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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 00264, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1339364

RESUMO

Abstract Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Resumo Allium cepa pertence à família Liliaceae e é rica em nutrientes e antioxidantes. Apesar das expressivas aplicações alimentares do bulbo da cebola, sua casca e outras camadas externas são geralmente consideradas resíduos, e seu potencial nutricional e terapêutico ainda é pouco explorado. O presente estudo foi delineado com o objetivo de investigar comparativamente o potencial antioxidante de duas partes de Allium cepa, por exemplo o bulbo (parte comestível) e camadas externas e cascas secas (parte não comestível). Além disso, o efeito inibitório dos extratos do bulbo de cebola e casca sobre a α-glucosidase intestinal de ratos e α-amilase pancreática suína também foi avaliado. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos da casca de cebola e bulbo foi avaliado utilizando-se 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), método de poder antioxidante de redução do ferro (FRAP), método 2,2'-azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS) de eliminação de radicais, atividade de eliminação de radicais H2O2 e atividade quelante do Fe2+. Os flavonoides totais e os teores fenólicos do extrato de etanol da casca de cebola foram significativamente maiores quando comparados ao do bulbo. O extrato de etanol da casca de cebola também apresentou melhor atividade antioxidante e eliminação de radicais livres quando comparado ao extrato de etanol do bulbo, enquanto o extrato aquoso de bulbo apresentou menor potencial antioxidante. O potencial de inibição da α-glicosidase dos extratos de casca de cebola correlacionou-se com seus teores fenólicos e de flavonoides. Os resultados encontrados identificaram que a casca de cebola é uma possível fonte de agentes antioxidantes e compostos fenólicos que podem ser benéficos contra o desenvolvimento de várias doenças crônicas que estão associadas ao estresse oxidativo. Além disso, as camadas externas secas e as cascas da cebola exibiram maior conteúdo fenólico e atividades antioxidantes, em comparação com o bulbo interno. As informações obtidas pelo presente estudo podem promover o uso de outras partes vegetais além do mesocarpo comestível para futuras aplicações em alimentos, ao invés de serem desperdiçadas.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: 00264, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669793

RESUMO

Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cebolas , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Suínos , alfa-Glucosidases
3.
Cureus ; 13(3): e13720, 2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33833931

RESUMO

Background The medical community's understanding of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was limited initially, and many laboratory investigations were performed to observe effects of the virus on the body, its complications, and outcomes. We observed that some laboratory investigations provided redundant information regarding outcomes, and, therefore, were not necessary. Therefore, the extent of laboratory investigations may need to be pared down to not only avoid issues related to repeated blood sampling but also to minimize the financial burdens in poor socioeconomic countries.  Objective This study aimed to observe trends of clinical and laboratory values in COVID-19 patients and their relationship to outcomes, including disease severity, length of hospital stay, and mortality. Methods We conducted an observational cohort study of COVID-19 patients treated as inpatients at the Shifa International Hospital (SIH) in Islamabad in April 2020. Patients were included if they were nonsurgical, adult inpatients of SIH diagnosed with COVID-19 via positive polymerase chain reaction test. We monitored study participants' clinical and laboratory values (including hypoxia) on admission and throughout the study period. We used IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 23.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) for data entry and analysis. Descriptive statistics were calculated for qualitative and quantitative data. We determined the effect of all variables on outcomes through chi-squared or Fisher's exact test, and p-values <0.05 with 95% confidence interval were considered statistically significant. Results A total of 51 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled. Most of the study participants were men older than age 50 with multiple comorbidities and resided in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Length of hospital stay ranged from eight to 14 days, and most patients had severe disease and survived. Factors such as patient age, gender, comorbid conditions, residence, and medication did not significantly affect outcomes. Hypotension during the height of symptoms and oxygen saturations <80% on admission was associated with prolonged hospital stays. Two complete blood count (CBC) parameters (platelet counts and mean corpuscular volume, MCV) were strongly associated with mortality and severity in our patients. Four non-CBC parameters (alanine transaminase, ALT; D-dimer; C-reactive protein, CRP; and lactate dehydrogenase, LDH) had strong statistical impact on disease severity, length of hospital stay, and mortality in our patients. Conclusion In a resource-limited country, laboratory testing must be chosen wisely and used appropriately. Patient age, gender, comorbid conditions, drugs, residence, and ferritin levels did not affect COVID-19 outcomes. Hemoglobin, platelet count, MCV, CRP, D-dimer, ALT, LDH, hypoxia, and hypotension were all correlated to disease outcomes. Therefore, these factors are useful laboratory examinations for COVID-19 patients, especially in poor countries.

4.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(3): 2469-2480, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639019

RESUMO

Heat stress (HS) causes reductions in milk production, but it is unclear whether this effect is due to reduced number or functional capacity (or both) of mammary cells. Methionine supplementation improves milk protein, whereas Arg is taken up in excess by mammary cells to produce energy and nonessential AA that can be incorporated into milk protein. To evaluate molecular mechanisms by which mammary functional capacity is affected by HS and Met or Arg, mammary alveolar (MAC-T) cells were incubated at thermal-neutral (37°C) or HS (42°C) temperatures. Treatments were optimal AA profiles (control; Lys:Met = 2.9:1.0; Lys:Arg = 2.1:1.0), control plus Met (Lys:Met = 2.5:1.0), or control plus Arg (Lys:Arg = 1.0:1.0). After incubation for 6 h, cells were harvested and RNA and protein were extracted for quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Protein abundance of mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR), eukaryotic initiation factor 2a, serine-threonine protein kinase (AKT), 4E binding protein 1 (EIF4EBP1), and phosphorylated EIF4EBP1 was lower during HS. The lower phosphorylated EIF4EBP1 with HS would diminish translation initiation and reduce protein synthesis. Both Met and Arg had no effect on MTOR proteins, but the phosphorylated EIF4EBP1 decreased by AA, especially Arg. Additionally, Met but not Arg decreased the abundance of phosphorylated eukaryotic elongation factor 2, which could be positive for protein synthesis. Although HS upregulated the heat shock protein HSPA1A, the apoptotic gene BAX, and the translation inhibitor EIF4EBP1, the mRNA abundance of PPARG, FASN, ACACA (lipogenesis), and BCL2L1 (antiapoptotic) decreased. Greater supply of Met or Arg reversed most of the effects of HS occurring at the mRNA level and upregulated the abundance of HSPA1A. In addition, compared with the control, supply of Met or Arg upregulated genes related to transcription and translation (MAPK1, MTOR, SREBF1, RPS6KB1, JAK2), insulin signaling (AKT2, IRS1), AA transport (SLC1A5, SLC7A1), and cell proliferation (MKI67). Upregulation of microRNA related to cell growth arrest and apoptosis (miR-34a, miR-92a, miR-99, and miR-184) and oxidative stress (miR-141 and miR-200a) coupled with downregulation of fat synthesis-related microRNA (miR-27ab and miR-221) were detected with HS. Results suggest that HS has a direct negative effect on synthesis of protein and fat, mediated in part by coordinated changes in mRNA, microRNA, and protein abundance of key networks. The positive responses with Met and Arg raise the possibility that supplementation with these AA during HS might have a positive effect on mammary metabolism.


Assuntos
Arginina/farmacologia , Bovinos , Glândulas Mamárias Animais/citologia , Metionina/farmacologia , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Arginina/administração & dosagem , Caseínas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Temperatura Alta , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Leite/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 363: 205-213, 2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308359

RESUMO

Highly efficient, visible light-driven and a novel ternary hybrid photocatalyst WO3-TiO2-g-C3N4 with robust stabilities and versatile properties has been synthesized through facile hydrothermal method. This study considers the photo-degradation of aspirin (acetylsalicylate) and caffeine (methyl-theobromine) via photocatalysts (WO3, WO3/TiO2, and WO3/TiO2/g-C3N4 (WTCN) composite) under visible-light irradiation. The SEM and TEM images show the formation of WO3 nanoparticles with orthorhombic structure and average particle size of 65 nm. The photocatalyst WTCN composite possesses higher-catalytic activity when compared to that of WO3 and WO3/TiO2 for degradation of aspirin and caffeine. The incorporation of g-C3N4 in WO3/TiO2 composite exhibited significant influence on the photocatalytic performance for both pollutants. Excellent photocatalytic performance of WTCN composite was observed owing to hydroxyl radical (OH) and superoxide radical (O2-) as main active species. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of WTCN composite can be attributed to following three reasons: (1) extended visible-light absorption; (2) extended surface area; (3) efficient charge-separation due to synergistic effects between g- and WO3/TiO2 composite. The removal efficiency of aspirin and caffeine (Methyl theobromine) could be achieved as much as 98% and 97% for acetylsalicylate and methyl-theobromine using WTCN composite material, respectively. This study could provide new insights into the synthesis of novel WO3-based materials for environmental and energy applications.


Assuntos
Aspirina/isolamento & purificação , Cafeína/isolamento & purificação , Nanoestruturas/química , Fotólise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Nanoestruturas/ultraestrutura , Nitrilas/síntese química , Óxidos/síntese química , Titânio/química , Tungstênio
6.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 322, 2018 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colostrum and milk are essential sources of antibodies and nutrients for the neonate, playing a key role in their survival and growth. Slight abnormalities in the timing of colostrogenesis/lactogenesis potentially threaten piglet survival. To further delineate the genes and transcription regulators implicated in the control of the transition from colostrogenesis to lactogenesis, we applied RNA-seq analysis of swine mammary gland tissue from late-gestation to farrowing. Three 2nd parity sows were used for mammary tissue biopsies on days 14, 10, 6 and 2 before (-) parturition and on day 1 after (+) parturition. A total of 15 mRNA libraries were sequenced on a HiSeq2500 (Illumina Inc.). The Dynamic Impact Approach and the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis were used for pathway analysis and gene network analysis, respectively. RESULTS: A large number of differentially expressed genes were detected very close to parturition (-2d) and at farrowing (+ 1d). The results reflect the extraordinary metabolic changes in the swine mammary gland once it enters into the crucial phases of lactogenesis and underscore a strong transcriptional component in the control of colostrogenesis. There was marked upregulation of genes involved in synthesis of colostrum and main milk components (i.e. proteins, fat, lactose and antimicrobial factors) with a pivotal role of CSN1S2, LALBA, WAP, SAA2, and BTN1A1. The sustained activation of transcription regulators such as SREBP1 and XBP1 suggested they help coordinate these adaptations. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the precise timing for the transition from colostrogenesis to lactogenesis in swine mammary gland remains uncharacterized. However, our transcriptomic data support the hypothesis that the transition occurs before parturition. This is likely attributable to upregulation of a wide array of genes including those involved in 'Protein and Carbohydrate Metabolism', 'Immune System', 'Lipid Metabolism', 'PPAR signaling pathway' and 'Prolactin signaling pathway' along with the activation of transcription regulators controlling lipid synthesis and endoplasmic reticulum biogenesis and stress response.


Assuntos
Glândulas Mamárias Animais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Animais , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Colostro/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Parto , RNA/química , RNA/isolamento & purificação , RNA/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Suínos , Regulação para Cima
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 241: 1101-1117, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28579178

RESUMO

This paper aims to examine the potential of waste biorefineries in developing countries as a solution to current waste disposal problems and as facilities to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added products. The waste in developing countries represents a significant source of biomass, recycled materials, chemicals, energy, and revenue if wisely managed and used as a potential feedstock in various biorefinery technologies such as fermentation, anaerobic digestion (AD), pyrolysis, incineration, and gasification. However, the selection or integration of biorefinery technologies in any developing country should be based on its waste characterization. Waste biorefineries if developed in developing countries could provide energy generation, land savings, new businesses and consequent job creation, savings of landfills costs, GHG emissions reduction, and savings of natural resources of land, soil, and groundwater. The challenges in route to successful implementation of biorefinery concept in the developing countries are also presented using life cycle assessment (LCA) studies.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , Incineração , Eliminação de Resíduos
8.
PLoS One ; 12(2): e0171297, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28207856

RESUMO

In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), millions of Muslims come to perform Pilgrimage every year. Around one million ton of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated in Makkah city annually. The collected MSW is disposed of in the landfills without any treatment or energy recovery. As a result, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and contamination of the soil and water bodies along with leachate and odors are occurring in waste disposal vicinities. The composition of MSW shows that food waste is the largest waste stream (up to 51%) of the total generated MSW. About 13% of the food waste consists of fat content that is equivalent to about 64 thousand tons per year. This study aims to estimate the production potential of biodiesel first time in Makkah city from fat/oil fractions of MSW and highlight its economic and environmental benefits. It has been estimated that 62.53, 117.15 and 6.38 thousand tons of biodiesel, meat and bone meal (MBM) and glycerol respectively could be produced in 2014. A total electricity potential of 852 Gigawatt hour (GWh) from all three sources based on their energy contents, Higher Heating Value (HHV) of 40.17, 18.33 and 19 MJ/kg, was estimated for 2014 that will increase up to 1777 GWh in 2050. The cumulative net savings from landfill waste diversion (256 to 533 million Saudi Riyal (SAR)), carbon credits (46 to 96 million SAR), fuel savings (146 to 303 million SAR) and electricity generation (273 to 569 million SAR) have a potential to add a total net revenue of 611 to 1274 million SAR every year to the Saudi economy, from 2014 to 2050 respectively. However, further studies including real-time data about annual slaughtering activities and the amount of waste generation and its management are critical to decide optimum waste management practices based on life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) methodologies.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Gorduras/metabolismo , Eliminação de Resíduos/métodos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos/métodos , Humanos , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos
9.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 98(8): 568-573, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27659375

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION Laparoscopic incisional and ventral hernia repair (LIVHR) is widely accepted and safe but the type of mesh used is still debated. We retrospectively compared postoperative outcomes with two different meshes commonly used in LIVHR. METHODS This is a retrospective study of patients who underwent incisional hernia repair between January 2008 and December 2010. Two meshes were used: Parietex™ Composite (Covidien, New Haven, CT, USA) and the DynaMesh®-IPOM (FEG Textiltechnik mbH, Aachen, Germany). The two groups were compared with respect to recurrence rates, incidence of seroma and intestinal obstruction. RESULTS Among the 88 patients who underwent LIVHR, 75 patients (85.2%) presented with primary incisional hernia, 10 (11.4%) presented with a first recurrence and 3 (3.4%) presented with a second recurrence. Median follow-up was 53.6 months (range 40-61 months). 12.9% of patients had recurrence in the Parietex™ Composite mesh group (n=62) in comparison to 3.8% in the DynaMesh®-IPOM mesh group (n=26; P=0.20). DynaMesh®-IPOM was associated with a significantly higher incidence of intestinal obstruction secondary to adhesions (11.5% vs. 0%, P=0.006) and lower incidence of seroma and haematoma formation compared to Parietex™ composite mesh group (0% vs. 6.4% of patients; P=0.185). CONCLUSIONS LIVHR is a safe and feasible technique. Dynamesh®-IPOM is associated with a significantly higher incidence of adhesion related bowel obstruction, albeit with a lower incidence of recurrence, seroma and haematoma formation compared with Parietex™ Composite mesh. However, there is a need for further well-designed, multicentre randomised controlled studies to investigate the use of these meshes.


Assuntos
Hérnia Ventral/cirurgia , Herniorrafia/métodos , Hérnia Incisional/cirurgia , Telas Cirúrgicas , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Herniorrafia/efeitos adversos , Herniorrafia/instrumentação , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/instrumentação , Laparoscopia/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Thromb Haemost ; 14(11): 2212-2226, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27590316

RESUMO

Essentials The role of protein C (PC) activation in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) is unknown. PC activation is required for mitochondrial function in the central nervous system. Impaired PC activation aggravates EAE, which can be compensated for by soluble thrombomodulin. Protection of myelin by activated PC or solulin is partially independent of immune-modulation. SUMMARY: Background Studies with human samples and in rodents established a function of coagulation proteases in neuro-inflammatory demyelinating diseases (e.g. in multiple sclerosis [MS] and experimental autoimmune encephalitis [EAE]). Surprisingly, approaches to increase activated protein C (aPC) plasma levels as well as antibody-mediated inhibition of PC/aPC ameliorated EAE in mice. Hence, the role of aPC generation in demyelinating diseases and potential mechanisms involved remain controversial. Furthermore, it is not known whether loss of aPC has pathological consequences at baseline (e.g. in the absence of disease). Objective To explore the role of thrombomodulin (TM)-dependent aPC generation at baseline and in immunological and non-immunological demyelinating disease models. Methods Myelination and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were evaluated in mice with genetically reduced TM-mediated protein C activation (TMPro/Pro ) and in wild-type (WT) mice under control conditions or following induction of EAE. Non-immunological demyelination was analyzed in the cuprizone-diet model. Results Impaired TM-dependent aPC generation already disturbs myelination and mitochondrial function at baseline. This basal phenotype is linked with increased mitochondrial ROS and aggravates EAE. Reducing mitochondrial ROS (p66Shc deficiency), restoring aPC plasma levels or injecting soluble TM (solulin) ameliorates EAE in TMPro/Pro mice. Soluble TM additionally conveyed protection in WT-EAE mice. Furthermore, soluble TM dampened demyelination in the cuprizone-diet model, demonstrating that its myelin-protective effect is partially independent of an immune-driven process. Conclusion These results uncover a novel physiological function of TM-dependent aPC generation within the CNS. Loss of TM-dependent aPC generation causes a neurological defect in healthy mice and aggravates EAE, which can be therapeutically corrected.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Bainha de Mielina/química , Proteína C/metabolismo , Trombomodulina/sangue , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cardiolipinas/química , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Neurônios , Estresse Oxidativo , Células PC12 , Fenótipo , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Solubilidade , Trombomodulina/química
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 98(8): 5401-13, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26074246

RESUMO

The liver is the main metabolic organ coordinating the adaptations that take place during the peripartal period of dairy cows. A successful transition into lactation, rather than management practices alone, depends on environmental factors such as temperature, season of parturition, and photoperiod. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of calving season on the hepatic transcriptome of dairy cows during the transition period. A total of 12 Holstein dairy cows were assigned into 2 groups based on calving season (6 cows March-April, spring; 6 cows June-July, summer, SU). The RNA was extracted from liver samples obtained at -30, 3, and 35 DIM via percutaneous biopsy and hybridized to the Agilent 44K Bovine (V2) Gene Expression Microarray (Agilent Technologies Inc., Santa Clara, CA). A quantitative PCR on 22 target genes was performed to verify and expand the analyses. A total of 4,307 differentially expressed genes were detected (false discovery rate ≤0.05) in SU compared with spring. Furthermore, 73 unique differentially expressed genes were detected in SU compared with spring cows after applying a fold-change threshold ≥3 and ≤-3. For Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways analysis of differentially expressed genes, we used the dynamic impact approach. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software was used to analyze upstream transcription regulators and perform gene network analysis. Among metabolic pathways, energy metabolism from lipids, carbohydrates, and amino acids was strongly affected by calving in SU, with a reduced level of fatty acid synthesis, oxidation, re-esterification, and synthesis of lipoproteins, leading to hepatic lipidosis. Glycan-synthesis was downregulated in SU cows probably as a mechanism to counteract the progression of this lipidosis. In contrast, calving in the SU resulted in upregulation of gluconeogenesis but also greater use of glucose as an energy source. Among nonmetabolic pathways, the heat-shock response was obviously activated in SU cows but was also associated with inflammatory and intracellular stress response. Furthermore, data support a recent finding that cows experience endoplasmic reticulum stress around parturition. Transcription regulator analysis revealed how metabolic changes are related to important regulatory mechanisms, including epigenetic modification. The holistic analyses of the liver transcriptome response to calving in the summer at high environmental temperatures underscore how transition cows should be carefully managed during this period, as they experience alterations in liver energy metabolism and inflammatory state increasing susceptibility to health disorders in early postpartum.


Assuntos
Fígado/metabolismo , Período Pós-Parto/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Bovinos , Colesterol/sangue , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/sangue , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genoma , Gluconeogênese/fisiologia , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/fisiologia , Lactação , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Análise em Microsséries , Leite/metabolismo , Estações do Ano , Regulação para Cima
12.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 17(4): 840-51, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25631371

RESUMO

Intron retention in transcripts and the presence of 5' and 3' splice sites within these introns mediate alternate splicing, which is widely observed in animals and plants. Here, functional characterisation of the K(+) transporter, HvHKT2;1, with stably retained introns from barley (Hordeum vulgare) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), and transcript profiling in yeast and transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is presented. Expression of intron-retaining HvHKT2;1 cDNA (HvHKT2;1-i) in trk1, trk2 yeast strain defective in K(+) uptake restored growth in medium containing hygromycin in the presence of different concentrations of K(+) and mediated hypersensitivity to Na(+) . HvHKT2;1-i produces multiple transcripts via alternate splicing of two regular introns and three exons in different compositions. HKT isoforms with retained introns and exon skipping variants were detected in relative expression analysis of (i) HvHKT2;1-i in barley under native conditions, (ii) in transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing HvHKT2;1-i, and (iii) in trk1, trk2 yeast expressing HvHKT2;1-i under control of an inducible promoter. Mixed proportions of three HKT transcripts: HvHKT2;1-e (first exon region), HvHKT2;1-i1 (first intron) and HvHKT2;1-i2 (second intron) were observed. The variation in transcript accumulation in response to changing K(+) and Na(+) concentrations was observed in both heterologous and plant systems. These findings suggest a link between intron-retaining transcripts and different splice variants to ion homeostasis, and their possible role in salt stress.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Hordeum/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Éxons/genética , Hordeum/metabolismo , Íntrons/genética , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Potássio/metabolismo , Isoformas de Proteínas , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/metabolismo
13.
Int J Adolesc Med Health ; 26(3): 411-6, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24356389

RESUMO

The goals of our study were to: 1) describe the incidence of disturbances in sleep quality, sleep hygiene, sleep-related cognitions and nightmares; and 2) investigate the association between these sleep-related disturbances and suicidal ideation (SI), in adolescents admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit. Our sample consisted of 50 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 years (32 females and 18 males; 41 Caucasian and nine African American). Our cross-sectional design involved the administration of the Adolescent Sleep Wake Scale (ASWS), the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale (ASHS), the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep-Short version for use with children (DBAS-C10), the Disturbing Dreams and Nightmare Scale (DDNSI), and the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire Jr (SIQ-JR). Analyses were conducted using Pearson correlations, as well as univariate and multivariate regression. Results indicated that our sample experienced sleep disturbances and SI to a greater degree than non-clinical samples. Sleep quality was correlated with nightmares, while sleep quality and nightmares were each correlated with SI. Sleep quality, dysfunctional beliefs, and nightmares each independently predicted SI. Our study was the first to use the four sleep measures with an adolescent psychiatric inpatient sample. It is important to develop sleep-related assessment tools in high-risk populations given the link between sleep disturbances and suicidality. Furthermore, a better understanding of the relationships between SI and sleep quality, sleep-related cognitions, and nightmares is needed to develop potential prevention and treatment options for suicidality in adolescents.


Assuntos
Sonhos/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/complicações , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Unidade Hospitalar de Psiquiatria , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações
14.
Clin Interv Aging ; 8: 1209-15, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24072966

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aging population is predisposed to cardiovascular disease. Our goal was to determine the relationship between a higher Elder Risk Assessment (ERA) score and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), in adults over 60 years. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study in a primary care internal medicine practice. Patients included community-dwelling individuals aged 60 years or older on January 1, 2005. The primary outcome was a combined outcome of CABG and PCI in 2 years. The secondary outcome was mortality 5 years after CABG or PCI. The primary predictor variable was the score on the ERA Index, an instrument that predicts emergency room visits and hospitalization. The outcomes were obtained using administrative data from electronic medical records. The analysis included logistic regression, with odds ratios for the primary outcome and time-to-event analysis for mortality. RESULTS: The records of 12,650 patients were studied. A total of 902 patients (7.1%) had either CABG or PCI, with an average age of 74.5 years (±8.3 years). There were 205 patients (23%) who experienced CABG or PCI in the highest-score group (top 10%) compared with 29 patients (3%) in the lowest score group, for an odds ratio of 15.4; 95% confidence interval, 10.1-23.5. There was a greater association of revascularization events by increasing score group. We noted increased mortality by increasing ERA score, in patients undergoing CABG or PCI. The patients in the highest-scoring group had a 50% 5-year survival rate compared with a 97% 5-year survival rate in the lowest-scoring group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Older adults in the highest-ERA-scoring group had the highest utilization of CABG or PCI. Patients with high ERA scores undergoing coronary revascularization were also at the highest risk of mortality. Providers should be aware that higher ERA scores can potentially predict outcomes in high-risk patients.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Auditoria Médica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Indian J Pharm Sci ; 75(1): 117-22, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23901173

RESUMO

The essential oil from the leaves of Curcuma longa L. Kasur variety grown in Pakistan was extracted by hydro-distillation. Chemical constituents of the essential oil were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The chromatographic analysis of oil showed 25 constituents, out of which nine chemical constituents were identified. The eucalyptol (10.27%) was the major component of the essential oil. α-pinene (1.50%), ß-phellandrene (2.49%), ß-pinene (3.57%), limonene (2.73%), 1,3,8-p-menthatriene (1.76%), ascaridole epoxide (1.452%), 2-methylisoborneol (2.92%), 5-isopropyl-6-methyl-hepta-3, dien-2-ol (2.07%) were also present in considerable quantity. The antimicrobial properties of leaves of Curcuma longa were tested by disc diffusion method against various human pathogens, including eight fungal and five bacterial strains. Essential oil showed maximum resistance against Fusarium miniformes MAY 3629 followed by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 whereas; it exhibited least resistance against Fusarium oxysporium ATCC 48122. The results of the antimicrobial assay revealed that essential oil showed significant inhibitory activity against the tested organisms.

16.
Curr Genomics ; 13(4): 334-41, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23204923

RESUMO

In the post-genome era, high throughput gene expression profiling has been successfully used to develop genomic biomarker panels (GBP) that can be integrated into clinical decision making. The development of GBPs in the context of personalized medicine is a scientifically challenging and resource-intense process. It needs to be accomplished in a systematic phased approach to address biological variation related to a clinical phenotype (e.g. disease etiology, gender, etc.) and minimize technical variation (noise). Here we present the methodological aspects of GBP development based on the experience of the Cardiac Allograft Rejection Gene Expression Observation (CARGO) study, a study that lead to the development of a molecular classifier for rejection screening in heart transplant patients.

17.
Hamostaseologie ; 31(3): 179-84, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21691672

RESUMO

Coagulation proteases control cellular homeostasis beyond haemostasis. While the role of coagulation proteases in regulating vascular healing and thrombosis is well established, the mechanism underlying the receptor-dependent regulation of cellular function remain incompletely understood. In particular, the opposing effects of the protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1), dependent on the activating proteases thrombin or activated protein C generated a conundrum researchers only recently have begun to decipher. The net-effect (cellular perturbation vs. cellular protection) depends on co-receptors involved, the concentration of the activating protease, the temporal context of receptor activation, and a dynamic process of receptor rearrangement upon receptor activation. The latter scenario recruits receptors to a cytoprotective signalling pathways. Recent insights into these mechanisms are summarized in this article.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/imunologia , Coagulação Sanguínea/imunologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/imunologia , Citoproteção/imunologia , Hemostasia/imunologia , Peptídeo Hidrolases/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Vasos Sanguíneos/citologia , Humanos , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Modelos Imunológicos
18.
Acta Paediatr ; 100(11): 1504-9, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21539604

RESUMO

AIM: To correlate placental protein levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1, with previously determined levels of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA expression, and the micronutrients zinc and iron, and maternal and newborn anthropometry. METHODS: Placental samples were collected from rural field sites in Pakistan. Samples were divided into small and large for gestational age groups (SGA and LGA, respectively). IGFBP-1 levels were assessed using Western immunoblotting. IGF-I protein levels were assessed using ELISA techniques. IGF mRNA expression, zinc, and iron, were quantified as previously described and were used for comparative purposes only. RESULTS: Thirty-three subjects were included (SGA, n = 12; LGA n = 21). Higher levels of IGFBP-1 were seen in the SGA group (p < 0.01). IGFBP-1 correlated positively with maternal and infant triceps skin-fold thickness in the LGA and SGA groups, respectively (p < 0.05). Significantly lower IGF-I protein levels were seen in the SGA group. IGF-I levels correlated significantly with maternal and newborn anthropometry. IGFBP-1 correlated significantly with IGF-II mRNA expression (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Placental protein levels of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 appear to be associated with maternal anthropometry. Maternal anthropometry may thus influence IGFBP-1 and IGF-I levels and may possibly be used for screening of pregnancies, with the potential for timely identification of these high-risk pregnancies.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Ferro na Dieta/metabolismo , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Placenta/química , Zinco/metabolismo , Antropometria , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Paquistão , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez
19.
J Surg Case Rep ; 2011(9): 9, 2011 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24950510

RESUMO

A 57 year old male patient presented to our hospital with vomiting, epigastric discomfort, and loss of appetite over a 24hr period. Subsequent investigations demonstrated a submucosal lesion causing gastric outlet obstruction. The patients deteriorating condition mandated laparotomy and a pathologic diagnosis was made of a pyloric submucosal fibroepithelial lesion from the resected distal stomach and adherent transverse colon; no malignant features were found. This is to our knowledge the first instance of a fibroepithelial neoplasm occurring within the gastrointestinal tract.

20.
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