Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 197
Filtrar
1.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(10): 7998-8007, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055849

RESUMO

Studies have shown that ß-glucans extracted from the cell wall of cereals, algae, and yeasts have been associated with improved immune function. However, it is unknown whether algae ß-glucan supplementation affects the performance, blood metabolites, or cell counts of immune cells in dairy calves. The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate whether supplementation of ß-glucans to milk replacer in dairy calves fed 6 L/d improved growth performance and fecal status and altered the blood metabolite profile. In this trial, we enrolled Holstein calves (n = 34) at birth (body weight 36.38 ± 1.33 kg; mean ± standard deviation) to receive, from 1 d of age, either 2 g/d algae ß-glucans mixed into 6 L/d of milk replacer (22.4% crude protein and 16.2% fat) or an unsupplemented milk replacer (control). The calves were blocked in pairs according to birth weight, sex, and date of birth (up to 5 d difference). Calves were housed individually, and calf starter (24.7% crude protein and 13.9% neutral detergent fiber) was offered ad libitum based on orts of the previous day until 56 d of age (end of the trial). Body weight was measured weekly, and health checks and daily fecal consistency were evaluated daily in every calf by the same observer. Calves with 2 consecutive days of loose feces that sifted through bedding were considered diarrhea positive. We used a linear mixed effects model to evaluate the effects of ß-glucan supplementation fed during the preweaning period on performance (average daily gain), final weight, feed efficiency (FE), white blood cell count, and selected blood metabolites, repeated by time. A generalized linear mixed effects model was also run to evaluate the likelihood of a diarrhea bout in the first 28 d of life, controlling for the calf as the subject with a logistic distribution. We included age, serum total protein at 48 h, and birth weight as covariates. At 56 d, ß-glucan-supplemented calves weighed more than control calves (56.3 vs. 51.5 kg). Treatment had no effect on total starter intake, but there was a treatment by age interaction for FE, with greater FE for ß-glucan-supplemented calves in wk 3 and 5 of age. There was only a tendency for average daily gain to be greater in supplemented calves than in control calves for the duration of the study. Furthermore, control calves had 14.66 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 9.87-21.77] times greater odds of having a diarrheal bout than ß-glucan-supplemented calves. Control calves had 12.70 (95% CI: 8.82-18.28) times greater odds of having an additional day with an abnormal fecal score compared with ß-glucan-supplemented calves, suggesting that supplementation ameliorated diarrhea severity. We found no association of treatment with concentrations of serum total protein, albumin, creatinine, or glucose during the preweaning period. Our findings suggest that dietary supplementation of 2 g/d of algae ß-glucans to milk replacer improved fecal status and may affect growth, as evidenced by a higher weaning weight, compared with control calves. Future studies should explore the effect of algae ß-glucans on lower-gut physiology and digestibility in dairy calves.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , beta-Glucanas , Albuminas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso ao Nascer , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Creatinina , Detergentes , Diarreia/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucose , Leite , Desmame , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
2.
Avian Dis ; 65(3): 373-380, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427410

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a gammacoronavirus that primarily induces an upper respiratory disease in chickens, also affecting the urogenital tract and occasionally leading to a condition called false layer syndrome (FLS), where sexually mature hens ovulate normally but are unable to lay eggs. Here, we describe an outbreak of FLS in Arizona from which an IBV variant that is nearly 90% homologous to DMV/1639 using the Spike subunit 1 gene, named AZ/FLS/17, was isolated and used in challenge experiments. Three-day-old specific-pathogen-free chicks were challenged with AZ/FLS/17 or M41 in high and low doses, and the disease outcomes were compared. Overall, no differences in microscopic lesions or viral loads in the reproductive tract were detected between AZ/FLS/17- and M41-infected birds. To minimize the losses linked to FLS in the problematic flocks, an updated live-attenuated IBV vaccine protocol including the use of the Ma5 strain at the hatchery was implemented, resulting in a drastic reduction of false layers in the subsequent flocks. To monitor the circulation of wild-type and vaccine strains in this population, a molecular surveillance study was performed. Samples were collected at 1, 7, 14, and 21 days of age, and from laying hens at 30 and 36 wk. In older birds, the IBV strains detected were more diverse than at 1 and 7 days of age. Nevertheless, live vaccine combinations are still widely used to decrease the losses caused by FLS in commercial egg laying flocks worldwide.


Caracterización de un virus de la bronquitis infecciosa aislado de aves de postura comerciales que padecían el síndrome de la falsa ponedora. El virus de la bronquitis infecciosa (IBV) es un gammacoronavirus que induce principalmente una enfermedad de las vías respiratorias superiores en los pollos, que también afecta el tracto urogenital y ocasionalmente conduce a una condición llamada síndrome de la falsa ponedora (FLS), donde las gallinas sexualmente maduras ovulan normalmente pero no pueden producir huevos. En este estudio se describe un brote del síndrome de la falsa ponedora en Arizona a partir del cual se aisló una variante del virus de bronquitis que es casi 90% similar a la variante DMV/1639 usando el gene S1, la cual se denominó AZ/FLS/17, y se usó en experimentos de desafío. Pollos de tres días de edad libres de patógenos específicos (SPF) fueron desafiados con el virus AZ/FLS/17 o con el virus M41 en dosis altas y bajas, y se compararon los resultados de la enfermedad. En general, no se detectaron diferencias en las lesiones microscópicas o en las cargas virales en el tracto reproductivo entre las aves infectadas con el virus AZ/FLS/17 y el virus M41. Para minimizar las pérdidas relacionadas con el síndrome de la falsa ponedora en las parvadas problemáticas, se implementó un protocolo actualizado con vacuna viva atenuada contra la bronquitis infecciosa que incluía el uso de la cepa Ma5 en la incubadora, lo que resultó en una reducción drástica de las gallinas falsas ponedoras en las parvadas subsecuentes. Para monitorear la circulación de cepas de tipo silvestre y vacunales en esta población, se realizó un estudio de vigilancia molecular. Se recolectaron muestras a los 1, 7, 14 y 21 días de edad y de gallinas de postura a las 30 y 36 semanas. En aves mayores, las cepas del virus de bronquitis detectadas fueron más diversas que a los días 1 y 7 de edad. Sin embargo, las combinaciones de vacunas vivas todavía se utilizan ampliamente para disminuir las pérdidas causadas por el síndrome de la falsa ponedora en las parvadas de postura de huevo comercial en todo el mundo.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Feminino , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
3.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 115(9): 944-946, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823550

RESUMO

A significant decrease in dengue fever cases and a contrasting increase in leptospirosis cases were reported for the second quarter of 2020 compared with 2019 in Sri Lanka. In the absence of significant environmental and weather-related differences to account for these changes in incidence, we investigated the possibility that the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on public health, social behaviour and the restrictions imposed during the lockdown influenced the fluctuations in dengue and leptospirosis infections.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dengue , Leptospirose , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Dengue/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
4.
Musculoskelet Sci Pract ; 53: 102365, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33765632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Care-seekers for LBP cause substantial economic burden to governments and the healthcare system. OBJECTIVE: To investigate lifestyle and health-related factors associated with care-seeking (including pain medication use) in individuals experiencing LBP, after controlling for important genetic and early environmental confounders through the use of a within-twin pair case-control design. DESIGN: A secondary analysis of observational longitudinal data, derived from the Australian Twin low BACK pain (AUTBACK) study, was performed on 66 twin pairs that presented with similar symptoms of LBP at baseline but became discordant for care-seeking behaviour over one month. METHODS: Subjective and objective assessment of pain intensity, disability, depression, sleep quality, physical activity and body mass index were performed. Data was analysed using stepwise conditional logistic regression in two stages: within-pair case-control for monozygotic and dizygotic twins together; and within-pair case-control analysis of monozygotic twins only. Results were expressed as odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Higher LBP intensity (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.3-6.8) and poorer sleep quality (OR 10.9; 95% CI 1.5-77.7) were the main factors that increased the likelihood of care-seeking for LBP. These associations remained significant and increased in magnitude after adjusting for genetic confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with higher LBP intensity and worse sleep quality are more likely to seek care for LBP, and this relationship is likely to be causal after adjustment of familial and genetic confounding.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Dor Lombar/genética , Dor Lombar/terapia , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética
5.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 71, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in the Asia-Pacific region, with changes in disease phenotype and course. We aimed to assess the changing phenotypes of IBD over ten years, describe the early clinical course (ECC) and identify the clinical predictors (CP) of poor outcomes among a large, multi-centre, cohort of Sri Lankan IBD patients. METHODS: We included patients [diagnosed between June/2003-December/2009-Group-1(G1), January/2010-June/2016-Group-2(G2)] with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD) from five national-referral centres. Changing phenotype from G1 to G2, ECC (disease duration < 3-years) and CP of poor outcomes (disease duration ≥ 1-year) was assessed. Poor outcomes were complicated-disease (CompD-stricturing/penetrating-CD, extensive-UC/pancolitis, perforation/bleeding/colectomy/malignancy) and treatment-refractory disease (TRD-frequently-relapsing, steroid-dependent/refractory and biologic use). RESULTS: 375 (UC-227, CD-148) patients were recruited. Both G1/G2 had more UC than CD (77% vs 23%, 54.5 vs 45.5 respectively, p < 0.01). Increase of CD from G1-to-G2 was significant (23-45.4%, p < 0.001). In both groups, left-sided colitis (E2) and ileo-colonic (L3)/non-stricturing, non-penetrating disease behaviour (B1) CD predominated. Extensive-colitis (E3) (36.4% vs 22.7, p < 0.05) and stricturing-CD (B2) (26.1% vs 4.0%, p < 0.01) was commoner in G1. ECC was assessed in 173-patients (UC-94, CD-79). Aggressive disease behaviour and TRD were low among both UC and CD. Immunomodulator use was significantly higher among CD than UC (61.5% vs 29.0% respectively, p < 0.01). Anti-TNF use was low among both groups (UC-3.2%, CD-7.7%). Disease complications among UC [bleeding (2.1%), malignancy-(1.1%), surgery-(2.1%)] and CD [stricture-(3.9%), perforation-(1.3%), malignancy-(1.3%), surgery-(8.9%)] were generally low. CPs were assessed in 271-patients (UC-163, CD-108). Having a family history of IBD (for UC), extraintestinal manifestation (EIM), severe disease at presentation, being in younger age categories and severe disease at presentation, (for both UC and CD) predicted poor outcomes. CONCLUSION: There was an increase in CD over time without change in disease phenotype for both UC and CD. A relatively benign ECC was observed. Family history (UC), EIMs (UC/CD), severe disease at presentation (UC/CD), younger age (CD/UC) CPs of poor outcomes.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Atenção Terciária à Saúde , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
6.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(5): 5457-5466, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612231

RESUMO

Lysolecithin is an antiinflammatory emulsifier associated with improved apparent digestibility of total dietary fat and improved feed efficiency in dairy cattle. However, it is unknown if lysolecithin (LYSO) improves performance in calves. Moreover, since many conventional milk replacers use vegetable-sourced fat (e.g., palm oil), nutrient absorption and fecal score may be affected in neonatal calves. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of LYSO supplemented in milk replacer on performance, metabolites, and gut health of preweaned dairy calves. Holstein calves (n = 32) with adequate passive transfer were assigned in pairs (16 blocks) balanced by birth weight, date of birth, and sex at 1 d of age to randomly receive either LYSO (mixed in 2 milk replacer feedings at a rate of 4 g/d Lysoforte, Kemin Industries Inc., Des Moines, IA) or a milk replacer control (nothing added). Both treatments were fed 6 L/d milk replacer [22.5% crude protein, 16.2% crude fat (vegetable oil fat source) on a dry matter basis with 14% solids] by bucket in 2 daily feedings for 56 d. Calves were individually housed in wooden hutches and offered a commercial calf starter (24.6% crude protein and 13.9% neutral detergent fiber) and water by bucket ad libitum. Feed refusals and calf health was assessed daily. Weights and blood metabolites (glucose, total serum protein, albumin, creatinine, triglycerides, and cholesterol) were sampled weekly, and calves completed the study before weaning at 56 d of age. The effects of LYSO on calf average daily gain, feed efficiency, and blood metabolites were evaluated using a linear mixed model with time as a repeated measure, calf as the subject, and block as a random effect in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The effect of LYSO to improve the odds of abnormal fecal score was evaluated using a logistic model. Supplementation of LYSO increased average daily gain (control 0.28 ± 0.03 kg; LYSO 0.37 ± 0.03 kg; least squares means ± standard error of the mean) and increased feed efficiency (gain-to-feed; control 0.25 ± 0.03; LYSO 0.32 ± 0.03). Similarly, LYSO calves had a higher final body weight at d 56 (control 52.11 ± 2.33 kg; LYSO 56.73 ± 2.33 kg). Interestingly, total dry matter intake was not associated with LYSO despite improved average daily gain (total dry matter intake control 1,088.7 ± 27.62 g; total dry matter intake LYSO 1,124.8 ± 27.62 g). Blood glucose, albumin, creatinine, triglycerides, and cholesterol were not associated with LYSO. Indeed, only total serum protein had a significant interaction with LYSO and age at wk 5 and 6. Moreover, control calves had a 13.57 (95% confidence interval: 9.25-19.90) times greater odds of having an abnormal fecal score on any given day during the diarrhea risk period from d 1 to 28. The inclusion of LYSO as an additive in milk replacer in a dose of 4 g/d may improve performance, and calf fecal score, preweaning. Further research should investigate the mechanisms behind the effects of LYSO on fat digestibility in calves fed 6 L/d of milk replacer with vegetable-sourced fat.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Leite , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lisofosfatidilcolinas , Desmame
7.
Anaesthesia ; 76(9): 1198-1206, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440019

RESUMO

Published data suggest that the type of general anaesthesia used during surgical resection for cancer may impact on patient long-term outcome. However, robust prospective clinical evidence is essential to guide a change in clinical practice. We explored the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial to investigate the impact of total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol vs. inhalational volatile anaesthesia on postoperative outcomes of patients undergoing major cancer surgery. We undertook a randomised, double-blind feasibility and pilot study of propofol total intravenous anaesthesia or volatile-based maintenance anaesthesia during cancer resection surgery at three tertiary hospitals in Australia and the USA. Patients were randomly allocated to receive propofol total intravenous anaesthesia or volatile-based maintenance anaesthesia. Primary outcomes for this study were successful recruitment to the study and successful delivery of the assigned anaesthetic treatment as per randomisation arm. Of the 217 eligible patients approached, 146 were recruited, a recruitment rate of 67.3% (95%CI 60.6-73.5%). One hundred and forty-five patients adhered to the randomised treatment arm, 99.3% (95%CI 96.2-100%). Intra-operative patient characteristics and postoperative complications were comparable between the two intervention groups. This feasibility and pilot study supports the viability of the protocol for a large, randomised controlled trial to investigate the effect of anaesthesia technique on postoperative cancer outcomes. The volatile anaesthesia and peri-operative outcomes related to cancer (VAPOR-C) study that is planned to follow this feasibility study is an international, multicentre trial with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for the anaesthetic management of patients undergoing major cancer surgery.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Inalação/métodos , Anestesia Intravenosa/métodos , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Anestésicos Intravenosos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Propofol , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Avian Dis ; 65(4): 530-540, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35068095

RESUMO

The emergence of avian reovirus variant strains has caused negative effects in the poultry industry worldwide. Regardless of the efforts in molecular characterization and classification of these variants, information about the pathogenicity, transmissibility, and immunosuppression in chickens is limited. The genomes of two variant strains (A and B) and a classic S1133 strain (C) belonging to the same sigma C genotype 1 were compared. Additionally, these strains were used in a challenge experiment to evaluate inoculated and indirectly exposed specific-pathogen-free chickens. The whole-genome sequence analysis of the three strains revealed nucleotide identity differences in the L3, M2, and S1 genes. Strains A and B also showed homology differences in the S4 gene, despite having high homologies in all other genes. The in vivo challenge experiments showed that, whereas variant A induced high viral loads in tendons, hearts, and duodena of inoculated chickens, variant B induced high viral loads in indirectly exposed chickens. Likewise, histopathology reflected differences in the pathologic effects induced by these strains. For instance, the B and C strains induced more severe microscopic lesions compared with the A strain. Lymphoid depletion was more severe in bursas than in thymi, and inoculated birds were more affected than exposed birds. In conclusion, different pathologic outcomes in chickens were observed depending on the strain and transmission route. This study provides insights onto the relationship between pathogenicity and genomic composition of avian reoviruses.


Reovirus aviares del mismo genotipo inducen diferentes patologías en pollos. La aparición de cepas variantes del reovirus aviar ha causado efectos negativos en la industria avícola en todo el mundo. Independientemente de los esfuerzos en la caracterización molecular y clasificación de estas variantes, la información sobre la patogenicidad, transmisibilidad e inmunodepresión en pollos es limitada. Se compararon los genomas de dos cepas variantes (A y B) y una cepa S1133 clásica (C) perteneciente al mismo genotipo 1 del gene sigma C. Además, estas cepas se utilizaron en un experimento de desafío para evaluar pollos libres de patógenos específicos inoculados y expuestos indirectamente. El análisis de la secuencia del genoma completo de las tres cepas reveló diferencias de identidad de nucleótidos en los genes L3, M2 y S1. Las cepas A y B también mostraron diferencias de homología en el gene S4, a pesar de tener altas similitudes en todos los demás genes. Los experimentos de exposición in vivo mostraron que, mientras que la variante A inducía altas cargas virales en tendones, corazones y duodeno en los pollos inoculados, la variante B inducía altas cargas virales en pollos expuestos indirectamente. Asimismo, la histopatología reflejó diferencias en los efectos patológicos inducidos por estas cepas. Por ejemplo, las cepas B y C indujeron lesiones microscópicas más graves en comparación con la cepa A. La despoblación linfoide fue más severa en las bolsas que en el timo, y las aves inoculadas resultaron más afectadas que las expuestas. En conclusión, se observaron diferentes resultados patológicos en pollos según la cepa y la vía de transmisión. Este estudio proporciona información sobre la relación entre la patogenicidad y la composición genómica de los reovirus aviares.


Assuntos
Orthoreovirus Aviário , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Infecções por Reoviridae , Animais , Galinhas , Genótipo , Orthoreovirus Aviário/genética , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária
9.
Avian Dis ; 65(4): 584-591, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35068102

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe economic losses among chicken flocks worldwide. Although IBV molecular surveillance has been conducted in California broilers, seasonal and spatial-temporal trends in IBV prevalence are poorly defined. The goals of this study were to evaluate seasonal and spatial-temporal trends in IBV prevalence and to determine the predominant IBV genotypes obtained over the last 8 yr from a broiler company located in the California Central Valley. In total, 3439 broilers with a suspicion of IBV infection were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratories between January 2012 and February 2020. Swabs from tracheas, kidneys, and cecal tonsils from each submission were independently pooled and screened for IBV using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Positive samples were submitted for virus isolation. Viral isolates were subject to a conventional RT-PCR targeting the S1 gene hypervariable region. Positive samples from this RT-PCR were sequenced, and phylogenetic analyses were performed. In total, 1243 pooled swab samples were positive for IBV. Positive results were more frequently detected in fall and winter months compared to spring. Spatial analyses revealed an IBV hot spot in the vicinity of Livingston, and two areas with a low prevalence (i.e., cold spots) around Riverdale. The IBV spatial-temporal distribution identified three significant clusters: one hot spot around Turlock from 2015 to 2016, a second hot spot around Merced from 2012 to 2016, and a cold spot around Fresno from 2017 to 2020. Predominant genotypes changed over time from IBV Cal 99, which was predominant between 2012 and 2014, to IBV 3099 in 2019. Vaccination efforts were initiated in 2018, and as a result, we detected an emerging variant with 92% similarity to CA 3099 in 2020. This work highlights the importance of ongoing surveillance in IBV prevention programs. Surveillance strategies are necessary to monitor trends in diseases such as infectious bronchitis, and the tools used for surveillance need to be sensitive enough to detect new variants and identify spatial-temporal trends.


Vigilancia del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa en pollos de engorde en California (2012­2020). El virus de la bronquitis infecciosa (IBV) causa graves pérdidas económicas entre las parvadas de pollos en todo el mundo. Aunque la vigilancia molecular del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa se ha realizado en pollos de engorde en el estado de California, las tendencias estacionales y espacio-temporales sobre la prevalencia de este virus están mal definidas. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron evaluar las tendencias estacionales y espacio-temporales sobre la prevalencia del virus de la bronquitis infecciosa y determinar los genotipos predominantes de este virus obtenidos durante los últimos ocho años de una empresa de pollos de engorde ubicada en el Valle Central de California. En total, 3439 pollos de engorde con sospecha de infección por el virus de la bronquitis infecciosa se enviaron a los laboratorios de Salud Animal y Seguridad Alimentaria del estado de California entre enero del 2012 y febrero del 2020. Los hisopos de tráqueas, riñones y tonsilas cecales de cada caso se combinaron de forma independiente y se examinaron para detectar al virus de la bronquitis utilizando transcripción reversa y un método cuantitativo de PCR (RT-qPCR). Se enviaron muestras positivas para aislamiento del virus. Los aislados virales se sometieron a un método convencional de RT-PCR dirigido a la región hipervariable del gene S1. Se secuenciaron muestras positivas mediante la prueba RT-PCR y se realizaron análisis filogenéticos. Un total de 1243 muestras combinadas de hisopos dieron positivo para el virus de la bronquitis infecciosa. Los resultados positivos se detectaron con mayor frecuencia en los meses de otoño e invierno en comparación con la primavera. Los análisis espaciales revelaron un punto activo para el virus de la bronquitis infecciosa en las cercanías de Livingston y dos áreas con una baja prevalencia (es decir, puntos fríos) alrededor de Riverdale. La distribución espacio-temporal del virus de la bronquitis identificó tres grupos importantes: un punto activo alrededor de Turlock entre los años 2015 a 2016, un segundo punto activo alrededor de Merced entre los años 2012 a 2016 y un punto frío alrededor de Fresno entre los años 2017 a 2020. Los genotipos predominantes cambiaron con el tiempo, consideraron el subtipo IBV Cal 99, que fue predominante entre 2012 y 2014, a el tipo IBV 3099 en 2019. Los esfuerzos de vacunación se iniciaron en el 2018, y como resultado, detectamos una variante emergente con un 92% de similitud con el virus CA 3099 en 2020. Este trabajo destaca la importancia de la vigilancia continua en los programas de prevención para la bronquitis infecciosa. Las estrategias de vigilancia son necesarias para monitorear las tendencias en enfermedades como la bronquitis infecciosa, y las herramientas utilizadas para la vigilancia deben ser lo suficientemente sensibles como para detectar nuevas variantes e identificar tendencias espacio-temporales.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Filogenia
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18553, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122673

RESUMO

Through alteration of wave-generating atmospheric systems, global climate changes play a fundamental role in regional wave climate. However, long-term wave-climate cycles and their associated forcing mechanisms remain poorly constrained, in part due to a relative dearth of highly resolved archives. Here we use the morphology of former shorelines preserved in beach-foredune ridges (BFR) within a protected embayment to reconstruct changes in predominant wave directions in the Subtropical South Atlantic during the last ~ 3000 years. These analyses reveal multi-centennial cycles of oscillation in predominant wave direction in accordance with stronger (weaker) South Atlantic mid- to high-latitudes mean sea-level pressure gradient and zonal westerly winds, favouring wave generation zones in higher (lower) latitudes and consequent southerly (easterly) wave components. We identify the Southern Annular Mode as the primary climate driver responsible for these changes. Long-term variations in interhemispheric surface temperature anomalies coexist with oscillations in wave direction, which indicates the influence of temperature-driven atmospheric teleconnections on wave-generation cycles. These results provide a novel geomorphic proxy for paleoenvironmental reconstructions and present new insights into the role of global multi-decadal to multi-centennial climate variability in controlling coastal-ocean wave climate.

11.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(11): 10083-10098, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32952017

RESUMO

Tropical grass hay feeding is related to improved ruminal health; however, it may decrease energy intake. On the other hand, whole-flint corn grain may be an alternative fiber source in the diet of dairy calves. Forty-two Holstein calves were used in a randomized block design, considering sex, birth date, and weight at 21 d of age, when the supply of whole-flint corn grain or tropical grass hay started. Three component-fed solid diets were compared: (1) starter concentrate only during the preweaning and starter concentrate with free choice of chopped Tifton-85 hay postweaning (SC), (2) starter concentrate with free choice of chopped Tifton-85 hay pre- and postweaning (SCH), and (3) starter concentrate with free choice of whole-flint corn grain pre- and postweaning (SCW). The animals were evaluated from 21 to 84 d of age. Calves were managed equally during the first 21 d, fed with 6 L/d of whole milk and a commercial starter concentrate (46% nonfiber carbohydrates, small particles, and pelleted) ad libitum. After that, milk feeding was reduced to 4 L/d until gradual weaning at 56 d of age. At 56 d of age, 4 animals per treatment were randomly chosen to be slaughtered for digestive tract weight evaluation and to collect tissue for histological analysis of the ruminal wall, duodenum, and cecum, whereas the other 30 animals were weaned and evaluated for a further 22 d when the SC diet also received hay ad libitum. Feed intake was measured daily. Weight gain and metabolic indicators of intermediate metabolism were evaluated weekly. Ruminal fluid was collected at wk 6, 8, 10, and 12 of age. The SCH diet increased the total and starter dry matter intake, and consequently, the average daily gain and body weight at 56 d of age. The SCW diet promoted an increase in propionate and decreased acetate-to-propionate ratio. Morphometric variables were affected by the SCH diet. The postweaning performance was unaffected by solid diets; however, the SCW diet decreased ruminal and fecal pH. Feeding hay, starting at 21 d of age, can stimulate early solid diet intake, promoting better performance and ruminal and intestinal development, when a highly fermentable and small particle pelleted starter is fed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bovinos/fisiologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Zea mays , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/sangue , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Fermentação , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Poaceae , Distribuição Aleatória , Rúmen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rúmen/fisiologia , Desmame , Aumento de Peso , Grãos Integrais
12.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 55(8): 1005-1011, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650675

RESUMO

While the COVID-19 pandemic evolves, we are beginning to understand the role the gastrointestinal tract plays in the disease and the impact of the infection on the care of patients with gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases. We review the data and understanding around the virus related to the digestive tract, impact of the pandemic on delivery of GI services and daily gastroenterology clinical practice, and the effects on patients with pre-existing GI diseases.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Gastroenterologia/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/epidemiologia , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estados Unidos
13.
Avian Dis ; 64(2): 157-165, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32550616

RESUMO

The reemergence of infectious coryza (IC) caused by Avibacterium paragallinarum (AP) as an acute and occasionally chronic respiratory disease in domestic poultry has caused severe losses in several U.S. states. The disease is also associated with decreased egg production in layers and increased condemnations from air sac infections in broilers. A series of applied experiments were performed to elucidate the persistence of AP in infected broiler flocks, to genotype AP strains isolated from field cases, and to evaluate commercial and autogenous vaccine protection in commercial and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. Experimental evaluation of environmental persistence suggests that AP did not persist more than 12 hr in a hypothetically contaminated environment. Additionally, other detected potential pathogens such as Gallibacterium anatis and infectious bronchitis virus caused mild respiratory signs in the exposed birds. The HMTp210 and HagA genes of four IC field strains were sequenced and compared with published sequences of HMTp210 and HagA. The HMTp210 phylogeny showed a marginally imperfect clustering of the sequences in genogroups A, B, and C. Although not definitive, this phylogeny provided evidence that the four field strains aligned with previously characterized serovar C strains. Moreover, the base pair homology of the four strains was 100% identical to serovar C reference strains (H-18 and Modesto). HagA phylogeny was unclear, but interestingly, the IC field strains were 100% homologous to C-1 strains reported from Mexico and Ecuador. Finally, vaccine protection studies in commercial hens indicate that clinical signs are induced by a combination of IC and other concomitant pathogens infecting commercial birds. Additionally, vaccine protection experiments performed in SPF hens indicated that protection provided by the two commercial vaccines tested provided a reduction in clinical signs and bacterial shedding after two applications.


Coriza infecciosa: Persistencia, genotipificación y pruebas para vacunas. El resurgimiento de la coriza infecciosa (CI) causada por Avibacterium paragallinarum (AP) como una enfermedad respiratoria aguda y ocasionalmente crónica en aves domésticas ha causado graves pérdidas en varios estados de los Estados Unidos. La enfermedad también se asocia con una disminución en la producción de huevo en gallinas de postura y al incremento de decomisos por infecciones de los sacos aéreos en pollos de engorde. Se realizó una serie de experimentos aplicados para dilucidar la persistencia de A. paragillanarum en parvadas de pollos de engorde infectados, para genotipificar las cepas de A. paragallinarum aisladas de casos de campo y para evaluar la protección de vacunas comerciales y autógenas en pollos comerciales y en aves libres de patógenos específicos (SPF). La evaluación experimental de la persistencia ambiental sugiere que A. paragallinarum no persistió más de doce horas en un ambiente hipotéticamente contaminado. Además, otros patógenos potenciales detectados como Gallibacterium anatis y el virus de la bronquitis infecciosa causaron signos respiratorios leves en las aves expuestas. Los genes HMTp210 y HagA de cuatro cepas de campo de coriza infecciosa se secuenciaron y compararon con las secuencias publicadas de HMTp210 y HagA. La filogenia de HMTp210 mostró una agrupación marginalmente imperfecta de las secuencias en los genogrupos A, B y C. Aunque no es definitiva, esta filogenia proporcionó evidencia de que las cuatro cepas de campo se alinearon con cepas del serovar C previamente caracterizadas. Además, la homología de pares de bases de las cuatro cepas fue 100% idéntica a las cepas de referencia del serovar C (H-18 y Modesto). La filogenia de HagA no fue clara, pero curiosamente, las cepas de campo de coriza infecciosa fueron 100% similares con las cepas C-1 reportadas en México y Ecuador. Finalmente, los estudios de protección de vacunas en gallinas comerciales indican que los signos clínicos son inducidos por una combinación de coriza infecciosa y otros patógenos concomitantes que infectan a las aves comerciales. Además, los experimentos de protección de vacunas realizados en aves libres de patógenos específicos indicaron que la protección proporcionada por las dos vacunas comerciales analizadas proporcionó una reducción en los signos clínicos y en la eliminación bacteriana después de dos aplicaciones.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Galinhas , Genótipo , Infecções por Haemophilus/veterinária , Haemophilus paragallinarum/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Infecções por Haemophilus/microbiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/prevenção & controle , Haemophilus paragallinarum/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
14.
ACG Case Rep J ; 6(6): e00075, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616760

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor (TNF-α) is frequently used for Crohn's disease and other autoimmune conditions. Increased risk of infection is an accepted adverse effect of TNF-α, and routine screening for potential infections are carried out before initiation of therapy. We report the case of a patient who developed a localized painful swelling near the injection site, which was diagnosed as acute dermato-lymphangio-adenitis due to filarial infection. This adds to the limited number of case reports on parasitic complications following TNF-α therapy.

15.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(10): 8952-8962, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421873

RESUMO

Propolis is a natural product produced by bees and sold commercially. It is well known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and the ability to improve immune system functions in humans and animals. Many of its positive effects can contribute positively to animal productivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible beneficial effects of red propolis supplementation on growth performance, metabolism, and health status of dairy calves during the preweaning phase. Thirty-two newborn calves were individually housed, with free access to water and concentrate, and fed 6 L/d of whole milk. Animals were distributed in 2 treatments: (1) control and (2) supplementation with 4 mL/d of red propolis ethanolic extract (30%; EEP) in whole milk. Feed consumption and fecal and health scores were monitored daily from 1 d of age to 56 d. Calves were weighed and measured weekly. Blood samples were collected weekly, 2 h after morning milk feeding, for determination of glucose, total serum protein, urea, lactate, ß-hydroxybutyrate, total iron binding capacity, and total leukocytes (white blood cells) and erythrocytes (red blood cells). Starter feed intake, daily weight gain, and body measurements were not affected by the EEP supplementation. Blood parameters were also not affected, with the exception for the red blood cell counts, which were lower in animals supplemented with EEP. Supplementation with EEP significantly decreased fecal score, days with diarrhea, and veterinary treatments of diarrhea. These results indicate that red propolis supplementation has potential to improve calf health and reduce the incidence of diarrhea and, as a consequence, the use of antibiotics in calf rearing systems.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Bovinos/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Leite/química , Própole/administração & dosagem , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Indústria de Laticínios , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Fezes , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Aumento de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 509-520, mar.-abr. 2019. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011276

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concentrations of caffeine on the viability, synthesis activity and gene expression in cultures of chondrocytes. Extracted articular cartilage from the femurs and tibias of 15 Wistar rats at three days old to isolate chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were cultured in chondrogenic medium (control) or supplemented with caffeine (0.5, 1.0, 2.0mM). Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen synthesis were assessed using colorimetric assays at 7, 14, 21 days. The chondrocyte cultures of all groups grown under coverslips were stained with hematoxylin-eosin to determine the percentage of cells/field and with PAS, safranin O, alcian blue to determine the percentage of matrix chondrogenic/field at 21 days. The expressions of gene transcripts for aggrecan, collagen-II, Sox-9, Runx-2 and alkaline phosphatase were also evaluated by RT-PCR at 21 days. The means were compared using Student-Newman-Keuls. Caffeine significantly reduced the conversion of MTT to formazan, percentage of cells/field, collagen synthesis, alkaline phosphatase activity, synthesis of PAS+, safranin O+ and alcian blue+ chondrogenic matrix, and the expression of aggrecan, Sox-9 and II collagen. It is concluded that caffeine at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0mM has a direct inhibitory effect on chondrogenesis in cultures of chondrocytes from rats.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito direto de concentrações de cafeína sobre a viabilidade, atividade de síntese e expressão gênica em culturas de condrócitos de ratos. As cartilagens dos fêmures e tíbias de 15 ratos Wistar com três dias foram extraídas para isolamento de condrócitos. Os condrócitos foram cultivados em meio condrogênico (controle) ou em meio acrescido de diferentes concentrações de cafeína (0,5, 1,0, 2,0mM). Foram avaliadas a viabilidade celular, a atividade da fosfatase alcalina e a síntese de colágeno por ensaios colorimétricos aos sete, 14 e 21 dias. Condrócitos cultivados sob lamínulas foram corados pela hematoxilina e eosina, para se determinar a porcentagem de células/campo, e pelo PAS, safranina O, alcian Blue, para se determinar a porcentagem de matriz condrogênica/campo aos 21 dias. Foi avaliada a expressão de transcriptos gênicos para Sox-9, Runx-2, agrecano, colágeno-II e fosfatase alcalina por qRT-PCR, aos 21 dias. As médias foram comparadas pelo Student-Newman-Keuls. A cafeína reduziu significativamente o MTT em cristais de formazan, a porcentagem de células/campo, a síntese de colágeno, a atividade da fosfatase alcalina e a síntese de matriz condrogênica PAS+, safranina O+, alcian blue+ e expressão de Sox-9 e colágeno-II. Conclui-se que a cafeína, nas concentrações de 0,5, 1,0, 2,0mM, apresenta efeito inibidor direto sobre a condrogênese em culturas de condrócitos de ratos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Cafeína , Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrogênese/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 509-520, mar.-abr. 2019. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-23535

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concentrations of caffeine on the viability, synthesis activity and gene expression in cultures of chondrocytes. Extracted articular cartilage from the femurs and tibias of 15 Wistar rats at three days old to isolate chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were cultured in chondrogenic medium (control) or supplemented with caffeine (0.5, 1.0, 2.0mM). Cell viability, alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen synthesis were assessed using colorimetric assays at 7, 14, 21 days. The chondrocyte cultures of all groups grown under coverslips were stained with hematoxylin-eosin to determine the percentage of cells/field and with PAS, safranin O, alcian blue to determine the percentage of matrix chondrogenic/field at 21 days. The expressions of gene transcripts for aggrecan, collagen-II, Sox-9, Runx-2 and alkaline phosphatase were also evaluated by RT-PCR at 21 days. The means were compared using Student-Newman-Keuls. Caffeine significantly reduced the conversion of MTT to formazan, percentage of cells/field, collagen synthesis, alkaline phosphatase activity, synthesis of PAS+, safranin O+ and alcian blue+ chondrogenic matrix, and the expression of aggrecan, Sox-9 and II collagen. It is concluded that caffeine at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0mM has a direct inhibitory effect on chondrogenesis in cultures of chondrocytes from rats.(AU)


O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito direto de concentrações de cafeína sobre a viabilidade, atividade de síntese e expressão gênica em culturas de condrócitos de ratos. As cartilagens dos fêmures e tíbias de 15 ratos Wistar com três dias foram extraídas para isolamento de condrócitos. Os condrócitos foram cultivados em meio condrogênico (controle) ou em meio acrescido de diferentes concentrações de cafeína (0,5, 1,0, 2,0mM). Foram avaliadas a viabilidade celular, a atividade da fosfatase alcalina e a síntese de colágeno por ensaios colorimétricos aos sete, 14 e 21 dias. Condrócitos cultivados sob lamínulas foram corados pela hematoxilina e eosina, para se determinar a porcentagem de células/campo, e pelo PAS, safranina O, alcian Blue, para se determinar a porcentagem de matriz condrogênica/campo aos 21 dias. Foi avaliada a expressão de transcriptos gênicos para Sox-9, Runx-2, agrecano, colágeno-II e fosfatase alcalina por qRT-PCR, aos 21 dias. As médias foram comparadas pelo Student-Newman-Keuls. A cafeína reduziu significativamente o MTT em cristais de formazan, a porcentagem de células/campo, a síntese de colágeno, a atividade da fosfatase alcalina e a síntese de matriz condrogênica PAS+, safranina O+, alcian blue+ e expressão de Sox-9 e colágeno-II. Conclui-se que a cafeína, nas concentrações de 0,5, 1,0, 2,0mM, apresenta efeito inibidor direto sobre a condrogênese em culturas de condrócitos de ratos.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Ratos , Cafeína , Cartilagem Articular/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Condrogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais
18.
Hepatol Int ; 13(3): 314-322, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539516

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: While patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are mostly overweight or obese, some are lean. METHODS: In a community-based follow-up study (baseline and follow-up surveys performed in 2007 and 2014), we investigated and compared the clinical characteristics, body composition, metabolic associations and outcomes, and other risk factors among individuals with lean (BMI < 23 kg/m2) NAFLD, non-lean (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2) NAFLD and those without NAFLD. To investigate associations of selected genetic variants, we performed a case-control study between lean NAFLD cases and lean non-NAFLD controls. RESULTS: Of the 2985 participants in 2007, 120 (4.0%) had lean NAFLD and 816 (27.3%) had non-lean NAFLD. 1206 (40.4%) had no evidence of NAFLD (non-NAFLD). Compared to non-lean NAFLD, lean NAFLD was commoner among males (p < 0.001), and had a lower prevalence of hypertension (p < 0.001) and central obesity (WC < 90 cm for males, < 80 cm for females) (p < 0.001) without prominent differences in the prevalence of other metabolic comorbidities at baseline survey. Of 2142 individuals deemed as either NAFLD or non-NAFLD in 2007, 704 NAFLD individuals [84 lean NAFLD, 620 non-lean NAFLD] and 834 individuals with non-NAFLD in 2007 presented for follow-up in 2014. There was no difference in the occurrence of incident metabolic comorbidities between lean NAFLD and non-lean NAFLD. Of 294 individuals who were non-NAFLD in 2007 and lean in both 2007 and 2014, 84 (28.6%) had developed lean NAFLD, giving an annual incidence of 4.1%. Logistic regression identified the presence of diabetes at baseline, increase in weight from baseline to follow-up and a higher educational level as independent risk factors for the development of incident lean NAFLD. NAFLD association of PNPLA3 rs738409 was more pronounced among lean individuals (one-tailed p < 0.05) compared to the whole cohort sample. CONCLUSION: Although lean NAFLD constitutes a small proportion of NAFLD, the risk of developing incident metabolic comorbidities is similar to that of non-lean NAFLD. A PNPLA3 variant showed association with lean NAFLD in the studied population. Therefore, lean NAFLD also warrants careful evaluation and follow-up.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia
19.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 21(1): eRBCA-2019-0618, abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-19106

RESUMO

This study aimed at evaluating beak-trimming methods and intensities on the performance, beak length and uniformity, and egg parameters of commercial layers. During the rearing period, birds were distributed in randomized blocks, with a 2x3 factorial design + two treatments, consisting of beak trimming with infrared (IR) radiation (moderate or severe); three IR intensities (low: 42 nm, intermediate: 46 nm, or high: 52 nm); and two control hot blade (HB) beak trimming treatments (moderate or severe) with eight treatments and five replicates of 21 chicks each, totaling 840 birds. During the growing phase (second experiment) the factorial design was modified to 2 x 3 x 2 + 4, comprising two IR beak-trimming intensities (moderate or severe); three IR radiation intensities (low, moderate and high), second beak trimming at 11 weeks of age or not, and four additional HB beak-trimming treatments (moderate or severe) beak-trimming intensities, and second beak trimming at 11 weeks of age or not. There were 16 treatments with six replicates of seven birds each, totaling 672 laying hens, out of which 576 were selected for evaluation during the production period, with the same number of treatments and replicates of the previous phase. Weight gain (g), body weight (g), body weight uniformity (%), beak length (mm) and uniformity (%), absence of cannibalism (%), livability (%), egg production (%), feed intake (g), feed conversion per eggmass, eggmass, specific gravity, eggshell strength, Haugh unit, % yolk were evaluated. Beak trimming by infra-red radiation may be employed in commercial laying hens.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aves , Raios Infravermelhos , Bico
20.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 20(1): 63-69, jan.-mar. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-19039

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of beak trimming by hot blade or infrared radiation on production indicators and plasma levels of corticosterone in pullets. During the rearing phase, an entirely random delineation was used a 2 x 3 factorial design (two different techniques for beak trimming x 3 strains), a total of six treatments with six repetitions of 20 hens. In the growing phase, the previous treatments were divided into 12, with eight repetitions with seven hens. These treatments were then distributed in a factorial design of 2 x 3 x 2 (two methodologies for beak trimming during rearing phase x three strains x with or without beak trimming at ten weeks of age). In the rearing phase the birds treated by infrared radiation had a lower total consumption and a longer beak length. In the growing phase, the execution of beak trimming at ten weeks of age, led to a lower total consumption and a lower body weight, but a better food conversion, when compared to those hens that did not have beak treatment. Beak trimming at ten weeks did not change the plasmatic levels of corticosterone.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Corticosterona/análise , Corticosterona/síntese química , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Bem-Estar do Animal
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA