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2.
J Clin Neurosci ; 92: 67-74, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509265

RESUMO

Errors in communication are a major source of preventable medical errors. Neurosurgical patients frequently present to the neuro-intensive care unit (NICU) postoperatively, where handoffs occur to coordinate care within a large multidisciplinary team. A multidisciplinary working group at our institution started an initiative to improve postoperative neurosurgical handoffs using validated quality improvement methodology. Baseline handoff practices were evaluated through staff surveys and serial observations. A formalized handoff protocol was implemented using the evidence based IPASS format (Illness severity, Patient summary, Action list, Situational awareness and contingency planning, Synthesis by receiver). Cycles of objective observations and surveys were employed to track practice improvements and guide iterative process changes over one year. Surveys demonstrated improved perceptions of handoffs as organized (17.1% vs 69.7%, p < 0.001), efficient (27.0% vs. 72.7%, p < 0.001), comprehensive (17.1% vs. 66.7%, p < 0.001), and safe (18.0% vs. 66.7%, p < 0.001), noting improved teamwork (31.5% vs. 69.7%, p < 0.001). Direct observations demonstrated improved communication of airway concerns (47.1% observed vs. 92.3% observed, p < 0.001), hemodynamic concerns (70.6% vs. 97.1%, p = 0.001), intraoperative events (52.9% vs. 100%, p < 0.001), neurological examination (76.5% vs. 100%, p < 0.001), vital sign goals (70.6% vs. 100%, p < 0.001), and required postoperative studies (76.5% vs. 100%, p < 0.001). Receiving teams demonstrating improved rates of summarization (47.1% vs. 94.2%, p = 0.005) and asking questions (76.5% vs 98.1%, p = 0.004). The mean handoff time during long-term follow-up was 4.4 min (95% confidence interval = 3.9-5.0 min). Standardization of handoff practices yields improvements in communication practices for postoperative neurosurgical patients.


Assuntos
Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente , Comunicação , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Erros Médicos , Período Pós-Operatório
3.
J Epilepsy Res ; 11(1): 100-105, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395230

RESUMO

Agenesis of the corpus callosum is a brain malformation that can occur in isolation or in conjunction with other congenital or developmental defects. The clinical sequelae of this condition include epilepsy, cognitive deficits, developmental delay, and various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Here we present the case of a patient with congenital complete agenesis of the corpus callosum and medically refractory epilepsy who underwent stereoelectroencephalography. This identified a left frontal ictal focus and revealed that contralateral spread occurred though the anterior commissure, a rare and interesting occurrence. Left frontal resection resulted in significant improvement. This demonstrates the role of the anterior commissure in ictal spread and the potential for novel methods of seizure spread in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy that must be considered in a surgical approach.

4.
Neurosurgery ; 89(5): 928-936, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although World Health Organization (WHO) grade I meningiomas are considered "benign" tumors, an elevated Ki-67 is one crucial factor that has been shown to influence tumor behavior and clinical outcomes. The ability to preoperatively discern Ki-67 would confer the ability to guide surgical strategy. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we develop a machine learning (ML) algorithm using radiomic feature analysis to predict Ki-67 in WHO grade I meningiomas. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for a cohort of 306 patients who underwent surgical resection of WHO grade I meningiomas. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging was used to perform radiomic feature extraction followed by ML modeling using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator wrapped with support vector machine through nested cross-validation on a discovery cohort (n = 230), to stratify tumors based on Ki-67 <5% and ≥5%. The final model was independently tested on a replication cohort (n = 76). RESULTS: An area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.78-0.90) with a sensitivity of 84.1% and specificity of 73.3% was achieved in the discovery cohort. When this model was applied to the replication cohort, a similar high performance was achieved, with an AUC of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73-0.94), sensitivity and specificity of 82.6% and 85.5%, respectively. The model demonstrated similar efficacy when applied to skull base and nonskull base tumors. CONCLUSION: Our proposed radiomic feature analysis can be used to stratify WHO grade I meningiomas based on Ki-67 with excellent accuracy and can be applied to skull base and nonskull base tumors with similar performance achieved.

5.
Brain Stimul ; 14(5): 1271-1284, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34428553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brain stimulation has emerged as a powerful tool in human neuroscience, becoming integral to next-generation psychiatric and neurologic therapeutics. Theta-burst stimulation (TBS), in which electrical pulses are delivered in rhythmic bouts of 3-8 Hz, seeks to recapitulate neural activity seen endogenously during cognitive tasks. A growing literature suggests that TBS can be used to alter or enhance cognitive processes, but little is known about how these stimulation events influence underlying neural activity. OBJECTIVE: Our study sought to investigate the effect of direct electrical TBS on mesoscale neural activity in humans by asking (1) whether TBS evokes persistent theta oscillations in cortical areas, (2) whether these oscillations occur at the stimulated frequency, and (3) whether stimulation events propagate in a manner consistent with underlying functional and structural brain architecture. METHODS: We recruited 20 neurosurgical epilepsy patients with indwelling electrodes and delivered direct cortical TBS at varying locations and frequencies. Simultaneous iEEG was recorded from non-stimulated electrodes and analyzed to understand how TBS influences mesoscale neural activity. RESULTS: We found that TBS rapidly evoked theta rhythms in widespread brain regions, preferentially at the stimulation frequency, and that these oscillations persisted for hundreds of milliseconds post stimulation offset. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between recording and stimulation sites predicted the strength of theta response, suggesting that underlying brain architecture guides the flow of stimulation through the brain. CONCLUSIONS: By demonstrating that cortical TBS induces frequency-specific oscillatory responses, our results suggest this technology can be used to directly and predictably influence the activity of cognitively-relevant brain networks.


Assuntos
Ritmo Teta , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Encéfalo , Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos
6.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e382-e388, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Instrumented fusion procedures are essential in the treatment of degenerative lumbar spine disease to alleviate pain and improve neurological function, but they are being performed with increasing incidence and variability. We implemented a training module for neurosurgery residents that is based on evidence-based criteria for lumbar fusion surgery and measured its effectiveness in residents' decision making regarding whether patients should or should not undergo instrumented fusion. METHODS: The study design was a pretest versus posttest experiment conducted from September 2019 until July 2020 to measure improvement after formalized instruction on evidence-based guidelines. Neurosurgery residents of all training levels at our institution participated. A test was administered at the beginning of each academic year. The highest possible score was 18 points in each pretest and posttest. RESULTS: There was a general trend of test score improvement across all levels of training with a greater degree of change for participants with lower compared with higher pretest scores, indicating a possible ceiling effect. Paired t test demonstrated an overall mean score increase of 2 points (P < 0.0001), equivalent to an 11.11% increase (P < 0.0001). Stratified by training group, mean absolute change in test score was 2 (P = 0.0217), 1.67 (P = 0.0108), and 2.25 (P = 0.0173) points for junior, midlevel, and senior training groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Incorporating a targeted evidence-based learning module for lumbar spine fusion surgery can improve neurosurgery residents' clinical decision making toward a more uniform practice supported by published data.

8.
Front Neurol ; 12: 669406, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986721

RESUMO

Objective: Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) has seen a recent increase in popularity in North America; however, concerns regarding the spatial sampling capabilities of SEEG remain. We aimed to quantify and compare the spatial sampling of subdural electrode (SDE) and SEEG implants. Methods: Patients with drug-resistant epilepsy who underwent invasive monitoring were included in this retrospective case-control study. Ten SEEG cases were compared with ten matched SDE cases based on clinical presentation and pre-implantation hypothesis. To quantify gray matter sampling, MR and CT images were coregistered and a 2.5mm radius sphere was superimposed over the center of each electrode contact. The estimated recording volume of gray matter was defined as the cortical voxels within these spherical models. Paired t-tests were performed to compare volumes and locations of SDE and SEEG recording. A Ripley's K-function analysis was performed to quantify differences in spatial distributions. Results: The average recording volume of gray matter by each individual contact was similar between the two modalities. SEEG implants sampled an average of 20% more total gray matter, consisted of an average of 17% more electrode contacts, and had 77% more of their contacts covering gray matter within sulci. Insular coverage was only achieved with SEEG. SEEG implants generally consist of discrete areas of dense local coverage scattered across the brain; while SDE implants cover relatively contiguous areas with lower density recording. Significance: Average recording volumes per electrode contact are similar for SEEG and SDE, but SEEG may allow for greater overall volumes of recording as more electrodes can be routinely implanted. The primary difference lies in the location and distribution of gray matter than can be sampled. The selection between SEEG and SDE implantation depends on sampling needs of the invasive implant.

10.
Neuroimage ; 225: 117514, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137477

RESUMO

The role of the left ventral lateral parietal cortex (VPC) in episodic memory is hypothesized to include bottom-up attentional orienting to recalled items, according to the dual-attention model (Cabeza et al., 2008). However, its role in memory encoding could be further clarified, with studies showing both positive and negative subsequent memory effects (SMEs). Furthermore, few studies have compared the relative contributions of sub-regions in this functionally heterogeneous area, specifically the anterior VPC (supramarginal gyrus/BA40) and the posterior VPC (angular gyrus/BA39), on a within-subject basis. To elucidate the role of the VPC in episodic encoding, we compared SMEs in the intracranial EEG across multiple frequency bands in the supramarginal gyrus (SmG) and angular gyrus (AnG), as twenty-four epilepsy patients with indwelling electrodes performed a free recall task. We found a significant SME of decreased theta power and increased high gamma power in the VPC overall, and specifically in the SmG. Furthermore, SmG exhibited significantly greater spectral tilt SME from 0.5 to 1.6 s post-stimulus, in which power spectra slope differences between recalled and unrecalled words were greater than in the AnG (p = 0.04). These results affirm the contribution of VPC to episodic memory encoding, and suggest an anterior-posterior dissociation within VPC with respect to its electrophysiological underpinnings.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Lobo Parietal/fisiologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos , Eletrocorticografia , Eletrodos Implantados , Humanos , Memória/fisiologia
11.
Epilepsy Behav ; 115: 107642, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We compared long-term seizure outcome, neuropsychological outcome, and occupational outcome of anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) with and without sparing of mesial structures to determine whether mesial sparing temporal lobectomy prevents memory decline and thus disability, with acceptable seizure outcome. METHODS: We studied patients (n = 21) and controls (n = 21) with no evidence of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on MRI who had surgery to treat drug-resistant epilepsy. Demographic and pre- and postsurgical clinical characteristics were compared. Patients had neuropsychological assessment before and after surgery. Neuropsychological analyses were limited to patients with left-sided surgery and available data (n = 14 in each group) as they were at risk of verbal memory impairment. The California Verbal Learning Test II (CVLT-II) (sum of trials 1-5, delayed free recall) and the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale III or IV (WMS-III or WMS-IV) (learning and delayed recall of prose passages) were used to assess verbal episodic learning and memory. Seizure and occupational outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: The chance of attaining seizure freedom was similar in the two groups, so sparing mesial temporal structures did not lessen the chance of stopping seizures. Sparing mesial temporal structures mitigated the extent of postoperative verbal memory impairment, though some of these individuals suffered decline as a consequence of surgery. Occupational outcome was similar in both groups. SIGNIFICANCE: Mesial temporal sparing resections provide a similar seizure outcome as ATL, while producing a better memory outcome. Anterior temporal lobectomy including mesial structure resection did not increase the risk of postoperative disability.


Assuntos
Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Lobectomia Temporal Anterior , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/cirurgia , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Hipocampo/cirurgia , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 198: 106121, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical procedures are life- and function-saving but carry a risk of adverse events (AE) which can cause permanent neurologic deficits. Unfortunately, there is lack of clearly defined AEs associated with given procedures, and their reporting is non-uniform and often arbitrary. However, with an increasing number of neurosurgical procedures performed, there is a need for standardization of AEs for systematic tracking. Such a system would establish a baseline for future quality improvement strategies. OBJECTIVE: To review our institutional AEs and devise standardized titles specific to the spine, tumor, functional, and vascular neurosurgery divisions. METHODS: A review of prospective monthly-reported morbidity and mortality (M&M) conference data within the Department of Neurological Surgery was conducted from January 2017 to December 2019. An AE was defined as any mortality, an "unintended and undesirable diagnostic or therapeutic event", "an event that prolongs the patient's hospital stay", or an outcome with permanent or transient neurologic deficit. RESULTS: A total of 1096 AEs from 7418 total procedures (14.8 %) were identified. Of those, 418 (5.6 %) were in cerebrovascular, 249 (3.4 %) were in neuro-oncology and 429 (5.8 %) were in the spine & functional divisions. The most common AEs across all divisions were infection (17 %), hemorrhage (11 %) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak (7.8 %). Other AEs were indirectly related to the neurosurgical procedure, such as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (2.7 %), or pneumothorax (0.3 %). CONCLUSION: This work illustrates standardized AEs can be implemented universally across the spectrum of neurological surgery. Standardization can help identify recurring AE patterns through better tracking.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/normas , Doenças da Medula Espinal/cirurgia , Vocabulário Controlado , Encefalopatias/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Padrões de Referência , Doenças da Medula Espinal/epidemiologia
14.
J Neurosurg ; 134(5): 1500-1504, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The 30-day readmission rate is of increasing interest to hospital administrators and physicians, as it is used to evaluate hospital performance and is associated with increased healthcare expenditures. The estimated yearly cost to Medicare of readmissions is $17.4 billion. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services therefore track unplanned 30-day readmissions and institute penalties against hospitals whose readmission rates exceed disease-specific national standards. One of the most important conditions with potential for improvement in cost-effective care is ischemic stroke, which affects 795,000 people in the United States and is a leading cause of death and disability. Recent widespread adoption of mechanical thrombectomy has revolutionized stroke care, requiring reassessment of readmission causes and costs in this population. METHODS: The authors retrospectively analyzed a prospectively maintained database of stroke patients and identified 561 patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy between 2010 and 2019 at the authors' institution. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify clinical variables and comorbidities related to 30-day readmissions in this patient population. RESULTS: Of the 561 patients, 85.6% (n = 480) survived their admission and were discharged from the hospital to home or rehabilitation, and 8.8% (n = 42/480) were readmitted within 30 days. The median time to readmission was 10.5 days (IQR 6.0-14.3). The most common reasons for readmission were infection (33.3%) and acute cardiac or cerebrovascular events (19% and 20%, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that hypertension (p = 0.030; OR 2.72) and length of initial hospital stay (p = 0.040; OR 1.032) were significantly correlated with readmission within 30 days, while hemorrhagic conversion (grades 3 and 4) approached significance (p = 0.053; OR 2.23). Other factors, such as unfavorable outcome at discharge, history of coronary artery disease, and discharge destination, did not predict readmission. CONCLUSIONS: The study data demonstrate that hypertension, length of hospital stay, and hemorrhagic conversion were predictors of 30-day hospital readmission in stroke patients after mechanical thrombectomy. Infection was the most common cause of 30-day readmission, followed by cardiac and cerebrovascular diagnoses. These results therefore may serve to identify patients within the stroke population who require increased surveillance following discharge to reduce complications and unplanned readmissions.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/cirurgia , Trombólise Mecânica , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Cerebral/etiologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Craniectomia Descompressiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Infecções/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
J Neurosci ; 40(10): 2119-2128, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974207

RESUMO

The medial temporal lobe (MTL) is known as the locus of spatial coding and episodic memory, but the interaction between these cognitive domains as well as the extent to which they rely on common neurophysiological mechanisms is poorly understood. Here, we use intracranial electroencephalography and a hybrid spatial-episodic memory task (29 subjects, 15 female) to determine how spatial information is dynamically reactivated in subregions of the human MTL and how this reactivation guides recall of episodic information. Our results implicate theta oscillations across the MTL as a common neurophysiological substrate for spatial coding in navigation and episodic recall. We further show that our index of retrieved spatial context is high in the hippocampus (HC) in an early time window preceding recall. Closer to recall, it decreases in the HC and increases in the parahippocampal gyrus. Finally, we demonstrate that hippocampal theta phase modulates parahippocampal gamma amplitude during retrieval of spatial context, suggesting a role for cross-frequency coupling in coding and transmitting retrieved spatial information.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT By recording from the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) while subjects recall items experienced in a virtual environment, we establish a direct relation between the strength of theta activity during memory search and the extent to which memories are organized by their spatial locations. We thereby pinpoint a role for theta oscillations in accessing the "cognitive map" during episodic retrieval and further highlight the dynamic interplay of hippocampus and extrahippocampal MTL in representing retrieved spatial context. Our results provide an important step toward a unified theory of MTL function encompassing its role in spatial navigation and episodic memory.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Memória Espacial/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Neurosurgery ; 66(Suppl 1): 1-12, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428759
18.
Neurosurgery ; 66(Suppl 1): N3, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428764
20.
Neuromodulation ; 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of implantable pulse generators (IPG) for spinal cord stimulation (SCS) in patients with chronic pain has been well established. Although IPG-related complications have been reported on, the association between IPG site and SCS complications has not been well studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether IPG placement site in buttock or flank is associated with SCS complications and, hence, revision surgeries. METHOD: A retrospective cohort study was performed that included 330 patients (52% female) treated at a single institution who underwent permanent implantation of an SCS system between 2014 and 2018. Patients ranged between 20 and 94 years of age (mean: 57.54 ± 13.25). Statistical analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS Statistics. Tests included independent samples t test, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and logistic regression. RESULTS: There was a total of 93 revision surgeries (rate of 28%), where 71 out of 330 patients (rate of 21.5%) had had at least one revision surgery. Univariate tests demonstrated a significant association between IPG site and revision surgeries (p = 0.028 [chi-square test] and p = 0.031 [Mann-Whitney U test]); however, multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that neither IPG site was more likely than the other to require revision surgeries (p = 0.286). CONCLUSION: Although this study found a significant association between IPG site and revision surgeries, the effect of IPG site was not found to be predictive. The IPG site likely influences whether a patient will require revision surgery, but further investigation is required to establish this association.

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