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1.
Environ Health Perspect ; 130(1): 17002, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hundreds of thousands of biodigesters have been constructed in Nepal. These household-level systems use human and animal waste to produce clean-burning biogas used for cooking, which can reduce household air pollution from woodburning cookstoves and prevent respiratory illnesses. The biodigesters, typically operated by female caregivers, require the handling of animal waste, which may increase domestic fecal contamination, exposure to diarrheal pathogens, and the risk of enteric infections, especially among young children. OBJECTIVE: We estimated the effect of daily reported biogas cookstove use on incident diarrhea among children <5y old in the Kavrepalanchok District of Nepal. Secondarily, we assessed effect measure modification and statistical interaction of individual- and household-level covariates (child sex, child age, birth order, exclusive breastfeeding, proof of vaccination, roof type, sanitation, drinking water treatment, food insecurity) as well as recent 14-d acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) and season. METHODS: We analyzed 300,133 person-days for 539 children in an observational prospective cohort study to estimate the average effect of biogas stove use on incident diarrhea using cross-validated targeted maximum likelihood estimation (CV-TMLE). RESULTS: Households reported using biogas cookstoves in the past 3 d for 23% of observed person-days. The adjusted relative risk of diarrhea for children exposed to biogas cookstove use was 1.31 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.71) compared to unexposed children. The estimated effect of biogas stove use on diarrhea was stronger among breastfed children (2.09; 95% CI: 1.35, 3.25) than for nonbreastfed children and stronger during the dry season (2.03; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.53) than in the wet season. Among children exposed to biogas cookstove use, those with a recent ALRI had the highest mean risk of diarrhea, estimated at 4.53 events (95% CI: 1.03, 8.04) per 1,000 person-days. DISCUSSION: This analysis provides new evidence that child diarrhea may be an unintended health risk of biogas cookstove use. Additional studies are needed to identify exposure pathways of fecal pathogen contamination associated with biodigesters to improve the safety of these widely distributed public health interventions. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP9468.

2.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576892

RESUMO

Treatment of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (O157) diarrhea with antimicrobials might alter the risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). However, full characterization of which antimicrobials might affect risk is lacking, particularly among adults. To inform clinical management, we conducted a case-control study of residents of the FoodNet surveillance areas with O157 diarrhea during a 4-year period to assess antimicrobial class-specific associations with HUS among persons with O157 diarrhea. We collected data from medical records and patient interviews. We measured associations between treatment with agents in specific antimicrobial classes during the first week of diarrhea and development of HUS, adjusting for age and illness severity. We enrolled 1308 patients; 102 (7.8%) developed confirmed HUS. Antimicrobial treatment varied by age: <5 years (12.6%), 5-14 (11.5%), 15-39 (45.4%), ≥40 (53.4%). Persons treated with a ß-lactam had higher odds of developing HUS (OR 2.80, CI 1.14-6.89). None of the few persons treated with a macrolide developed HUS, but the protective association was not statistically significant. Exposure to "any antimicrobial" was not associated with increased odds of HUS. Our findings confirm the risk of ß-lactams among children with O157 diarrhea and extends it to adults. We observed a high frequency of inappropriate antimicrobial treatment among adults. Our data suggest that antimicrobial classes differ in the magnitude of risk for persons with O157 diarrhea.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1332-1336, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555002

RESUMO

Foodborne illnesses are a substantial and largely preventable public health problem; before 2020 the incidence of most infections transmitted commonly through food had not declined for many years. To evaluate progress toward prevention of foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food reported by 10 U.S. sites.* FoodNet is a collaboration among CDC, 10 state health departments, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS), and the Food and Drug Administration. This report summarizes preliminary 2020 data and describes changes in incidence with those during 2017-2019. During 2020, observed incidences of infections caused by enteric pathogens decreased 26% compared with 2017-2019; infections associated with international travel decreased markedly. The extent to which these reductions reflect actual decreases in illness or decreases in case detection is unknown. On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. After the declaration, state and local officials implemented stay-at-home orders, restaurant closures, school and child care center closures, and other public health interventions to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Federal travel restrictions were declared (1). These widespread interventions as well as other changes to daily life and hygiene behaviors, including increased handwashing, have likely changed exposures to foodborne pathogens. Other factors, such as changes in health care delivery, health care-seeking behaviors, and laboratory testing practices, might have decreased the detection of enteric infections. As the pandemic continues, surveillance of illness combined with data from other sources might help to elucidate the factors that led to the large changes in 2020; this understanding could lead to improved strategies to prevent illness. To reduce the incidence of these infections concerted efforts are needed, from farm to processing plant to restaurants and homes. Consumers can reduce their risk of foodborne illness by following safe food-handling and preparation recommendations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Conduta Expectante , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1015, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462533

RESUMO

Campylobacter enterocolitis may lead to post-infection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) and while some C. jejuni strains are more likely than others to cause human disease, genomic and virulence characteristics promoting PI-IBS development remain uncharacterized. We combined pangenome-wide association studies and phenotypic assays to compare C. jejuni isolates from patients who developed PI-IBS with those who did not. We show that variation in bacterial stress response (Cj0145_phoX), adhesion protein (Cj0628_CapA), and core biosynthetic pathway genes (biotin: Cj0308_bioD; purine: Cj0514_purQ; isoprenoid: Cj0894c_ispH) were associated with PI-IBS development. In vitro assays demonstrated greater adhesion, invasion, IL-8 and TNFα secretion on colonocytes with PI-IBS compared to PI-no-IBS strains. A risk-score for PI-IBS development was generated using 22 genomic markers, four of which were from Cj1631c, a putative heme oxidase gene linked to virulence. Our finding that specific Campylobacter genotypes confer greater in vitro virulence and increased risk of PI-IBS has potential to improve understanding of the complex host-pathogen interactions underlying this condition.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297064

RESUMO

The Minnesota Department of Health investigated a COVID-19 outbreak at a fitness center in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Twenty-three SARS-CoV-2 infections (five employees and 18 members) were identified. An epidemiological investigation supported by whole genome sequencing demonstrated that transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurred at the fitness center despite following recommended prevention strategies.

6.
Sci Data ; 8(1): 183, 2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34272388

RESUMO

We developed a DICOM dataset that can be used to evaluate the performance of de-identification algorithms. DICOM objects (a total of 1,693 CT, MRI, PET, and digital X-ray images) were selected from datasets published in the Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA). Synthetic Protected Health Information (PHI) was generated and inserted into selected DICOM Attributes to mimic typical clinical imaging exams. The DICOM Standard and TCIA curation audit logs guided the insertion of synthetic PHI into standard and non-standard DICOM data elements. A TCIA curation team tested the utility of the evaluation dataset. With this publication, the evaluation dataset (containing synthetic PHI) and de-identified evaluation dataset (the result of TCIA curation) are released on TCIA in advance of a competition, sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), for algorithmic de-identification of medical image datasets. The competition will use a much larger evaluation dataset constructed in the same manner. This paper describes the creation of the evaluation datasets and guidelines for their use.


Assuntos
Anonimização de Dados , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Algoritmos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(8): 2052-2063, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138695

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease has disproportionately affected persons in congregate settings and high-density workplaces. To determine more about the transmission patterns of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in these settings, we performed whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis on 319 (14.4%) samples from 2,222 SARS-CoV-2-positive persons associated with 8 outbreaks in Minnesota, USA, during March-June 2020. Sequencing indicated that virus spread in 3 long-term care facilities and 2 correctional facilities was associated with a single genetic sequence and that in a fourth long-term care facility, outbreak cases were associated with 2 distinct sequences. In contrast, cases associated with outbreaks in 2 meat-processing plants were associated with multiple SARS-CoV-2 sequences. These results suggest that a single introduction of SARS-CoV-2 into a facility can result in a widespread outbreak. Early identification and cohorting (segregating) of virus-positive persons in these settings, along with continued vigilance with infection prevention and control measures, is imperative.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Filogenia
8.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab247, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34141820

RESUMO

Background: Syndromic gastrointestinal multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) panels (GMPPs) are used by an increasing number of clinical laboratories to identify enteric pathogens. Vibrio species are included on GMPPs, but because of the low prevalence of vibriosis, performance characteristics for these panels have been difficult to measure. Methods: All Vibrio spp. cases identified by GMPPs in Minnesota during 2016-2018 (n = 100) were assessed to identify differences between culture-confirmed cases and those that were PCR-positive only. Results: Overall, 47% of cases had Vibrio species recovered by culture. Two GMPPs were used in Minnesota, Verigene EPT and FilmArray GIP, and the recovery rate of Vibrio spp. was significantly different between these platforms (Verigene EPT 63%, compared with FilmArray GIP 28%). No distinct seasonality was identified among GMPP-positive, culture-negative cases, whereas culture-confirmed case incidence peaked during July and August. Among cases with no other pathogen detected by the GMPP, confirmed cases reported a lower rate of bloody diarrhea (odds ratio [OR], 0.7; P = .004) and were less likely to have a symptom duration >14 days (OR, 0.3; P = .04). Confirmed cases were also more likely to include reports of consuming food items typically associated with Vibrio spp. infection or to have another likely source of infection (eg, international travel or contact with an untreated body of fresh or salt water or marine life; OR, 9.6; P = .001). Conclusions: The combined findings indicate that cases identified by GMPP that did not have culture confirmation were less likely to include symptoms or exposures consistent with vibriosis. These findings emphasize the need for improvements to testing platform specificity and the importance of combining clinical and exposure information when diagnosing an infection. This study underscores the importance of maintaining the ability to culture Vibrio species to aid in accurate diagnoses.

9.
Front Genet ; 12: 667895, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168675

RESUMO

Since the reemergence of St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE) Virus (SLEV) in the Southwest United States, identified during the 2015 outbreak in Arizona, SLEV has been seasonally detected within Culex spp. populations throughout the Southwest United States. Previous work revealed the 2015 outbreak was caused by an importation of SLEV genotype III, which had only been detected previously in Argentina. However, little is known about when the importation occurred or the transmission and genetic dynamics since its arrival into the Southwest. In this study, we sought to determine whether the annual detection of SLEV in the Southwest is due to enzootic cycling or new importations. To address this question, we analyzed 174 SLEV genomes (142 sequenced as part of this study) using Bayesian phylogenetic analyses to estimate the date of arrival into the American Southwest and characterize the underlying population structure of SLEV. Phylogenetic clustering showed that SLEV variants circulating in Maricopa and Riverside counties form two distinct populations with little evidence of inter-county transmission since the onset of the outbreak. Alternatively, it appears that in 2019, Yuma and Clark counties experienced annual importations of SLEV that originated in Riverside and Maricopa counties. Finally, the earliest representatives of SLEV genotype III in the Southwest form a polytomy that includes both California and Arizona samples. We propose that the initial outbreak most likely resulted from the importation of a population of SLEV genotype III variants, perhaps in multiple birds, possibly multiple species, migrating north in 2013, rather than a single variant introduced by one bird.

10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(10): 2188-2197, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878169

RESUMO

Hypothesis generation is a critical, but challenging, step in a foodborne outbreak investigation. The pathogens that contaminate food have many diverse reservoirs, resulting in seemingly limitless potential vehicles. Identifying a vehicle is particularly challenging for clusters detected through national pathogen-specific surveillance, because cases can be geographically dispersed and lack an obvious epidemiologic link. Moreover, state and local health departments could have limited resources to dedicate to cluster and outbreak investigations. These challenges underscore the importance of hypothesis generation during an outbreak investigation. In this review, we present a framework for hypothesis generation focusing on 3 primary sources of information, typically used in combination: 1) known sources of the pathogen causing illness; 2) person, place, and time characteristics of cases associated with the outbreak (descriptive data); and 3) case exposure assessment. Hypothesis generation can narrow the list of potential food vehicles and focus subsequent epidemiologic, laboratory, environmental, and traceback efforts, ensuring that time and resources are used more efficiently and increasing the likelihood of rapidly and conclusively implicating the contaminated food vehicle.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Reservatórios de Doenças , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Humanos
11.
Tomography ; 7(1): 1-9, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681459

RESUMO

The small animal imaging Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) acquisition context structured report (SR) was developed to incorporate pre-clinical data in an established DICOM format for rapid queries and comparison of clinical and non-clinical datasets. Established terminologies (i.e., anesthesia, mouse model nomenclature, veterinary definitions, NCI Metathesaurus) were utilized to assist in defining terms implemented in pre-clinical imaging and new codes were added to integrate the specific small animal procedures and handling processes, such as housing, biosafety level, and pre-imaging rodent preparation. In addition to the standard DICOM fields, the small animal SR includes fields specific to small animal imaging such as tumor graft (i.e., melanoma), tissue of origin, mouse strain, and exogenous material, including the date and site of injection. Additionally, the mapping and harmonization developed by the Mouse-Human Anatomy Project were implemented to assist co-clinical research by providing cross-reference human-to-mouse anatomies. Furthermore, since small animal imaging performs multi-mouse imaging for high throughput, and queries for co-clinical research requires a one-to-one relation, an imaging splitting routine was developed, new Unique Identifiers (UID's) were created, and the original patient name and ID were saved for reference to the original dataset. We report the implementation of the small animal SR using MRI datasets (as an example) of patient-derived xenograft mouse models and uploaded to The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) for public dissemination, and also implemented this on PET/CT datasets. The small animal SR enhancement provides researchers the ability to query any DICOM modality pre-clinical and clinical datasets using standard vocabularies and enhances co-clinical studies.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação em Radiologia , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(10): 346-347, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705367

RESUMO

Since December 2020, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) Public Health Laboratory has been receiving 100 specimens per week (50 from each of two clinical partners) with low cycle threshold (Ct) values for routine surveillance for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. On January 25, 2021, MDH identified the SARS-CoV-2 variant P.1 in one specimen through this surveillance system using whole genome sequencing, representing the first identified case of this variant in the United States. The P.1 variant was first identified in travelers from Brazil during routine airport screening in Tokyo, Japan, in early January 2021 (1). This variant has been associated with increased transmissibility (2), and there are concerns that mutations in the spike protein receptor-binding domain might disrupt both vaccine-induced and natural immunity (3,4). As of February 28, 2021, a total of 10 P.1 cases had been identified in the United States, including the two cases described in this report, followed by one case each in Alaska, Florida, Maryland, and Oklahoma (5).


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(8): 278-279, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630825

RESUMO

On January 9, 2021, the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) announced the identification of the SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) B.1.1.7, also referred to as 20I/501Y.V1 and VOC 202012/01, in specimens from five persons; on January 25, MDH announced the identification of this variant in specimens from three additional persons. The B.1.1.7 variant, which is reported to be more transmissible than certain other SARS-CoV-2 lineages*,† (1), was first reported in the United Kingdom in December 2020 (1). As of February 14, 2021, a total of 1,173 COVID-19 cases of the B.1.1.7 variant had been identified in 39 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (2). Modeling data suggest that B.1.1.7 could become the predominant variant in the United States in March 2021 (3).


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Humanos , Minnesota/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Viagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(5): 3201-3209, 2021 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566595

RESUMO

A large concern with estimates of climate and health co-benefits of "clean" cookstoves from controlled emissions testing is whether results represent what actually happens in real homes during normal use. A growing body of evidence indicates that in-field emissions during daily cooking activities differ substantially from values obtained in laboratories, with correspondingly different estimates of co-benefits. We report PM2.5 emission factors from uncontrolled cooking (n = 7) and minimally controlled cooking tests (n = 51) using traditional chulha and angithi stoves in village kitchens in Haryana, India. Minimally controlled cooking tests (n = 13) in a village kitchen with mixed dung and brushwood fuels were representative of uncontrolled field tests for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic and elemental carbon (p > 0.5), but were substantially higher than previously published water boiling tests using dung or wood. When the fraction of nonrenewable biomass harvesting, elemental, and organic particulate emissions and modeled estimates of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are included in 100 year global warming commitments (GWC100), the chulha had a net cooling impact using mixed fuels typical of the region. Correlation between PM2.5 emission factors and GWC (R2 = 0.99) implies these stoves are climate neutral for primary PM2.5 emissions of 8.8 ± 0.7 and 9.8 ± 0.9 g PM2.5/kg dry fuel for GWC20 and GWC100, respectively, which is close to the mean for biomass stoves in global emission inventories.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Utensílios Domésticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Biomassa , Culinária , Índia , Material Particulado/análise
15.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(3): e361-e365, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444550

RESUMO

The public health community has tried for decades to show, through evidence-based research, that safe water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and clean cooking fuels that reduce household air pollution are essential to safeguard health and save lives in low-income and middle-income countries. In the past 40 decades, there have been many innovations in the development of low-cost and efficacious technologies for WASH and household air pollution, but many of these technologies have been associated with disappointing health outcomes, often because low-income households have either not adopted, or inconsistently adopted, these technologies. In this Viewpoint, we argue that public health researchers (ourselves included) have had an oversimplified understanding of poverty; our work has not focused on insights into the lived experience of poverty, with its uncertainties, stresses from constant scarcity, and attendant fears. Such insights are central to understanding why technologies for safe water or clean cooking are unused by so many households that could benefit from them. We argue that, rather than improved versions of household-scale delivery models, transformative investments in safe water and clean cooking for all require utility-scale service models. Until then, research should focus on interim safe water and clean cooking options that are directed towards the utility-scale service model.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Água Potável , Higiene/normas , Saneamento/métodos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/prevenção & controle , Humanos
16.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(2): 239-246, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398145

RESUMO

The COVID-19 quarantine in China is thought to have reduced ambient air pollution. The overall exposure of the population also depends, however, on indoor air quality and human mobility and activities. Here, by integrating real-time mobility data and a questionnaire survey on time-activity patterns during the pandemic, we show that despite a decrease in ambient PM2.5 during the quarantine, the total population-weighted exposure to PM2.5 considering both indoor and outdoor environments increased by 5.7 µg m-3 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-11.0 µg m-3). The increase in population-weighted exposure was mainly driven by a nationwide urban-to-rural population migration before the Spring Festival coupled with the freezing of the migration backward due to the quarantine, which increased household energy consumption and the fraction of people exposed to rural household air pollution indoors. Our analysis reveals an increased inequality of air pollution exposure during the quarantine and highlights the importance of household air pollution for population health in China.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19 , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Quarentena , Viagem/tendências , China , Humanos , Material Particulado , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(9): 1855-1863.e1, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Campylobacter is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. We investigated the prevalence of postinfection irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) in a cohort with culture-confirmed Campylobacter cases; risk factors for PI-IBS based on clinical factors; and shifts in IBS patterns postinfection in patients with pre-existing IBS. METHODS: The Minnesota Department of Health collects data on symptoms and exposures upon notification of Campylobacter cases. From 2011 through 2019, we sent surveys (the Rome III and IBS symptom severity surveys) to 3586 patients 6 to 9 months after Campylobacter infection. The prevalence of PI-IBS was estimated and risk factors were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: There were 1667 responders to the survey, 249 of whom had pre-existing IBS. Of the 1418 responders without pre-existing IBS, 301 (21%) subsequently developed IBS. Most of these individuals had IBS-mixed (54%), followed by IBS-diarrhea (38%), and IBS-constipation (6%). The mean IBS symptom severity score was 218 (indicating moderate severity). Female sex, younger age, bloody stools, abdominal cramps, and hospitalization during acute enteritis were associated with increased risk, whereas fever was protective for the development of PI-IBS. Antibiotic use and exposure patterns were similar between PI-IBS and control groups. Among patients with IBS-mixed or IBS-diarrhea before infection, 78% retained their subtypes after infection. In contrast, only 50% of patients with IBS-constipation retained that subtype after infection, whereas 40% transitioned to IBS-mixed. Of patients with pre-existing IBS, 38% had increased frequency of abdominal pain after Campylobacter infection. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of patients with Campylobacter infection in Minnesota, 21% developed PI-IBS; most cases reported mixed IBS or diarrhea of moderate severity. Demographic and clinical factors during acute enterocolitis are associated with PI-IBS development. Campylobacter infection also can result in a switch of a pre-existing IBS phenotype.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter , Gastroenterite , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável , Infecções por Campylobacter/complicações , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Diarreia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/complicações , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/complicações , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Environ Int ; 146: 106026, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129002

RESUMO

Because of the severe air pollution in northern China, facemasks have gained popularity in this area in recent years. Although the results of previous studies have shown the effectiveness of wearing facemasks for intercepting particles, the individual differences and the overall health benefits of wearing facemasks have not been comprehensively documented. In this study, using both model and personal tests under various conditions, we test eight major brands of facemasks for their removal efficiencies (REs) of particulate matter (PM) in six size ranges (from 0.3 µm to >10 µm). The results are used to assess the overall exposure reduction at the individual and population levels in Beijing. We find significant differences in REs among PM sizes, facemask brands, pollution levels, and genders. Combining the information on the usage of various brands, facemask wearing rates, and PM2.5 concentrations in the ambient and indoor air in this area, we evaluate the overall effect of facemask wearing on PM2.5 exposure reduction. It is quantitatively demonstrated that because people spend most time indoors, facemask protection is limited. For facemask wearers, the overall exposure can be reduced by less than 20%, whereas the reduction rate is as low as 2.4 ± 1.6% for the entire adult populations even in the year with the highest level of pollution with an annual mean PM2.5 concentration of 102 ± 98 µg∙m-3. As a strategy of self-protection from long-term exposure to particulate matter, wearing facemasks outdoors is inferior to the installation of indoor air purifiers.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Pequim , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Masculino , Máscaras , Material Particulado/análise
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e3701-e3707, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32564069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Norovirus is the etiology for about 60% of foodborne outbreaks identified in Minnesota. Contamination of food during preparation by food handlers is by far the most common cause of these outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks due to commercially distributed foods are rarely reported in the United States, and only 2 have been previously identified in Minnesota, both due to oysters. METHODS: In August 2016, we investigated an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis in Minnesota that was linked to consumption of commercially distributed ice cream at multiple venues. Sanitarians from local public health agencies visited the facilities involved for follow-up, and case-control studies were conducted. The outbreak was identified by linking multiple independent illness reports to a centralized foodborne illness complaint system and subsequently confirmed though genotyping of stool specimens. RESULTS: A total of 15 cases from 4 venues were reported. Raspberry chocolate chip ice cream was statistically associated with illness in 2 analytic studies (6 of 7 cases vs 0 of 7 controls; odds ratio, undefined; P = .005). Norovirus GII.17[P17] (GII.17 Kawasaki) strains from case stool specimens matched norovirus found in frozen raspberries imported from China that were used to make the implicated ice cream. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first norovirus outbreak due to commercially distributed frozen berries identified in the United States. To detect norovirus outbreaks associated with commercially distributed food vehicles, investigators should thoroughly investigate all norovirus outbreaks (including stool testing and genotyping), coordinate complaint and response activities across agencies and jurisdictions, and consider testing food for norovirus when appropriate.

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