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1.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 2024 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38374185

RESUMO

Habitat associations underpin species ecologies in high-diversity systems. Within tropical, shallow water coral reefs, the relationship between fishes and corals is arguably the most iconic and highly scrutinized. A strong relationship between fishes and reef-building hard corals is often assumed, a belief supported by studies that document the decline of reef fishes following coral loss. However, the extent of this relationship is often unclear, as evidenced by conflicting reports. Here we assess the strength of this ecological association by relying on literature that has surveyed both fishes and corals synchronously. We quantitatively synthesize 723 bivariate correlation coefficients (from 66 papers), published over 38 years, that relate fish metrics (abundance, biomass and species richness) with the percentage of hard coral cover. Remarkably, despite extensive variation, the pattern of association on a global scale reveals a predominantly positive, albeit weak (|r| < 0.4), correlation. Even for commonly hypothesized drivers of fish-coral associations, fish family and trophic group, associations were consistently weak. These findings question our assumptions regarding the strength and ubiquity of fish-coral associations, and caution against assuming a direct and omnipresent relationship between these two iconic animal groups.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 895: 165188, 2023 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37385494

RESUMO

Sediments are found on all coral reefs around the globe. However, the amount of sediment in different reservoirs, and the rates at which sediments move between reservoirs, can shape the biological functioning of coral reefs. Unfortunately, relatively few studies have examined reef sediment dynamics, and associated bio-physical drivers, simultaneously over matching spatial and temporal scales. This has led to a partial understanding of how sediments and living reef systems are connected, especially on clear-water offshore reefs. To address this problem, four sediment reservoirs/sedimentary processes and three bio-physical drivers were quantified across seven different reef habitats/depths at Lizard Island, an exposed mid-shelf reef on the Great Barrier Reef. Even in this clear-water reef location a substantial load of suspended sediment passed over the reef; a load theoretically capable of replacing the entire standing stock of on-reef turf sediments in just 8 h. However, quantification of actual sediment deposition suggested that just 2 % of this passing sediment settled on the reef. The data also revealed marked spatial incongruence in sediment deposition (sediment trap data) and accumulation (TurfPod data) across the reef profile, with the flat and back reef emerging as key areas of both deposition and accumulation. By contrast, the shallow windward reef crest was an area of deposition but had a limited capacity for sediment accumulation. These cross-reef patterns related to wave energy and reef geomorphology, with low sediment accumulation on the ecologically important reef crest aligning with substantial wave energy. These findings reveal a disconnect between patterns of sediment deposition and accumulation on the benthos, with the 'post-settlement' fate of sediments dependent on local hydrodynamic conditions. From an ecological perspective, the data suggests key contextual constraints (wave energy and reef geomorphology) may predispose some reefs or reef areas to high-load turf sediment regimes.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Recifes de Corais , Animais , Sedimentos Geológicos , Ecossistema
3.
Nature ; 618(7964): 322-327, 2023 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37198484

RESUMO

Individual growth is a fundamental life history trait1-4, yet its macroevolutionary trajectories have rarely been investigated for entire animal assemblages. Here we analyse the evolution of growth in a highly diverse vertebrate assemblage-coral reef fishes. We combine state-of-the-art extreme gradient boosted regression trees with phylogenetic comparative methods to detect the timing, number, location and magnitude of shifts in the adaptive regime of somatic growth. We also explored the evolution of the allometric relationship between body size and growth. Our results show that the evolution of fast growth trajectories in reef fishes has been considerably more common than the evolution of slow growth trajectories. Many reef fish lineages shifted towards faster growth and smaller body size evolutionary optima in the Eocene (56-33.9 million years ago), pointing to a major expansion of life history strategies in this Epoch. Of all lineages examined, the small-bodied, high-turnover cryptobenthic fishes shifted most towards extremely high growth optima, even after accounting for body size allometry. These results suggest that the high global temperatures of the Eocene5 and subsequent habitat reconfigurations6 might have been critical for the rise and retention of the highly productive, high-turnover fish faunas that characterize modern coral reef ecosystems.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Recifes de Corais , Peixes , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Fatores de Tempo , Adaptação Biológica
4.
Ecol Lett ; 26(8): 1348-1358, 2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37222494

RESUMO

The biodiversity of tropical reefs is typified by the interaction between fishes and corals. Despite the importance of this ecological association, coevolutionary patterns between these two animal groups have yet to be critically evaluated. After compiling a large dataset on the prevalence of fish-coral interactions, we found that only a minority of fish species associate strongly with live corals (~5%). Furthermore, we reveal an evolutionary decoupling between fish and coral lineage trajectories. While fish lineages expanded in the Miocene, the bulk of coral diversification occurred in the Pliocene/Pleistocene. Most importantly, we found that coral association did not drive major differences in fish diversification. These results suggest that the Miocene fish diversification is more likely related to the development of novel, wave-resistant reef structures and their associated ecological opportunities. Macroevolutionary patterns in reef fishes are thus more strongly correlated with the expansion of reefs than with the corals themselves.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Recifes de Corais , Peixes/genética , Biodiversidade
5.
Ecology ; 104(3): e3966, 2023 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36571283

RESUMO

The TimeFISH database provides the first public time-series dataset on reef fish assemblages in the southwestern Atlantic (SWA), comprising 15 years of data (2007-2022) based on standardized Underwater Visual Censuses (UVCs). The rocky reefs covered by our dataset are influenced by pronounced seasonal cycles of ocean temperatures with warm tropical waters from the Brazil Current in the summer (~27°C) and colder waters from the La Plata River Plume discharge and upwelling from the South Atlantic Central Water in the winter (~18°C). These oceanographic conditions characterize this area as the southernmost tropical-subtropical climatic transition zone in the Atlantic Ocean. As a result, reef fish assemblages are comprised of both tropical and subtropical species. All records included in TimeFISH were collected using UVCs, a nondestructive method that allows the estimation of fish species richness, abundance, and body size distributions. UVCs were performed through 40 m2 belt transects by scuba diving in nine locations along the southern Brazilian coast (25-29°S). Four of these locations lie within the boundaries of the no-entry Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve, where fishing and recreational activities are forbidden, and the remaining locations are unprotected from these activities. During each belt transect, a diver swam at a constant depth above and parallel to the reef, identifying fish species, counting the number of individuals, and estimating the total body length (Lt in cm) of all detected individuals. All fish individuals in the water column (up to 2 m above the substratum) and at the bottom were targeted. In total, 202,965 individuals belonging to 163 reef fish species and 53 families were recorded across 1857 UVCs. All survey campaigns were funded by either public or mixed capital (private-public) sources, including seven grants from the Brazilian federal and Santa Catarina state governments. Part of the data has already been used in multiple MS.c. and Ph.D. theses and scientific articles. TimeFISH represents an important contribution for future studies aiming to examine temporal and spatial variations of reef fish assemblages in transition zones. No copyright restrictions apply to the use of this data set, other than citing this publication.


Assuntos
Clima Tropical , Água , Animais , Estações do Ano , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil , Peixes , Recifes de Corais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema
6.
Mar Environ Res ; 181: 105763, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36206642

RESUMO

Sediments are ubiquitous on coral reefs. However, studies of reef sediments have largely focused on isolated reservoirs, or processes, and rarely consider hydrodynamic drivers. We therefore provide a quantitative snapshot of sediment dynamics on a coral reef. Across a depth profile, we simultaneously examined: suspended sediments, sediment deposition and accumulation, and hydrodynamic and biological movement processes. We reveal the marked potential for the water column to deliver sediments. Currents carried 12.6 t of sediment over the 2,314 m2 study area in 6 days. Sediment traps suggested that a surprisingly high percentage of this sediment was potentially deposited (5.2%). Furthermore, wave-driven resuspension and reworking by parrotfishes separated a highly dynamic sediment regime on the shallow reef flat (3 m), from a more stagnant reef slope (4.5 m-12 m). This study provides a comprehensive model of how hydrodynamic forces and on-reef processes may shape sediment dynamics on a coral reef.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Perciformes , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Sedimentos Geológicos
7.
Bioscience ; 72(8): 769-777, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35923187

RESUMO

During the excavation of Mayan tombs, little did the archaeologists know that the fossils they discovered in the tomb stones would fundamentally alter our understanding of the earliest origins of coral reef fishes. Located just 500 kilometers from the point where an asteroid impact reconfigured the world's biological systems 66 million years ago, we find the earliest origins of three typical reef fish groups. Their presence in Mexico just 3 million years after this impact finally reconciles the conflict between the fossil and phylogenetic evidence for the earliest origins of reef fishes. The incorporation of these fossils into a global reconstruction of fish evolutionary history reveals a new picture of the early biogeography of reef fishes, with strong Atlantic links. From locations associated with biological destruction and societal collapse, we see evidence of the origins of one of the world's most diverse and spectacular marine ecosystems: coral reefs.

8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2426, 2022 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504876

RESUMO

Ecological interactions are ubiquitous on tropical coral reefs, where sessile organisms coexist in limited space. Within these high-diversity systems, reef-building scleractinian corals form an intricate interaction network. The role of biotic interactions among reef corals is well established on ecological timescales. However, its potential effect on macroevolutionary patterns remains unclear. By analysing the rich fossil record of Scleractinia, we show that reef coral biodiversity experienced marked evolutionary rate shifts in the last 3 million years, possibly driven by biotic interactions. Our models suggest that there was an overwhelming effect of staghorn corals (family Acroporidae) on the fossil diversity trajectories of other coral groups. Staghorn corals showed an unparalleled spike in diversification during the Pleistocene. But surprisingly, their expansion was linked with increases in both extinction and speciation rates in other coral families, driving a nine-fold increase in lineage turnover. These results reveal a double-edged effect of diversity dependency on reef evolution. Given their fast growth, staghorn corals may have increased extinction rates via competitive interactions, while promoting speciation through their role as ecosystem engineers. This suggests that recent widespread human-mediated reductions in staghorn coral cover, may be disrupting the key macroevolutionary processes that established modern coral reef ecosystems.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Animais , Antozoários/genética , Biodiversidade , Recifes de Corais , Ecossistema , Fósseis , Humanos
9.
PLoS Biol ; 19(11): e3001435, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727097

RESUMO

Spatial subsidies increase local productivity and boost consumer abundance beyond the limits imposed by local resources. In marine ecosystems, deeper water and open ocean subsidies promote animal aggregations and enhance biomass that is critical for human harvesting. However, the scale of this phenomenon in tropical marine systems remains unknown. Here, we integrate a detailed assessment of biomass production in 3 key locations, spanning a major biodiversity and abundance gradient, with an ocean-scale dataset of fish counts to predict the extent and magnitude of plankton subsidies to fishes on coral reefs. We show that planktivorous fish-mediated spatial subsidies are widespread across the Indian and Pacific oceans and drive local spikes in biomass production that can lead to extreme productivity, up to 30 kg ha-1 day-1. Plankton subsidies form the basis of productivity "sweet spots" where planktivores provide more than 50% of the total fish production, more than all other trophic groups combined. These sweet spots operate at regional, site, and smaller local scales. By harvesting oceanic productivity, planktivores bypass spatial constraints imposed by local primary productivity, creating "oases" of tropical fish biomass that are accessible to humans.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Ecossistema , Clima Tropical , Animais , Biodiversidade , Recifes de Corais , Peixes , Geografia , Oceano Índico , Oceano Pacífico , Plâncton/fisiologia
10.
Syst Biol ; 70(6): 1145-1162, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892493

RESUMO

The charismatic trumpetfishes, goatfishes, dragonets, flying gurnards, seahorses, and pipefishes encompass a recently defined yet extraordinarily diverse clade of percomorph fishes-the series Syngnatharia. This group is widely distributed in tropical and warm-temperate regions, with a great proportion of its extant diversity occurring in the Indo-Pacific. Because most syngnatharians feature long-range dispersal capabilities, tracing their biogeographic origins is challenging. Here, we applied an integrative phylogenomic approach to elucidate the evolutionary biogeography of syngnatharians. We built upon a recently published phylogenomic study that examined ultraconserved elements by adding 62 species (total 169 species) and one family (Draconettidae), to cover ca. 25% of the species diversity and all 10 families in the group. We inferred a set of time-calibrated trees and conducted ancestral range estimations. We also examined the sensitivity of these analyses to phylogenetic uncertainty (estimated from multiple genomic subsets), area delimitation, and biogeographic models that include or exclude the jump-dispersal parameter ($j)$. Of the three factors examined, we found that the $j$ parameter has the strongest effect in ancestral range estimates, followed by number of areas defined, and tree topology and divergence times. After accounting for these uncertainties, our results reveal that syngnatharians originated in the ancient Tethys Sea ca. 87 Ma (84-94 Ma; Late Cretaceous) and subsequently occupied the Indo-Pacific. Throughout syngnatharian history, multiple independent lineages colonized the eastern Pacific (6-8 times) and the Atlantic (6-14 times) from their center of origin, with most events taking place following an east-to-west route prior to the closure of the Tethys Seaway ca. 12-18 Ma. Ultimately, our study highlights the importance of accounting for different factors generating uncertainty in macroevolutionary and biogeographic inferences.[Historical biogeography; jump-dispersal parameter; macroevolutionary uncertainty; marine fishes; syngnathiformes; ultraconserved elements].


Assuntos
Smegmamorpha , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Peixes , Humanos , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Incerteza
11.
Evolution ; 75(4): 903-914, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600608

RESUMO

Evolution via natural selection has continually shaped the coloration of numerous organisms. One coloration of particular importance is the eyespot: a phylogenetically widespread, conspicuous marking that has been shown to effectively reduce predation, often through its resemblance to the eye. Although widely studied, most research has been experimental in nature. We approach eyespots using a comparative phylogenetic framework that is global in scope. Herein, we identify the potential drivers of eyespot evolution in coral reef fishes; essentially the rules that govern their appearance in this group of organisms. We surveyed 2664 reef fish species (42% of all described reef fish species) and found that eyespots are present in approximately one in every 10 species. Most eyespots occur in closely related species and have been present in some families for over 50 million years. Focusing on damselfishes (family: Pomacentridae) as a study group, we reveal that eyespots are rare in planktivorous species, which is likely driven by the predation risk associated with their feeding location. Using a heatmapping technique, we also show that the location of eyespots is fundamentally different in active fishes that swim above the benthos vs. cryptobenthic fishes that rest on the benthos. These location differences may reflect different functions of eyespots among reef fish species.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Perciformes/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Filogenia
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(9)2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593939

RESUMO

One of the most prominent features of life on Earth is the uneven number of species across large spatial scales. Despite being inherently linked to energetic constraints, these gradients in species richness distribution have rarely been examined from a trophic perspective. Here we dissect the global diversity of over 3,600 coral reef fishes to reveal patterns across major trophic groups. By analyzing multiple nested spatial scales, we show that planktivores contribute disproportionally to the formation of the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) marine biodiversity hotspot. Besides being "hotter" at the hotspot, planktivorous fishes display the steepest decline in species numbers with distance from the IAA when compared to other trophic groups. Surprisingly, we did not detect differences in diversification, transition, and dispersal rates in extant species phylogenies that would explain this remarkable gradient in planktivorous fish richness. Thus, we identify two potential complementary drivers for this pattern. First, exceptional levels of partitioning among planktivorous coral reef fishes were driven by temporally stable oceanographic conditions and abundant planktonic resources in the IAA. Second, extinctions of planktivores outside the IAA have been particularly pronounced during Quaternary climate fluctuations. Overall, our results highlight trophic ecology as an important component of global species richness gradients.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Peixes/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Filogenia , Animais , Antozoários/fisiologia , Austrália , Recifes de Corais , Extinção Biológica , Peixes/classificação , Oceanos e Mares , Plâncton/fisiologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2669, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472063

RESUMO

Reef fishes are an exceptionally speciose vertebrate assemblage, yet the main drivers of their diversification remain unclear. It has been suggested that Miocene reef rearrangements promoted opportunities for lineage diversification, however, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we assemble near-complete reef fish phylogenies to assess the importance of ecological and geographical factors in explaining lineage origination patterns. We reveal that reef fish diversification is strongly associated with species' trophic identity and body size. Large-bodied herbivorous fishes outpace all other trophic groups in recent diversification rates, a pattern that is consistent through time. Additionally, we show that omnivory acts as an intermediate evolutionary step between higher and lower trophic levels, while planktivory represents a common transition destination. Overall, these results suggest that Miocene changes in reef configurations were likely driven by, and subsequently promoted, trophic innovations. This highlights trophic evolution as a key element in enhancing reef fish diversification.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , Peixes/classificação , Especiação Genética , Animais , Coevolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , Recifes de Corais , Peixes/genética , Geografia , Herbivoria , Filogenia
14.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1897): 20182672, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963846

RESUMO

Herbivory by fishes has been identified as a key ecological process shaping coral reefs through time. Although taxonomically limited, herbivorous reef fishes display a wide range of traits, which results in varied ecosystem functions on reefs around the world. Yet, we understand little about how these trait combinations and functions in ecosystems changed through time and across biogeographic realms. Here, we used fossils and phylogenies in a functional ecological framework to reveal temporal changes in nominally herbivorous fish assemblages among oceanic basins in both trait space and lineage richness among functions. We show that the trait space occupied by extant herbivorous fishes in the Indo-Pacific resulted from an expansion of traits from the ancestral Tethyan assemblages. By contrast, trait space in the Atlantic is the result of lineage turnover, with relatively recent colonization by lineages that arose in the east Tethys/Indo-Pacific. From an ecosystem function perspective, the Atlantic supports a depauperate fauna, with few extant herbivorous reef fish lineages performing each function. Indo-Pacific fishes support both more functions and more lineages within each function, with a marked Miocene to Pleistocene expansion. These disparities highlight the importance of history in explaining global variation in fish functional composition on coral reefs.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Peixes/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Traços de História de Vida , Fenótipo , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Fósseis/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia
15.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 93(1): 131-151, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28464469

RESUMO

Functional traits have been fundamental to the evolution and diversification of entire fish lineages on coral reefs. Yet their relationship with the processes promoting speciation, extinction and the filtering of local species pools remains unclear. We review the current literature exploring the evolution of diet, body size, water column use and geographic range size in reef-associated fishes. Using published and new data, we mapped functional traits on to published phylogenetic trees to uncover evolutionary patterns that have led to the current functional diversity of fishes on coral reefs. When examining reconstructed patterns for diet and feeding mode, we found examples of independent transitions to planktivory across different reef fish families. Such transitions and associated morphological alterations may represent cases in which ecological opportunity for the exploitation of different resources drives speciation and adaptation. In terms of body size, reconstructions showed that both large and small sizes appear multiple times within clades of mid-sized fishes and that extreme body sizes have arisen mostly in the last 10 million years (Myr). The reconstruction of range size revealed many cases of disparate range sizes among sister species. Such range size disparity highlights potential vicariant processes through isolation in peripheral locations. When accounting for peripheral speciation processes in sister pairs, we found a significant relationship between labrid range size and lineage age. The diversity and evolution of traits within lineages is influenced by trait-environment interactions as well as by species and trait-trait interactions, where the presence of a given trait may trigger the development of related traits or behaviours. Our effort to assess the evolution of functional diversity across reef fish clades adds to the burgeoning research focusing on the evolutionary and ecological roles of functional traits. We argue that the combination of a phylogenetic and a functional approach will improve the understanding of the mechanisms of species assembly in extraordinarily rich coral reef communities.


Assuntos
Recifes de Corais , Peixes/genética , Peixes/fisiologia , Filogenia , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Dieta
16.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 15(4): e170067, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895112

RESUMO

Estimating population parameters is essential for understanding the ecology of species, which ultimately helps to assess their conservation status. The seahorse Hippocampus reidi is directly exposed to anthropogenic threats along the Brazilian coast, but the species still figures as Data Deficient (DD) at IUCN's Red List. To provide better information on the ecology of this species, we studied how population parameters vary over time in a natural subtropical environment. By combing mark-recapture models for open and closed populations, we estimated abundance, survival rate, emigration probability, and capture probability. We marked 111 individuals, which showed a 1:1 sex ratio, and an average size of 10.5 cm. The population showed high survival rate, low temporary emigration probability and variable capture probability and abundance. Our models considering relevant biological criteria illuminate the relatively poorly known population ecology and life history of seahorses. It is our hope that this study inspires the use of mark-recapture methods in other populations of H. reidi in a collective effort to properly assess their conservation status.(AU)


Parâmetros populacionais são essenciais para compreender a ecologia das espécies, além de auxiliar a avalição do seu status de conservação. Dentre as espécies de cavalo-marinho que ocorrem no Brasil, Hippocampus reidi é a mais abundante, o que expõe suas populações a frequentes ameaças antropogênicas. Entretanto, esta espécie ainda consta como Deficiente em Dados (DD) na lista vermelha da IUCN. Considerando esta falta de informações sobre populações de H. reidi, utilizamos métodos de marcação e recaptura para avaliar como parâmetros de uma população de ambiente subtropical variam ao longo do tempo. Baseado em históricos de captura individuais, combinamos modelos de populações abertas e fechadas para estimar abundância, taxa de sobrevivência, probabilidade de emigração e probabilidade de captura. Ao todo, marcamos 111 indivíduos, em proporção sexual de 1:1, e tamanho médio de 10,5 cm. Esta população relativamente pequena apresentou alta taxa de sobrevivência, baixa probabilidade de emigração temporária e probabilidade de captura e abundância variáveis. A partir dos nossos modelos que consideraram critérios biológicos relevantes, fornecemos estimativas de parâmetros chave que auxiliarão a compreensão da ecologia e da história de vida de cavalos-marinhos. Nossa expectativa é que este método passe a ser amplamente utilizado em outras populações, em um esforço coletivo para avaliar o estado de conservação desta espécie.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ecologia , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigração e Imigração/tendências , Peixes/classificação
17.
PLoS One ; 9(7): e102094, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25029229

RESUMO

The disparity in species richness among evolutionary lineages is one of the oldest and most intriguing issues in evolutionary biology. Although geographical factors have been traditionally thought to promote speciation, recent studies have underscored the importance of ecological interactions as one of the main drivers of diversification. Here, we test if differences in species richness of closely related lineages match predictions based on the concept of density-dependent diversification. As radiation progresses, ecological niche-space would become increasingly saturated, resulting in fewer opportunities for speciation. To assess this hypothesis, we tested whether reef fish niche shifts toward usage of low-quality food resources (i.e. relatively low energy/protein per unit mass), such as algae, detritus, sponges and corals are accompanied by rapid net diversification. Using available molecular information, we reconstructed phylogenies of four major reef fish clades (Acanthuroidei, Chaetodontidae, Labridae and Pomacentridae) to estimate the timing of radiations of their subclades. We found that the evolution of species-rich clades was associated with a switch to low quality food in three of the four clades analyzed, which is consistent with a density-dependent model of diversification. We suggest that ecological opportunity may play an important role in understanding the diversification of reef-fish lineages.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Recifes de Corais , Dieta , Evolução Molecular , Peixes , Animais , Filogenia
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