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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e241110, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278500

RESUMO

Abstract Plasmodium vivax is the most common human malaria parasite in Asian countries including Pakistan. Present study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax genotypes based on Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3βgenes using allelic specific nested PCR and RFLP assays markers from field isolates in district Mardan, Pakistan. Blood samples of 200 P. vivax malarial patients were collected after taking their written informed consent. Genetic diversity in nested PCR products was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) utilizing Alu1 and PstI restriction enzymes for alpha and beta gene products digestion, respectively. For analysis the genetic diversity of the sub allelic variants of Pvmsp3α and Pvmsp3β genes, Chi-Square test was performed by utilizing Minitab programming software 18. The P value 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. For Pvmsp-3α genes after gel electrophoresis of digested products, four distinct genotypes were obtained from total of 50 samples; type A: 35 (70%) (1.5-2.0 kb), 12 of type B (24%) (1.5-1.7 kb), 2 of type C (4%) (0.5-1.5) and one for type D (2%) (0.5-0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 9 allelic pattern (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), in which A3 remained the most predominant. For Pvmsp-3βgenes, three distinct genotypes were obtained from 50 samples; 40(80%) of type A (1.5-2.5 kb), 9 (18%) of type B (1.0-1.5kb) and 1(2%) of type C (0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 6 allelic patterns (A1-A3, B1-B2, and C1). Most dominant one in Type A was A1 alleles which were noted (46%), while in Type B, the most dominant were B1 (10%).This study is the first ever report of molecular epidemiology and genetic variation in Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3β genes of P. vivax isolates by using PCR/RFLP from District Mardan and showed a remarkable level of genetic diversity in the studied genes of circulating parasites in the study area. The results of this study will contribute in future studies about the genetic structure of parasite and vaccine development against the malaria.


Resumo O Plasmodium vivax é o parasita da malária humana mais comum nos países asiáticos, incluindo o Paquistão. O presente estudo foi desenhado para explorar a diversidade genética de genótipos de Plasmodium vivax baseados nos genes Pvmsp-3α e Pvmsp-3β, usando marcadores de ensaios alélicos nested PCR e RFLP de isolados de campo no distrito de Mardan, Paquistão. Amostras de sangue de 200 pacientes com malária por P. vivax foram coletadas após assinatura do termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido. A diversidade genética em produtos de PCR nested foi determinada por polimorfismo de fragmento de restrição (RFLP) utilizando as enzimas de restrição Alu1 e PstI para a digestão dos produtos dos genes alfa e beta, respectivamente. Para análise da diversidade genética das variantes subalélicas dos genes Pvmsp3α e Pvmsp3β, o teste Qui-quadrado foi realizado utilizando o software de programação Minitab 18. O valor P = 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Para os genes Pvmsp-3α, após eletroforese em gel de produtos digeridos, quatro genótipos distintos foram obtidos de um total de 50 amostras; tipo A: 35 (70%) (1,5-2,0 kb), 12 do tipo B (24%) (1,5-1,7 kb), 2 do tipo C (4%) (0,5-1,5) e um para o tipo D (2%) (0,5-0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em nove padrões alélicos (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), em que A3 permaneceu como o mais predominante. Para Pvmsp-3βgenes, três genótipos distintos foram obtidos a partir de 50 amostras; 40 (80%) do tipo A (1,5-2,5 kb), 9 (18%) do tipo B (1,0-1,5 kb) e 1 (2%) do tipo C (0,65 kb), que podem ser caracterizados em seis padrões alélicos (A1-A3, B1-B2 e C1). Os mais dominantes no tipo A foram o alelo A1, observados em 46%, enquanto, no tipo B, os mais dominantes foram B1 (10%). Este estudo é o primeiro relato de epidemiologia molecular e variação genética em Pvmsp-3α. Os genes Pvmsp-3β de isolados de P. vivax utilizando PCR/RFLP do Distrito Mardan mostraram um nível notável de diversidade genética nos genes estudados de parasitas circulantes na área de estudo. Os resultados desse estudo contribuirão em estudos futuros sobre a estrutura genética do parasita e o desenvolvimento de vacinas contra a malária.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 592-600, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153379

RESUMO

Abstract Understanding the relation between the environmental stress factors and the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis efficiency can reduce the susceptibility to thyroid diseases. In our study, thyroid dysfunction was induced in female rats by administration of 40 mg Na F/kg.bd.wt/day for a month. Co-administration of the water extract of Arca noae (300 mg/kg. bw) was tested as a treatment for Na F induced thyroid dysfunction. A group of rats injected Arca noae extract only (300 mg/kg.bd.wt) was performed to observe the impact of the extract on the (HPT) axis in addition to the normal control group. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, total protein and albumin levels in the fluoride supplemented group in addition to abnormal levels of TSH, (T4) and (T3) compared to the control group. In the treated group there was an improvement in the proteins level and lipid profile but pseudo-corrected serum (T4) and (T3) levels were observed in addition to a continuous increase in TSH level. Histological findings confirmed the harmful effect of fluoride on both the non treated and the treated groups. Consequently, fluoride supplementation must be considered as a harmful stress that may affect permanently the HPT axis.


Resumo Compreender a relação entre os fatores de estresse ambiental e o eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-tireoide (HPT) pode reduzir a suscetibilidade a doenças da tireoide. Em nosso estudo, a disfunção tireoidiana foi induzida em ratos fêmeas pela administração de 40 mg Na F/kg.bw/dia durante um mês. A administração concomitante do extrato aquoso de Arca noae (300 mg/kg.Pc) foi testada como tratamento para a disfunção tireoidiana induzida por Na F. Um grupo de ratos injetados apenas com extrato de Arca noae (300 mg/kg. Pc) foi pré-formado com o intuito de observar o impacto do extrato no eixo (HPT), além do grupo controle normal. Os resultados mostraram que houve uma diminuição significativa nos níveis séricos de triglicerídeos, proteína total e albumina no grupo suplementado com fluoreto, além de níveis anormais de TSH, (T4) e (T3) em comparação ao grupo controle. No grupo tratado, houve uma melhora no nível de proteínas e perfil lipídico. Os níveis séricos pseudocorrigidos (T4) e (T3) foram observados, além de um aumento contínuo no nível de TSH. Os achados histológicos confirmaram o efeito prejudicial do flúor nos grupos não tratado e tratado. Consequentemente, a suplementação de flúor é considerada um estresse prejudicial que pode afetar permanentemente o eixo HPT.

3.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(3): 592-600, July-Sept. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-762653

RESUMO

Understanding the relation between the environmental stress factors and the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis efficiency can reduce the susceptibility to thyroid diseases. In our study, thyroid dysfunction was induced in female rats by administration of 40 mg Na F/kg.bd.wt/day for a month. Co-administration of the water extract of Arca noae (300 mg/kg. bw) was tested as a treatment for Na F induced thyroid dysfunction. A group of rats injected Arca noae extract only (300 mg/kg.bd.wt) was performed to observe the impact of the extract on the (HPT) axis in addition to the normal control group. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, total protein and albumin levels in the fluoride supplemented group in addition to abnormal levels of TSH, (T4) and (T3) compared to the control group. In the treated group there was an improvement in the proteins level and lipid profile but pseudo-corrected serum (T4) and (T3) levels were observed in addition to a continuous increase in TSH level. Histological findings confirmed the harmful effect of fluoride on both the non treated and the treated groups. Consequently, fluoride supplementation must be considered as a harmful stress that may affect permanently the HPT axis.(AU)


Compreender a relação entre os fatores de estresse ambiental e o eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-tireoide (HPT) pode reduzir a suscetibilidade a doenças da tireoide. Em nosso estudo, a disfunção tireoidiana foi induzida em ratos fêmeas pela administração de 40 mg Na F/kg.bw/dia durante um mês. A administração concomitante do extrato aquoso de Arca noae (300 mg/kg.Pc) foi testada como tratamento para a disfunção tireoidiana induzida por Na F. Um grupo de ratos injetados apenas com extrato de Arca noae (300 mg/kg. Pc) foi pré-formado com o intuito de observar o impacto do extrato no eixo (HPT), além do grupo controle normal. Os resultados mostraram que houve uma diminuição significativa nos níveis séricos de triglicerídeos, proteína total e albumina no grupo suplementado com fluoreto, além de níveis anormais de TSH, (T4) e (T3) em comparação ao grupo controle. No grupo tratado, houve uma melhora no nível de proteínas e perfil lipídico. Os níveis séricos pseudocorrigidos (T4) e (T3) foram observados, além de um aumento contínuo no nível de TSH. Os achados histológicos confirmaram o efeito prejudicial do flúor nos grupos não tratado e tratado. Consequentemente, a suplementação de flúor é considerada um estresse prejudicial que pode afetar permanentemente o eixo HPT.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Glândula Tireoide/anormalidades , Extratos de Tecidos/uso terapêutico , Bivalves
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15843, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34349172

RESUMO

Decoration with Pd clusters increases the magnetic heating ability of cobalt ferrite (CFO) nanoparticles by a factor of two. The origin of this previous finding is unraveled by element-specific X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) combined with atomic multiplet simulations and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. While the comparison of XAS spectra with atomic multiplet simulations show that the inversion degree is not affected by Pd decoration and, thus, can be excluded as a reason for the improved heating performance, XMCD reveals two interrelated responsible sources: significantly larger Fe and Co magnetic moments verify an increased total magnetization which enhances the magnetic heating ability. This is accompanied by a remarkable change in the field-dependent magnetization particularly for Co ions which exhibit an increased low-field susceptibility and a reduced spin canting behavior in higher magnetic fields. Using DFT calculations, these findings are explained by reduced superexchange between ions on octahedral lattice sites via oxygen in close vicinity of Pd, which reinforces the dominating antiparallel superexchange interaction between ions on octahedral and tetrahedral lattice sites and thus reduces spin canting. The influence of the delocalized nature of Pd 4d electrons on the neighboring ions is discussed and the conclusions are illustrated with spin density isosurfaces of the involved ions. The presented results pave the way to design nanohybrids with tailored electronic structure and magnetic properties.

5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e241110, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133560

RESUMO

Plasmodium vivax is the most common human malaria parasite in Asian countries including Pakistan. Present study was designed to explore the genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax genotypes based on Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3ßgenes using allelic specific nested PCR and RFLP assays markers from field isolates in district Mardan, Pakistan. Blood samples of 200 P. vivax malarial patients were collected after taking their written informed consent. Genetic diversity in nested PCR products was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) utilizing Alu1 and PstI restriction enzymes for alpha and beta gene products digestion, respectively. For analysis the genetic diversity of the sub allelic variants of Pvmsp3α and Pvmsp3ß genes, Chi-Square test was performed by utilizing Minitab programming software 18. The P value 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. For Pvmsp-3α genes after gel electrophoresis of digested products, four distinct genotypes were obtained from total of 50 samples; type A: 35 (70%) (1.5-2.0 kb), 12 of type B (24%) (1.5-1.7 kb), 2 of type C (4%) (0.5-1.5) and one for type D (2%) (0.5-0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 9 allelic pattern (A1-A4, B1-B3, C1, D), in which A3 remained the most predominant. For Pvmsp-3ßgenes, three distinct genotypes were obtained from 50 samples; 40(80%) of type A (1.5-2.5 kb), 9 (18%) of type B (1.0-1.5kb) and 1(2%) of type C (0.65 kb) which could be characterized into 6 allelic patterns (A1-A3, B1-B2, and C1). Most dominant one in Type A was A1 alleles which were noted (46%), while in Type B, the most dominant were B1 (10%).This study is the first ever report of molecular epidemiology and genetic variation in Pvmsp-3α and Pvmsp-3ß genes of P. vivax isolates by using PCR/RFLP from District Mardan and showed a remarkable level of genetic diversity in the studied genes of circulating parasites in the study area. The results of this study will contribute in future studies about the genetic structure of parasite and vaccine development against the malaria.


Assuntos
Plasmodium vivax , Proteínas de Protozoários , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Paquistão , Plasmodium vivax/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
6.
Braz J Biol ; 81(3): 592-600, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32935817

RESUMO

Understanding the relation between the environmental stress factors and the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis efficiency can reduce the susceptibility to thyroid diseases. In our study, thyroid dysfunction was induced in female rats by administration of 40 mg Na F/kg.bd.wt/day for a month. Co-administration of the water extract of Arca noae (300 mg/kg. bw) was tested as a treatment for Na F induced thyroid dysfunction. A group of rats injected Arca noae extract only (300 mg/kg.bd.wt) was performed to observe the impact of the extract on the (HPT) axis in addition to the normal control group. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, total protein and albumin levels in the fluoride supplemented group in addition to abnormal levels of TSH, (T4) and (T3) compared to the control group. In the treated group there was an improvement in the proteins level and lipid profile but pseudo-corrected serum (T4) and (T3) levels were observed in addition to a continuous increase in TSH level. Histological findings confirmed the harmful effect of fluoride on both the non treated and the treated groups. Consequently, fluoride supplementation must be considered as a harmful stress that may affect permanently the HPT axis.


Assuntos
Doenças da Glândula Tireoide , Tireotropina , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Feminino , Ratos , Tiroxina
7.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(46): 26728-26741, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078790

RESUMO

Loss mechanisms in fluid heating of cobalt ferrite (CFO) nanoparticles and CFO-Pd heterodimer colloidal suspensions are investigated as a function of particle size, fluid concentration and magnetic field amplitude. The specific absorption rate (SAR) is found to vary with increasing particle size due to a change in dominant heating mechanism from susceptibility to hysteresis and frictional loss. The maximum SAR is obtained for particle diameters of 11-15 nm as a result of synergistic contributions of susceptibility loss, including Néel and Brownian relaxation and especially hysteresis loss, thereby validating the applicability of linear response theory to superparamagnetic CFO nanoparticles. Our results show that the ferrofluid concentration and magnetic field amplitude alter interparticle interactions and associated heating efficiency. The SAR of the CFO nanoparticles could be maximized by adjusting the synthesis parameters. Despite the paramagnetic properties of individual palladium nanoparticles, CFO-Pd heterodimer suspensions were observed to have surprisingly improved magnetization as well as SAR values, when compared with CFO ferrofluids. This difference is attributed to interfacial interactions between the magnetic moments of paramagnetic Pd and superparamagnetic/ferrimagnetic CFO. SAR values measured from CFO-Pd heterodimer suspensions were found to be 47-52 W gFerrite-1, which is up to a factor of two higher than the SAR values of commercially available ferrofluids, demonstrating their potential as efficient heat mediators. Our results provide insight into the utilization of CFO-Pd heterodimer suspensions as potential nanoplatforms for diagnostic and therapeutic biomedical applications, e.g., in cancer hyperthermia, cryopreserved tissue warming, thermoablative therapy, drug delivery and bioimaging.


Assuntos
Cobalto/química , Compostos Férricos/química , Nanopartículas Magnéticas de Óxido de Ferro/química , Paládio/química , Temperatura Alta , Campos Magnéticos , Tamanho da Partícula
8.
J Bus Res ; 119: 67-86, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33071391

RESUMO

This paper reviews contemporary studies in entrepreneurship literature related to innovation management (IM), stakeholder engagement (SE), and entrepreneurial development (ED), using bibliometric techniques and longitudinal statistical analysis of 1059 articles published in the Journal of Business Research (JBR) and other relevant business and management journals indexed in Scopus from 1974 until July 2020. We have employed a structured literature review and meta-analysis to explore the emerging research patterns in prospective observational studies encompassing the field of ED, SE, and IM. Our findings suggest that dynamics of the interaction of SE, IM, and ED are shaping the scholarship of academic research in entrepreneurship. Our meta-analysis reaffirms that contemporary research conducted at the intersection of SE, IM, and ED indicates the consolidation of these tenets in future research in entrepreneurship leading to an integrative view. Finally, we present future research directions at the intersection of SE, IM, and ED for entrepreneurship research.

9.
Cureus ; 12(5): e8184, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566425

RESUMO

A global outbreak highlights the start of a new decade as a new strain of coronaviruses emerges. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), also referred to as Wuhan-Hu-1-CoV - amongst many other names - emerged from the West District of Southern China Seafood Wholesale Market in late December 2019. With the emergence of the new decade, the causative agent of COVID-19 was identified: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). COVID-19 became declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19, currently, is affecting 204 countries and territories and two international conveyances. Initial stages of COVID-19 present with symptoms that mimic the common cold and individuals may be asymptomatic carriers and thus, transmitting the virus to others. COVID-19, like other coronaviruses, presents with S glycoproteins on the membrane that plays an integral role in the virus binding with the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. The ACE2 receptor is an intramembrane receptor on the type II pneumocytes, where the virus is able to replicate after getting endocytosed within the cytoplasm. As the viral load increases within the alveolar cell, the alveolar epithelial cell will burst, releasing the newly replicated viral RNA. Elderly individuals are at a greater risk of infection due to weakened immune systems and pre-existing medical conditions resulting in a compromised immune response, also increasing the susceptibility of infection. Infected individuals presenting with mild to moderate symptoms are recommended to self-isolate as the majority will recover without any intervention.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-759331

RESUMO

Abstract Understanding the relation between the environmental stress factors and the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis efficiency can reduce the susceptibility to thyroid diseases. In our study, thyroid dysfunction was induced in female rats by administration of 40 mg Na F/kg.bd.wt/day for a month. Co-administration of the water extract of Arca noae (300 mg/kg. bw) was tested as a treatment for Na F induced thyroid dysfunction. A group of rats injected Arca noae extract only (300 mg/kg.bd.wt) was performed to observe the impact of the extract on the (HPT) axis in addition to the normal control group. Results showed that there was a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, total protein and albumin levels in the fluoride supplemented group in addition to abnormal levels of TSH, (T4) and (T3) compared to the control group. In the treated group there was an improvement in the proteins level and lipid profile but pseudo-corrected serum (T4) and (T3) levels were observed in addition to a continuous increase in TSH level. Histological findings confirmed the harmful effect of fluoride on both the non treated and the treated groups. Consequently, fluoride supplementation must be considered as a harmful stress that may affect permanently the HPT axis.


Resumo Compreender a relação entre os fatores de estresse ambiental e o eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-tireoide (HPT) pode reduzir a suscetibilidade a doenças da tireoide. Em nosso estudo, a disfunção tireoidiana foi induzida em ratos fêmeas pela administração de 40 mg Na F/kg.bw/dia durante um mês. A administração concomitante do extrato aquoso de Arca noae (300 mg/kg.Pc) foi testada como tratamento para a disfunção tireoidiana induzida por Na F. Um grupo de ratos injetados apenas com extrato de Arca noae (300 mg/kg. Pc) foi pré-formado com o intuito de observar o impacto do extrato no eixo (HPT), além do grupo controle normal. Os resultados mostraram que houve uma diminuição significativa nos níveis séricos de triglicerídeos, proteína total e albumina no grupo suplementado com fluoreto, além de níveis anormais de TSH, (T4) e (T3) em comparação ao grupo controle. No grupo tratado, houve uma melhora no nível de proteínas e perfil lipídico. Os níveis séricos pseudocorrigidos (T4) e (T3) foram observados, além de um aumento contínuo no nível de TSH. Os achados histológicos confirmaram o efeito prejudicial do flúor nos grupos não tratado e tratado. Consequentemente, a suplementação de flúor é considerada um estresse prejudicial que pode afetar permanentemente o eixo HPT.

11.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(1)2019 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642128

RESUMO

Magnetic-plasmonic heterodimer nanostructures synergistically present excellent magnetic and plasmonic characteristics in a unique platform as a multipurpose medium for recently invented biomedical applications, such as magnetic hyperthermia, photothermal therapy, drug delivery, bioimaging, and biosensing. In this review, we briefly outline the less-known aspects of heterodimers, including electronic composition, interfacial morphology, critical properties, and present concrete examples of recent progress in synthesis and applications. With a focus on emerging features and performance of heterodimers in biomedical applications, this review provides a comprehensive perspective of novel achievements and suggests a fruitful framework for future research.

12.
Cureus ; 10(7): e3062, 2018 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280058

RESUMO

The treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induced infections using antibiotic therapies is clinically well accepted; however, using a noninvasive approach with the implementation of therapeutic agents such as vitamin C is not well investigated. Vitamin C has certain characteristics, which allow for it to be considered as a potential treatment option for patients with H. pylori infections. Vitamin C's hostility and mechanism of action towards H. pylori infection in peptic ulcer disease can be classified into two categories: as a preventative agent and alternatively as a therapeutic agent. Preventatively vitamin C acts as a biological antioxidant as well as an immune boosting agent, while therapeutically it acts as an inhibitor of urease, a potential collagen synthesizing agent, and a stimulant in prostaglandin synthesis. As a result, the dosage of vitamin C should be highly regulated. Furthermore, numerous studies have shown that vitamin C supplementation if taken with antibiotics can increase the efficiency of the treatment leading to an increased possibility of eradication of H. pylori in infected individuals. This paper will investigate the recent studies that show different mechanisms through which vitamin C can be used as a preventative or a therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori related infections.

13.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 39(11): 1995-2000, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cortical lesions are common in multiple sclerosis and are included in the latest diagnostic criteria. The limited sensitivity of cortical MS lesions on conventional MR imaging can be improved by phase-sensitive inversion recovery. Synthetic MR imaging could provide phase-sensitive inversion recovery without additional scanning, but the use of synthetic phase-sensitive inversion recovery remains to be validated. We aimed to compare the ability and clinical value of detecting leukocortical lesions with conventional and synthetic phase-sensitive inversion recovery in MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with MS prospectively underwent conventional and synthetic phase-sensitive inversion recovery, 3D T1-weighted, and T2 FLAIR imaging. Two neuroradiologists independently performed blinded phase-sensitive inversion recovery lesion assessments; a consensus rating with all sequences was considered the criterion standard. Lesion volumes were segmented. All participants underwent standardized cognitive and physical examinations and Fatigue Severity Scale assessment. Results were analyzed with multiple linear regressions. RESULTS: Interrater and criterion standard agreement for leukocortical lesions was excellent for both conventional and synthetic phase-sensitive inversion recovery (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.79-0.97). Leukocortical lesion volumes for both sequences were associated with lower information-processing speed (P ≤ .01) and verbal fluency (P ≤ .02). Both phase-sensitive inversion recovery sequences showed a positive effect on the association when combining volumes of leukocortical lesions and white matter lesions with information-processing speed (P ≤ .005) and verbal fluency (P ≤ .03). No associations were found between leukocortical lesion volumes and physical disability or fatigue. CONCLUSIONS: Synthetic and conventional phase-sensitive inversion recovery have a sensitivity similar to that of leukocortical MS lesions. The detected leukocortical lesions are associated with cognitive dysfunction and thus provide clinically relevant information, which encourages assessment of cortical MS involvement at conventional field strengths.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Neuroimagem/métodos , Adulto , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações
14.
Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr ; 28(2): 107-113, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30055536

RESUMO

Energy drink consumption has caused worldwide concern in the scientific community and the general public regarding the health effects of these products. Current studies offer data about consumption patterns in America and Europe, but more extensive research is needed to ascertain the potential effects of energy drink consumption, especially among young and healthy individuals. To examine the consequences and health risks of energy drink consumption, related studies were reviewed. Health issues, including elevated blood pressure, palpitations, insomnia, jitters, and nervousness, are primarily associated with high caffeine content. Although more studies examine the effects of highly carbonated and caffeinated products, research determining the health effects of energy drinks is also important. Currently, the evidence regarding the adverse health effects of energy drinks is growing. Unfortunately, the risks of high consumption of energy drinks have not been properly addressed. Thus, these adverse effects may pose a great public health dilemma in the years to come.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , América/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/induzido quimicamente , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia
15.
J Biomed Phys Eng ; 8(2): 217-222, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29951449

RESUMO

The aim of this report is to present a new two-piece thyroid-neck phantom produced by the concurrent use of epoxy resin and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA: plexiglass) soft tissue equivalent materials. Accordingly, mass attenuation coefficients of the epoxy resin and the plexiglass compounds were obtained from simulation (NIST XCOM 3.1) and measurements (practical dosimetry) and compared to those related to human soft tissue (ICRU 44). The thyroid-neck phantom and thyroid gland dimensions were derived from scientific references and the atlas of human anatomy, respectively. The thyroid phantom was designed by CATIA V5R16 software and produced by the epoxy resin compound by three-dimensional printer. Other organs were designed by ProNest software and made by the plexiglass sheets by CNC laser cutting machine. The mass attenuation coefficients for the epoxy resin (50 keV- 20 MeV) and the plexiglass (0-20 MeV) were comparable to human soft tissue (ICRU 44), all with standard relative deviation beneath 5%. In addition, the SPECT images indicated the similarity between human thyroid tissue and its phantom. In conclusion, this study proves the feasibility and reliability of epoxy resin application in the production of two-piece thyroid-neck phantom. This phantom can be applied in the calibration of gamma camera systems, dosimetry and gamma spectrometry in the nuclear medicine field.

16.
Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr ; 28(1): 87-92, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773017

RESUMO

Considered as a chronic illness, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has manifested itself as a widespread condition throughout the adult population. As a growing epidemic, GERD has reached a staggering prevalence of 10% to 20% in the Western world, by affecting up to 30 million people in the United States alone. Sixty percent of individuals in an adult population will experience symptoms and the impact of GERD over a period of 12 months, whereas a remarkable 20% to 30% of individuals will have weekly symptoms. This rapid increase in the prevalence of the disease requires equally rapid management techniques. Although the disease itself has no cure, management of symptoms and certain pharmacological and surgical advancements have allowed for individuals affected by GERD to receive specific treatment options sufficient for them to live a healthy life. In this paper, such management options will be examined and discussed in reference to their effectiveness in treating the symptoms presented in GERD patients.


Assuntos
Refluxo Gastroesofágico/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
New Microbes New Infect ; 21: 75-80, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29234497

RESUMO

In this study, we report the insertion sequence ISPpu21 in the oprD porin gene of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from burn patients in Tehran, Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility tests for P. aeruginosa isolates were determined. Production of metallo-ß-lactamases (MBLs) and carbapenemase was evaluated and the ß-lactamase-encoding and aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes were investigated by PCR and sequencing methods. The mRNA transcription level of oprD and mex efflux pump genes were evaluated by real-time PCR. The outer membrane protein profile was determined by SDS-PAGE. The genetic relationship between the P. aeruginosa isolates was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR. In all, 10.52% (10/95) of clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa harboured the ISPpu21 insertion element in the oprD gene. The extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-encoding gene in ISPpu21-carrying isolates was blaTEM. PCR assays targeting MBL and carbapenemase-encoding genes were also negative in all ten isolates. The rmtA, aadA, aadB and armA genes were positive in all ISPpu21 harbouring isolates. The relative expression levels of the mexX, mexB, mexT and mexD genes in ten isolates ranged from 0.1- to 1.4-fold, 1.1- to 3.68-fold, 0.3- to 8.22-fold and 1.7- to 35.17-fold, respectively. The relative expression levels of the oprD in ten isolates ranged from 0.57- to 35.01-fold, which was much higher than those in the control strain P. aeruginosa PAO1. Evaluation of the outer membrane protein by SDS-PAGE suggested that oprD was produced at very low levels by all isolates. Using random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR genotyping, eight of the ten isolates containing ISPpu21 were shown to be clonally related. The present study describes a novel molecular mechanism, ISPpu21 insertion of the oprD gene, associated with carbapenem resistance in clinical P. aeruginosa isolates.

18.
Trop Biomed ; 35(2): 472-477, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601821

RESUMO

Thalassemia major is a genetic and blood disorder with a known defect in the hemoglobin. These patients require constant blood transfusions. This increases the risk of susceptibility to infectious diseases such as hepatitis in these patients. Given the importance of this infection and the mortality rates in patients with thalassemia, and as there are no reliable statistics available for these infections in this area, we decided to conduct this study. In this study, 120 patients with thalassemia major were evaluated within 3 years. Patients were selected voluntarily and randomly. Patient samples were examined for Anti HBs, HBs Ag and Anti HBc. Chi-square and Mann-Withney tests were used for data analysis. The results of the study showed that 17.0% of the patients with thalassemia major were infected with HCV and only one case was HBV positive. In this study, 65.0% of patients with hepatitis were men while 35.0% were women. However, only one more case was positive with PCR compared to ELISA. Safe blood transfusion for these patients are very important. Thalassemia major can affect the survival of these patients. The screening of blood donors and reducing these lethal infections in patients should be the main aim in the field of blood transfusion and health policies.

19.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 38(9): 1737-1741, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28705819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There are, to date, no MR imaging diagnostic markers for Lewy body dementia. Nigrosome 1, containing dopaminergic cells, in the substantia nigra pars compacta is hyperintense on SWI and has been called the swallow tail sign, disappearing with Parkinson disease. We aimed to study the swallow tail sign and its clinical applicability in Lewy body dementia and hypothesized that the sign would be likewise applicable in Lewy body dementia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study including 97 patients (mean age, 65 ± 10 years; 46% women), consisting of the following: controls (n = 21) and those with Lewy body dementia (n = 19), Alzheimer disease (n = 20), frontotemporal lobe dementia (n = 20), and mild cognitive impairment (n = 17). All patients underwent brain MR imaging, with susceptibility-weighted imaging at 1.5T (n = 46) and 3T (n = 51). The swallow tail sign was assessed independently by 2 neuroradiologists. RESULTS: Interrater agreement was moderate (κ = 0.4) between raters. An abnormal swallow tail sign was most common in Lewy body dementia (63%; 95% CI, 41%-85%; P < .001) and had a predictive value only in Lewy body dementia with an odds ratio of 9 (95% CI, 3-28; P < .001). The consensus rating for Lewy body dementia showed a sensitivity of 63%, a specificity of 79%, a negative predictive value of 89%, and an accuracy of 76%; values were higher on 3T compared with 1.5T. The usefulness of the swallow tail sign was rater-dependent with the highest sensitivity equaling 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The swallow tail sign has diagnostic potential in Lewy body dementia and may be a complement in the diagnostic work-up of this condition.


Assuntos
Doença por Corpos de Lewy/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 38(7): 1311-1316, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28495943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gadolinium-based contrast agents have been associated with lasting high T1-weighted signal intensity in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus, with histopathologically confirmed gadolinium retention. We aimed to longitudinally investigate the relationship of multiple gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations to the Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus and any associations with cognitive function in multiple sclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus was retrospectively evaluated on T1-weighted MR imaging in an 18-year longitudinal cohort study of 23 patients with MS receiving multiple gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations and 23 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Participants also underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing. RESULTS: Patients with MS had a higher Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus (P < .001), but not in the globus pallidus (P = .19), compared with non-gadolinium-based contrast agent-exposed healthy controls by an unpaired t test. Increasing numbers of gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations were associated with an increased Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus (ß = 0.45, P < .001) and globus pallidus (ß = 0.60, P < .001). This association remained stable with corrections for the age, disease duration, and physical disability for both the dentate nucleus (ß = 0.43, P = .001) and globus pallidus (ß = 0.58, P < .001). An increased Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus among patients with MS was associated with lower verbal fluency scores, which remained significant after correction for several aspects of disease severity (ß = -0.40 P = .013). CONCLUSIONS: Our data corroborate previous reports of lasting gadolinium retention in brain tissues. An increased Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus was associated with lower verbal fluency, which does not prove causality but encourages further studies on cognition and gadolinium-based contrast agent administration.


Assuntos
Meios de Contraste/efeitos adversos , Meios de Contraste/farmacocinética , Gadolínio/efeitos adversos , Gadolínio/farmacocinética , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Adulto , Envelhecimento , Núcleos Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Cognição , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Globo Pálido/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Verbal
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