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.41-13.83), with an estimated incidence of 1.13 (0.62-1.63) cases per 100,000 doses. An SCCS analysis confirmed that this was unlikely due to bias (RR = 1.98 (1.29-3.02)). There was also an increased risk for arterial thromboembolic events (aRR = 1.22, 1.12-1.34) 0-27 d after vaccination, with an SCCS RR of 0.97 (0.93-1.02). For hemorrhagic events 0-27 d after vaccination, the aRR was 1.48 (1.12-1.96), with an SCCS RR of 0.95 (0.82-1.11). A first dose of ChAdOx1 was found to be associated with small increased risks of ITP, with suggestive evidence of an increased risk of arterial thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events. The attenuation of effect found in the SCCS analysis means that there is the potential for overestimation of the reported results, which might indicate the presence of some residual confounding or confounding by indication. Public health authorities should inform their jurisdictions of these relatively small increased risks associated with ChAdOx1. No positive associations were seen between BNT162b2 and thrombocytopenic, thromboembolic and hemorrhagic events.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/epidemiologia , Trombocitopenia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia Venosa/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Escócia/epidemiologia , Trombose dos Seios Intracranianos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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