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1.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 54(5): 310, 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123551

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gir is a Bos indicus breed originally from India, first imported to Brazil in 1850. High-performance Dairy Gir has been systematically selected in Brazil from its arrival. Since the major phenotypic difference between Gir in India and Brazil is a higher milk production in the former, it is speculated that Brazilian Gir was strategically crossed with Holstein or another Bos taurus to improve milk yield. This study evaluated the purity of Brazilian Gir breed stocks from BASA Farms in Brazil, trying to identify possible admixture events with other cattle breeds based on DNA analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The population included 1061 pure registered individuals genotyped using two commercial platforms with 37 k and 25 k SNPs. Admixture analysis was performed individually to estimate levels of genomic composition derived from six different reference populations, three indicine and three taurine breeds. RESULTS: A Gir ancestry of 99% or higher was found for 94.2% of the population, while the remaining showed levels of non-Gir ancestry up to 6.8%. Only five individuals were identified with possible taurine ancestry, all of them exhibiting levels lower than 2%. The remaining non-Gir ancestry identified was derived from indicine breeds. The levels of admixture observed in the population were from low to non-detectable. No consistent patterns of admixture were observed indicating sustained introgression of taurine lines as means of genetic improvement. CONCLUSION: According to these results, genetic improvement achieved by Brazilian Gir breeders is the result of within-breed selection methods applied intensively over the past five decades, rather than the result from sustained introgression.


Assuntos
Genômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos/genética , DNA
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(11): 9206-9215, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36085108

RESUMO

The SLICK1 mutation in the prolactin receptor (PRLR) results in a short-hair coat and increased ability to regulate body temperature during heat stress. It is unclear whether the mutation affects capacity for sweating. The objective of this observational study was to evaluate whether the SLICK1 mutation in PRLR alters characteristics of skin related to sweat gland abundance or function. Skin biopsies from 31 Holstein heifers, including 14 wild-type (SL-/-) and 17 heterozygous slick (SL+/-), were subjected to histological analysis to determine the percent of the surface area of skin sections that are occupied by sweat glands. We detected no effect of genotype on this variable. Immunohistochemical analysis of the forkhead transcription factor A1 (FOXA1), a protein essential for sweating in mice, from 6 SL-/- and 6 SL+/- heifers indicated twice as much FOXA1 in sweat glandular epithelia of SL+/- heifers as in SL-/- heifers. Results from RNA sequencing of skin biopsies from 5 SL-/- and 7 SL+/- heifers revealed few genes that were differentially expressed and none that have been associated with sweat gland development or function. In conclusion, results do not support the idea that the SLICK1 mutation changes the abundance of sweat glands in skin, but do show that functional properties of sweat glands, as indicated by increased abundance of immunoreactive FOXA1, are modified by inheritance of the mutation in PRLR.


Assuntos
Receptores da Prolactina , Glândulas Sudoríparas , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Expressão Gênica , Mutação
3.
Anim Genet ; 53(1): 58-67, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34921423

RESUMO

Brazil is the largest exporter of beef in the world, and most of that beef derives from Nellore cattle. Although considered a zebu breed (Bos indicus), the history of Nellore cattle in Brazil is marked by the importation of bulls from India, the use of a Creole taurine (Bos taurus) maternal lineage to quickly expand the herds and backcrossing to Nellore bulls to recover zebu ancestry. As a consequence, the current Brazilian Nellore population carries an average taurine ancestry of approximately 1%. Although that percentage seems small, some taurine variants deviate substantially from that average, with the better-known cases being the PLAG1-Q haplotype involved with body size variation and the Guarani (PG ) polled variant producing hornless animals. Here, we report taurine haplotypes in 9074 Nellore animals genotyped for 539 657 imputed SNP markers. Apart from PLAG1-Q and PG , our analysis further revealed common taurine haplotypes (>3%) spanning genes related to immunity, growth, reproduction and hair and skin phenotypes. Using data from 22 economically important traits, we showed that many of the major QTL previously reported in the breed are at least partially driven by taurine haplotypes. As B. taurus and B. indicus haplotypes are highly divergent, presenting widely different sets of functional variants, our results provide promising targets for future scrutiny in Nellore cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Fenótipo , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino
4.
Anim Genet ; 52(6): 887-890, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642995

RESUMO

The slick-hair phenotype in cattle is due to one of a series of mutations in the prolactin receptor (PRLR) that cause truncation of the C-terminal region of the protein involved in JAK2/STAT5 activation during prolactin signaling. Here we evaluated whether the inheritance of the SLICK1 allele, the first slick mutation discovered, is inherited in a fashion consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. It was hypothesized that any deleterious effect of inheriting the allele on embryonic or fetal function would result in reduced frequency of the allele in offspring. A total of 525 Holstein and Senepol cattle produced from matings involving one or both parents with the SLICK1 allele were genotyped. The observed frequency of the SLICK1 allele (0.247) was not significantly different than the expected frequency of 0.269. These results support the idea that inheritance of the SLICK1 allele does not act in the embryo or fetus to modify its competence to complete development to term.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Cabelo/fisiologia , Hereditariedade , Fenótipo , Receptores da Prolactina/genética , Alelos , Animais
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(4): 445, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34427775

RESUMO

To assess the effect of hair type on the heat stress response, 20 Criollo Limonero heifers with slick (n = 11) or normal hair (n = 9) were studied. Under a high temperature-humidity index (THI) environment, heat stress response was assessed through physiological variables that included respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR), ruminal frequency (RMF), rectal temperature (RT), saliva pH (SPH), and lymphocyte count (LC) in the morning (5:00 AM, 27.4 °C, 64% relative humidity, THI = 77) and afternoon (1:00 PM, 34.5 °C, 70% relative humidity, THI = 88). A case-control study using a split plot design was used. Data were analyzed using ANOVA (PROC MIXED SAS 2010) and a statistical model comprising the fixed effects of hair length, sampling hour, interaction of hair length by sampling hour, and the random effect of animal nested within hair type on physiological variables associated with heat stress response. Sampling hour influenced (P < 0.0001) RR, RT, and (P < 0.003) SPH. Hair length influenced RR (P < 0.01) and RT (P < 0.04) and tended to influence LC (P < 0.07). The interaction of sampling hour by hair influenced RR (P < 0.04), RT (P < 0.0002), and both SPH and LC (P < 0.05). During afternoon hours, slick-haired heifers had lower values for RR (81 ± 4.2 vs 102 ± 4.7 bpm; P < 0.01), RT (39.5 ± 0.1 vs 40.3 ± 0.1 C°; P < 0.002), and LC (60 ± 3.2 vs 72.3 ± 3.6; P < 0.09) than normal-haired heifers. In normal-haired heifers, SPH increased during afternoon compared to morning-hours (8.66 ± 0.1 vs 9.11 ± 0.1; P < 0.04). It was concluded that slick-coated heifers exhibited an enhanced capability to cope with heat stress compared to normal-haired heifers likely due to an enhanced capacity for heat dissipation.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor , Animais , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Bovinos , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Umidade
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(2): 534-538, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1248928

RESUMO

As raças taurinas de origem ibérica Limonero e Carora (Bos primigenius taurus) possuem o fenótipo de pelo curto, liso e com baixa densidade folicular, o que confere a esses animais maior tolerância térmica e melhor produtividade em regiões quentes. Diferentes mutações associadas a esse fenótipo foram descritas no gene do receptor de prolactina PRLR, localizado no cromossomo bovino BTA20. Uma mutação recentemente encontrada é a substituição do nucleotídeo C por T, SNP 39136666 (p. R497*), no exon 11, que gera um códon de parada e, consequentemente, uma menor isoforma desse receptor. Neste trabalho, desenvolveu-se um protocolo rápido e de baixo custo para detecção desse SNP, utilizando-se a técnica de tetra-primer ARMS-PCR. Assim, foi possível detectar essa mutação nas raças brasileiras de origem ibérica localmente adaptadas: Caracu, Crioulo Lageano, Mocho Nacional e Pantaneiro. O alelo T foi mais frequente na raça Caracu (80%), enquanto o alelo C foi mais frequente na raça Crioulo Lageano (84%). Essa simples metodologia pode ser usada para genotipar esse SNP e ajudar na aplicação dessas informações moleculares em programas de melhoramento focados na tolerância térmica em bovinos taurinos e seus mestiços.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Receptores da Prolactina/genética , Primers do DNA/análise , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/veterinária
7.
Anim Genet ; 51(5): 675-682, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32537769

RESUMO

With the availability of a new highly contiguous Bos taurus reference genome assembly (ARS-UCD1.2), it is the opportune time to upgrade the bovine gene set by seeking input from researchers. Furthermore, advances in graphical genome annotation tools now make it possible for researchers to leverage sequence data generated with the latest technologies to collaboratively curate genes. For many years the Bovine Genome Database (BGD) has provided tools such as the Apollo genome annotation editor to support manual bovine gene curation. The goal of this paper is to explain the reasoning behind the decisions made in the manual gene curation process while providing examples using the existing BGD tools. We will describe the sources of gene annotation evidence provided at the BGD, including RNA-seq and Iso-Seq data. We will also explain how to interpret various data visualizations when curating gene models, and will demonstrate the value of manual gene annotation. The process described here can be applied to manual gene curation for other species with similar tools. With a better understanding of manual gene annotation, researchers will be encouraged to edit gene models and contribute to the enhancement of livestock gene sets.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Sistemas On-Line , Animais , Bovinos/genética
8.
Anim Genet ; 51(2): 166-176, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999853

RESUMO

Horns are paired appendages on the head of bovine species, comprising an inner bony core and outer keratin sheath. The horn bud forms during early fetal development but ossification of the developing horn does not occur until approximately 1 month after birth. Little is known about the genetic pathways that lead to horn growth. Hornless, or polled, animals are found in all domestic bovids. Histological studies of bovine fetuses have shown that the horn bud does not form in polled individuals. There are currently four known genetic variants for polledness in cattle on BTA1. All of the variants are intergenic, but probably affect regulation of nearby genes or long non-coding RNAs. Transcriptomic studies suggest that the expression of two nearby long non-coding RNAs are affected by the Celtic POLLED variant, but further studies are required to confirm these data. Candidate genes located elsewhere in the genome are involved in regulating bone formation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Expression of one of these candidate genes, RXFP2, appears to be reduced in the fetal horn bud of polled animals carrying the Celtic variant compared with horned individuals. Investigating horn ontogenesis and the genetic pathway by which the POLLED variants prevent horn development has implications for cattle breeding. If the genetic basis of horn bud formation and polledness is better understood, then new targets may be identified for precision genome editing to create polled individuals.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Variação Genética , Cornos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Animais , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Duplicação Gênica , Marcadores Genéticos , Masculino
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(5): 4215-4226, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30852022

RESUMO

Disbudding and dehorning are commonly used cattle management practices to protect animals and humans from injury. They are unpleasant, costly processes subject to increased public scrutiny as an animal welfare issue. Horns are a recessively inherited trait, so one option to eliminate dehorning is to breed for polled (hornlessness). However, due to the low genetic merit and scarcity of polled dairy sires, this approach has not been widely adopted. In March 2018, only 3 Holstein and 0 Jersey active homozygous polled sires were registered with the National Association of Animal Breeders. Alternatively, gene editing to produce high-genetic-merit polled sires has been proposed. To further explore this concept, introgression of the POLLED allele into both the US Holstein and Jersey cattle populations via conventional breeding or gene editing (top 1% of bulls/year) was simulated for 3 polled mating schemes and compared with baseline selection on lifetime net merit (NM$) alone, over the course of 20 yr. Scenarios were replicated 10 times and the changes in HORNED allele frequency, inbreeding, genetic gain (NM$), and number of unique sires used were calculated. Gene editing decreased the frequency of the HORNED allele to <0.1 after 20 yr, which was as fast or faster than conventional breeding for both breeds. In the mating scheme that required the use of only existing homozygous polled sires, inbreeding reached 17% (Holstein) and 14% (Jersey), compared with less than 7% in the baseline scenarios. However, gene editing in the same mating scheme resulted in significantly less inbreeding, 9% (Holstein) and 8% (Jersey). Also, gene editing resulted in significantly higher NM$ after 20 yr compared with conventional breeding for both breeds. Additionally, the gene editing scenarios of both breeds used a significantly greater number of unique sires compared with either the conventional breeding or baseline scenarios. Overall, our simulations show that, given the current genetic merit of horned and polled dairy sires, the use of conventional breeding methods to decrease the frequency of the HORNED allele will increase inbreeding and slow genetic improvement. Furthermore, this study demonstrates how gene editing could be used to rapidly decrease the frequency of the HORNED allele in US dairy cattle populations while maintaining the rate of genetic gain, constraining inbreeding to acceptable levels, and simultaneously addressing an emerging animal welfare concern.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Bovinos/genética , Indústria de Laticínios , Edição de Genes , Cornos , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Indústria de Laticínios/métodos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Homozigoto , Masculino , Reprodução
10.
Anim Genet ; 49(6): 550-563, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246258

RESUMO

In this study, to identify genomic signatures of divergent selection, we genotyped 10 cattle breeds/populations (n = 275), representing eight Ethiopian cattle populations (n = 229) and two zebu populations (n = 46) adapted to tropical and sub-tropical environments, using the high-density single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived mainly from Bos indicus breeds, and using five reference taurine breeds (n = 212). Population genetic differentiation (FST ) values across sliding windows were estimated between zebu and reference combined taurine breeds. The most differentiated regions (FST  ≥ 0.53), representing the top 1% smoothed FST values, were considered to represent regions under diversifying selection. In total, 285 and 317 genes were identified in the comparisons of Ethiopian cattle with taurine and Asian zebu with taurine respectively. Some of these genes are involved in stress responses/thermo-tolerance and DNA damage repair (HSPA4, HSF1, CMPK1 and EIF2AK4), pigmentation (ERBB3 and MYO1A), reproduction/fertility (UBE2D3, ID3 and PSPC1), immune response (PIK3CD and AKIRIN2) and body stature and size (MBP2, LYN and NPM1). Additionally, the candidate genes were associated with functional terms (e.g. cellular response to stress, DNA repair, inflammatory response) important for physiological adaptation to environmental stresses. The results of our study may shed light on the influence of artificial and natural selection in shaping the genomic diversity of modern cattle breeds and also may serve as a basis for further genetic investigation of traits of tropical adaptation in cattle.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Genética Populacional , Seleção Genética , Animais , Bangladesh , Bovinos , Etiópia , Genômica , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
11.
J Dairy Sci ; 99(6): 4504-4511, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27040793

RESUMO

GeneSeek (Neogen Corp., Lexington, KY) designed a new version of the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler HD BeadChip for Dairy Cattle, which originally had >77,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). A set of >140,000 SNP was selected that included all SNP on the existing GeneSeek chip, all SNP used in US national genomic evaluations, SNP that were possible functional mutations, and other informative SNP. Because SNP with a lower minor allele frequency might track causative variants better, 30,000 more SNP were selected from the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) by choosing SNP to maximize differences in minor allele frequency between a SNP being considered for the new chip and the 2 SNP that flanked it. Single-gene tests were included if their location was known and bioinformatics indicated relevance for dairy cattle. To determine which SNP from the new chip should be included in genomic evaluations, genotypes available from chips already in use were used to impute and evaluate the SNP set. Effects for 134,511 usable SNP were estimated for all breed-trait combinations; SNP with the largest absolute values for effects were selected (5,000 for Holsteins, 1,000 for Jerseys, and 500 each for Brown Swiss and Ayrshires for each trait). To increase overlap with the 60,671 SNP currently used for genomic evaluation, 12,094 more SNP with the largest effects were added. After removing SNP with many parent-progeny conflicts, 84,937 SNP remained. Three cutoff studies were conducted with 3 SNP sets to determine reliability gain over that for parent average when evaluations based on August 2011 data were used to predict December 2014 performance. Across all traits, mean Holstein reliability gains were 32.5, 33.4, and 32.0 percentage points for 60,671, 84,937, and 134,511 SNP, respectively. After genotypes from the new chip became available, the proposed set was reduced from 84,937 to 77,321 SNP to remove SNP that were not included during manufacture, reduce computing time, and improve imputation performance. The set of 77,321 SNP was evaluated using August 2011 data to predict April 2015 performance. Reliability gain over 60,671 SNP was 1.4 percentage points across traits for Holsteins. Improvement over 84,937 SNP was partially the result of 4mo of additional data and genotypes from the new chip. Revision of the SNP set used for genomic evaluation is expected to be an ongoing process to increase evaluation accuracy.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Genoma , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Animais , Indústria de Laticínios , Feminino , Genômica , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos
12.
Anim Genet ; 46(3): 227-38, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25703017

RESUMO

Age-dependent decline in skeletal muscle function leads to several inherited and acquired muscular disorders in elderly individuals. The levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) could be altered during muscle maintenance and repair. We therefore performed a comprehensive investigation for miRNAs from five different periods of bovine skeletal muscle development using next-generation small RNA sequencing. In total, 511 miRNAs, including one putatively novel miRNA, were identified. Thirty-six miRNAs were differentially expressed between prenatal and postnatal stages of muscle development including several myomiRs (miR-1, miR-206 and let-7 families). Compared with miRNA expression between different muscle tissues, 14 miRNAs were up-regulated and 22 miRNAs were down-regulated in the muscle of postnatal stage. In addition, a novel miRNA was predicted and submitted to the miRBase database as bta-mir-10020. A dual luciferase reporter assay was used to demonstrate that bta-mir-10020 directly targeted the 3'-UTR of the bovine ANGPT1 gene. The overexpression of bta-mir-10020 significantly decreased the DsRed fluorescence in the wild-type expression cassette compared to the mutant type. Using three computational approaches - miranda, pita and rnahybrid - these differentially expressed miRNAs were also predicted to target 3609 bovine genes. Disease and biological function analyses and the KEGG pathway analysis revealed that these targets were statistically enriched in functionality for muscle growth and disease. Our miRNA expression analysis findings from different states of muscle development and aging significantly expand the repertoire of bovine miRNAs now shown to be expressed in muscle and could contribute to further studies on growth and developmental disorders in this tissue type.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Biblioteca Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise de Sequência de RNA
13.
Anim Genet ; 45(6): 771-81, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25183526

RESUMO

Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) have been selected for growth traits for over more than four decades. In recent years, reproductive and meat quality traits have become more important because of increasing consumption, exports and consumer demand. The identification of genome regions altered by artificial selection can potentially permit a better understanding of the biology of specific phenotypes that are useful for the development of tools designed to increase selection efficiency. Therefore, the aims of this study were to detect evidence of recent selection signatures in Nellore cattle using extended haplotype homozygosity methodology and BovineHD marker genotypes (>777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms) as well as to identify corresponding genes underlying these signals. Thirty-one significant regions (P < 0.0001) of possible recent selection signatures were detected, and 19 of these overlapped quantitative trait loci related to reproductive traits, growth, feed efficiency, meat quality, fatty acid profiles and immunity. In addition, 545 genes were identified in regions harboring selection signatures. Within this group, 58 genes were associated with growth, muscle and adipose tissue metabolism, reproductive traits or the immune system. Using relative extended haplotype homozygosity to analyze high-density single nucleotide polymorphism marker data allowed for the identification of regions potentially under artificial selection pressure in the Nellore genome, which might be used to better understand autozygosity and the effects of selection on the Nellore genome.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Carne , Seleção Genética , Animais , Brasil , Cruzamento , Bovinos/classificação , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 97(9): 5508-20, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24996281

RESUMO

The SLICK haplotype (http://omia.angis.org.au/OMIA001372/9913/) in cattle confers animals with a short and sleek hair coat. Originally identified in Senepol cattle, the gene has been introduced into Holsteins. The objectives of the current study were to determine (1) whether lactating Holsteins with the slick hair phenotype have superior ability for thermoregulation compared with wild-type cows or relatives not inheriting the SLICK haplotype, and (2) whether seasonal depression in milk yield would be reduced in SLICK cows. In experiment 1, diurnal variation in vaginal temperature in the summer was monitored for cows housed in a freestall barn with fans and sprinklers. Vaginal temperatures were lower in slick-haired cows than in relatives and wild-type cows. In experiment 2, acute responses to heat stress were monitored after cows were moved to a dry lot in which the only heat abatement was shade cloth. The increases in rectal temperature and respiration rate caused by heat stress during the day were lower for slick cows than for relatives or wild-type cows. Moreover, sweating rate was higher for slick cows than for cows of the other 2 types. In experiment 3, effects of season of calving (summer vs. winter) on milk yield and composition were determined. Compared with milk yield of cows calving in winter, milk yield during the first 90 d in milk was lower for cows calving in the summer. However, this reduction was less pronounced for slick cows than for wild-type cows. In conclusion, Holsteins with slick hair have superior thermoregulatory ability compared with non-slick animals and experience a less drastic depression in milk yield during the summer.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/genética , Bovinos/genética , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/genética , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Lactação , Animais , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Cabelo , Haplótipos , Temperatura Alta , Abrigo para Animais , Modelos Lineares , Leite , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Taxa Respiratória , Estações do Ano
15.
Genet Mol Res ; 13(1): 1465-79, 2014 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24634245

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) encompass a class of small non-coding RNAs that often negatively regulate gene expression. miRNAs play an essential role in skeletal muscle, determining the proper development and maintenance of this tissue. In comparison to other organs and tissues, the full set of muscle miRNAs and its expression patterns are still poorly understood. In this report, a chicken skeletal muscle miRNA library was constructed, and the expression of selected miRNAs was further characterized during muscle development in chicken lines with distinct muscling phenotypes. Clone library sequence analysis revealed 40 small RNAs with similarities to previously described chicken miRNAs, seven miRNAs that were never identified before in chicken, and some sequence clusters representing other possible novel miRNAs. Temporal expression profiles of three miRNAs associated with cell proliferation and differentiation (miR-125b, miR-221, and miR-206) in two chicken lines (broiler and layer) revealed the differential steady-state levels of these miRs during skeletal muscle growth and suggests that miR-206 is involved in the muscling phenotype that is observed in growth-selected chicken lines.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Galinhas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , MicroRNAs/química , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Alinhamento de Sequência
16.
Anim Genet ; 45(2): 180-90, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24494817

RESUMO

The Korean Hanwoo cattle have been intensively selected for production traits, especially high intramuscular fat content. It is believed that ancient crossings between different breeds contributed to forming the Hanwoo, but little is known about the genomic differences and similarities between other cattle breeds and the Hanwoo. In this work, cattle breeds were grouped by origin into four types and used for comparisons: the Europeans (represented by six breeds), zebu (Nelore), African taurine (N'Dama) and Hanwoo. All animals had genotypes for around 680 000 SNPs after quality control of genotypes. Average heterozygosity was lower in Nelore and N'Dama (0.22 and 0.21 respectively) than in Europeans (0.26-0.31, with Shorthorn as outlier at 0.24) and Hanwoo (0.29). Pairwise FST analyses demonstrated that Hanwoo are more related to European cattle than to Nelore, with N'Dama in an intermediate position. This finding was corroborated by principal components and unsupervised hierarchical clustering. Using genome-wide smoothed FST , 55 genomic regions potentially under positive selection in Hanwoo were identified. Among these, 29 were regions also detected in previous studies. Twenty-four regions were exclusive to Hanwoo, and a number of other regions were shared with one or two of the other groups. These regions overlap a number of genes that are related to immune, reproduction and fatty acid metabolism pathways. Further analyses are needed to better characterize the ancestry of the Hanwoo cattle and to define the genes responsible to the identified selection peaks.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal/veterinária , Bovinos/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Variação Genética , Genoma , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Cromossomo Y
17.
Physiol Genomics ; 45(21): 1012-20, 2013 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24022219

RESUMO

Meat quality traits are economically important because they affect consumers' acceptance, which, in turn, influences the demand for beef. However, selection to improve meat quality is limited by the small numbers of animals on which meat tenderness can be evaluated due to the cost of performing shear force analysis and the resultant damage to the carcass. Genome wide-association studies for Warner-Bratzler shear force measured at different times of meat aging, backfat thickness, ribeye muscle area, scanning parameters [lightness, redness (a*), and yellowness] to ascertain color characteristics of meat and fat, water-holding capacity, cooking loss (CL), and muscle pH were conducted using genotype data from the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip array to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in all phenotyped Nelore cattle. Phenotype count for these animals ranged from 430 to 536 across traits. Meat quality traits in Nelore are controlled by numerous QTL of small effect, except for a small number of large-effect QTL identified for a*fat, CL, and pH. Genomic regions harboring these QTL and the pathways in which the genes from these regions act appear to differ from those identified in taurine cattle for meat quality traits. These results will guide future QTL mapping studies and the development of models for the prediction of genetic merit to implement genomic selection for meat quality in Nelore cattle.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Genoma , Carne/normas , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Algoritmos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Mamíferos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Carne/análise , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Tempo
18.
J Dairy Sci ; 96(1): 668-78, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23063157

RESUMO

Genomic evaluations for 161,341 Holsteins were computed by using 311,725 of 777,962 markers on the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip (HD). Initial edits with 1,741 HD genotypes from 5 breeds revealed that 636,967 markers were usable but that half were redundant. Holstein genotypes were from 1,510 animals with HD markers, 82,358 animals with 45,187 (50K) markers, 1,797 animals with 8,031 (8K) markers, 20,177 animals with 6,836 (6K) markers, 52,270 animals with 2,683 (3K) markers, and 3,229 nongenotyped dams (0K) with >90% of haplotypes imputable because they had 4 or more genotyped progeny. The Holstein HD genotypes were from 1,142 US, Canadian, British, and Italian sires, 196 other sires, 138 cows in a US Department of Agriculture research herd (Beltsville, MD), and 34 other females. Percentages of correctly imputed genotypes were tested by applying the programs findhap and FImpute to a simulated chromosome for an earlier population that had only 1,112 animals with HD genotypes and none with 8K genotypes. For each chip, 1% of the genotypes were missing and 0.02% were incorrect initially. After imputation of missing markers with findhap, percentages of genotypes correct were 99.9% from HD, 99.0% from 50K, 94.6% from 6K, 90.5% from 3K, and 93.5% from 0K. With FImpute, 99.96% were correct from HD, 99.3% from 50K, 94.7% from 6K, 91.1% from 3K, and 95.1% from 0K genotypes. Accuracy for the 3K and 6K genotypes further improved by approximately 2 percentage points if imputed first to 50K and then to HD instead of imputing all genotypes directly to HD. Evaluations were tested by using imputed actual genotypes and August 2008 phenotypes to predict deregressed evaluations of US bulls proven after August 2008. For 28 traits tested, the estimated genomic reliability averaged 61.1% when using 311,725 markers vs. 60.7% when using 45,187 markers vs. 29.6% from the traditional parent average. Squared correlations with future data were slightly greater for 16 traits and slightly less for 12 with HD than with 50K evaluations. The observed 0.4 percentage point average increase in reliability was less favorable than the 0.9 expected from simulation but was similar to actual gains from other HD studies. The largest HD and 50K marker effects were often located at very similar positions. The single-breed evaluation tested here and previous single-breed or multibreed evaluations have not produced large gains. Increasing the number of HD genotypes used for imputation above 1,074 did not improve the reliability of Holstein genomic evaluations.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Genômica/métodos , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Genótipo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
19.
Anim Genet ; 44(3): 285-95, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23051556

RESUMO

A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to the gastrointestinal nematode Haemonchus contortus in a double backcross population of Red Maasai and Dorper sheep. The mapping population comprised six sire families, with 1026 lambs in total. The lambs were artificially challenged with H. contortus at about 6.5 months of age, and nine phenotypes were measured: fecal egg count, packed cell volume decline, two weight traits and five worm traits. A subset of the population (342 lambs) was selectively genotyped for 172 microsatellite loci covering 25 of the 26 autosomes. QTL mapping was performed for models which assumed that the QTL alleles were either fixed or segregating within each breed, combined with models with only an additive QTL effect fitted or both additive and dominance QTL effects fitted. Overall, QTL significant at the 1% chromosome-wide level were identified for 22 combinations of trait and chromosome. Of particular interest are a region of chromosome 26 with putative QTL for all nine traits and a region of chromosome 2 with putative QTL for three traits. Favorable QTL alleles for disease resistance originated in both the Red Maasai and Dorper breeds, were not always fixed within breed and had significant dominance effects in some cases. We anticipate that this study, in combination with follow-up work and other relevant studies, will help elucidate the biology of disease resistance.


Assuntos
Hemoncose/genética , Haemonchus , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Doenças dos Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/genética , Ovinos/parasitologia , África Oriental , Alelos , Animais , Cruzamento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos/genética , Resistência à Doença , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Repetições de Microssatélites , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Fenótipo , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 96(2): 1258-63, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23261376

RESUMO

The GeneSeek Genomic Profiler (GGP) BeadChip (GeneSeek, Lincoln, NE), which became available commercially in February 2012, is based on the Illumina BovineLD Genotyping BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA), with 1,745 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for genomic evaluation and SNP for proprietary single-gene tests. The BovineLD chip with 6,909 SNP, which replaced the Illumina GoldenGate Bovine3K Genotyping BeadChip, has been available since October 2011. The GGP's additional SNP for genomic evaluation were selected to improve imputation by filling SNP gaps on chromosomes and including more Bovine3K SNP than were on the BovineLD chip and to impute microsatellite alleles to facilitate parentage validation. The SNP for single-gene tests were included to minimize the number of separate tests required for those genes, particularly for bulls. The September 2012 US national genomic evaluation included genotypes from BovineLD and GGP chips for 82,510 animals. For those data, BovineLD and GGP performance was similar. The call rate for SNP on these chips that were used in genomic evaluation was 99.6%. The 9 Y-chromosome SNP in common on the BovineLD and GGP chips were highly effective in sex validation (call rate of 99% for males and 0.01% for females). For both chips, the rate of parent-progeny conflicts on a SNP basis (≤ 0.004%) was similar to that for SNP on the Illumina BovineSNP50 Genotyping BeadChip. Imputation accuracy for 45,187 BovineSNP50 SNP averaged 99.4% for H olsteins. Imputation accuracy was slightly higher for the GGP chip compared with the BovineLD chip because of its additional SNP. Reliability for genomic evaluations using BovineLD and GGP genotypes was 3 percentage points higher than that for Bovine3K genotypes.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Animais , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Genômica/instrumentação , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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