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1.
Anaerobe ; : 102545, 2022 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clostridioides difficile is an important pathogen responsible for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD). This study was aimed to perform multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) of C. difficile isolates from AAD cases and to understand the clonal relationship between these C. difficile strains. METHODS: Thirty five strains and a standard strain C.difficile ATCC 9689 were characterized by polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR) for toxin genes (tcdA and tcdB gene) detection and MLST. RESULTS: MLST results revealed that the most common sequence types were ST-17, ST-54, ST-63. The cluster analysis revealed that strains isolated from AAD patients generated 12 MLST sequence types grouped into two distinct evolutionary lineages. CONCLUSIONS: ST 17 is most prominent sequence type. This is the first report of MLST based study of C. difficile from India. Further studies from diverse geographical regions can help better understand the epidemiology of CDI in India.

2.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 40(2): 274-278, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031155

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Anaerobic infections are common yet life-threatening. They are being recovered from all sites of the body, including the cardiovascular system. This study was aimed to determine the retrospective analysis on the isolation of anaerobes in cardiovascular samples received for a decade-long duration. It helps in knowing the frequency of isolation of anaerobic causes of cardiovascular infection. METHODS: All cardiovascular samples from the department of Cardio-thoracic vascular surgery from January 2010 to December 2020 were studied. RESULTS: Of 601 samples received, predominant samples were vegetations and valvular tissues of 258, followed by 98 samples of pericardial tissues, 92 samples of embolus, 90 samples of blood and post-operative collections, and 63 excised aneurysms and vascular grafts. Of the total, 15 samples grew anaerobes where Clostridium species were the predominant isolates. Clostridioides difficile was isolated in 2 samples. CONCLUSIONS: Anaerobes in cardiovascular samples are uncommon yet form a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Most infections are from the contiguous spread, penetrating trauma, and hematogenous causing endocarditis or valvular infections. These conditions and samples form the seat of infectious focus and clinical suspicion towards the anaerobic cause of these conditions, especially in conventional routine culture-negative samples. Timely diagnosis of anaerobic infections plays a vital role in the good prognostic outcome of patients undergoing cardiothoracic and vascular surgery.

3.
Natl Med J India ; 34(2): 88-89, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34599119

RESUMO

The genus Corynebacterium is composed of Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacilli that are widely distributed throughout the environment. They are usually found as commensals on the skin and are often considered as mere contaminants when isolated from clinical samples. We describe a patient with skin and soft-tissue infections due to Corynebacterium striatum following exploratory laparotomy identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The clinical importance and pathogenic potential of Corynebacterium species, especially C. striatum, cannot be underestimated. This report is a reminder to physicians of the possible pathogenicity of non-diphtherial Corynebacteria.


Assuntos
Infecções por Corynebacterium , Infecção Hospitalar , Corynebacterium , Infecções por Corynebacterium/diagnóstico , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas
4.
J Lab Physicians ; 13(1): 74-76, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34054241

RESUMO

Clostridium sordellii is a gram-positive anaerobic bacteria most commonly isolated from skin and soft tissue infection, penetrating injurious and intravenous drug abusers. The exotoxins produced by the bacteria are associated with toxic shock syndrome. We report here a first case of infective endocarditis due to C. sordellii from a female patient with ventricular septal defect from India.

5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(35): 48742-48753, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914252

RESUMO

Photocatalysis is an effective way for treatment of wastewater and degradation of dyes. It is important to assess the reusability of photocatalyst and treated water after the treatment process. In this study, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 (titanium dioxide) and TiO2-TMAOH (titanium dioxide-tetramethylammonium hydroxide) was analyzed for degradation of methylene blue dye. Enhanced degradation of methylene blue is observed while treated with TiO2-TMAOH with photodegradation efficiency (PDE) 80% within 20 min. A further study shows the reusability of TiO2 for degradation of dye for six cycles with a decrease in photodegradation efficiency from 90% (cycle-1) to 50% (cycle-2). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and cyclic voltammetry (CV) analysis were carried out to identify the functional groups in treated water, traces of titanium, and TMAOH, respectively. Seed germination of Vigna radiata using TiO2- and TiO2-TMAOH-treated water shows equivalent and consistent growth. Water quality analysis of treated water shows improved biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) level (1.5 mg L-1), which is suitable for reusability of water for many applications. The outcomes suggest treated water can be used for irrigation and plantation purposes.


Assuntos
Germinação , Água , Catálise , Sementes , Titânio
6.
J Parasit Dis ; 43(4): 601-606, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749531

RESUMO

Ocular microsporidiosis was first described in immunocompromised subjects but recent reports have also shown cases in immunocompetent hosts. The database of existing clinical studies is very limited. The aim of present study was to analyse demographic profile, clinical features, microbiological profile, treatment and outcome of ocular microsporidiosis in northern India. The present study was carried out in the Department of Medical Parasitology, Advanced Eye Center, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, and Bharat Vikas Parishad Charitable trust, Chandigarh. A total of 250 patients during year 2013-17 and suspected of microsporidial keratitis (either clinically or after exclusion of bacterial, viral or fungal agents). Corneal scraping were taken and subjected for various staining methods and PCR. 8 patients of microsporidial keratitis were confirmed, based on positivity by at least any two of the above mentioned techniques. None of the patients had history of contact lens wear or exposure to swimming pool. All these patients were systemically healthy and HIV serology was negative except one had history of diabetes mellitus. This study is a reminder to clinicians that when multifocal diffuse epithelial keratitis and culture-negative keratoconjunctivitis not responding to medical therapy, regardless of immune status are found in patients with symptoms suggesting an infectious keratitis, microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis should be included in the differential diagnosis.

8.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 37(2): 292-295, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31745036

RESUMO

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of multifocal hepatic abscesses in a young immunocompetent adult from India, which was successfully treated with hepatectomy and short course of oral antibiotic regimen. Publishing further such case reports will provide more clarity regarding the clinical significance of the disease, including associated risk factors and appropriate treatment.


Assuntos
Bartonella henselae , Doença da Arranhadura de Gato/complicações , Doença da Arranhadura de Gato/microbiologia , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Abscesso Hepático/diagnóstico , Abscesso Hepático/etiologia , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Abscesso Hepático/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Trop Parasitol ; 9(1): 12-17, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161087

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Plant-based products can provide safe and biodegradable mosquito control agents. The essential oils have a strong odor due to complex secondary metabolites and exhibit lower density than that of water, which renders them suitable to form a thin layer above the water surface. The present study was designed to evaluate the larvicidal, pupicidal activity of Eucalyptus and neem oils against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the activity of commercially available Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and neem (Azadirachta indica) oils against larvae and pupae of A. aegypti and A. albopictus for their larvicidal and pupicidal activity, stability in different water types, dependence on volume and surface area of the water body, and residual efficacy. Results: Eucalyptus oil was found to be more effective against larvae and pupae at lower concentrations, i.e., concentration at which 50% is observed (LC50) for larvae and pupae was 93.3 and 144.5 parts per million (ppm) and concentration at which 90% is observed (LC90) was 707.9 and 741.3 ppm, respectively, while for neem oil, LC50 for larvae and pupae was 7852 and 19,054 ppm and LC90 was 10,092 and 19,952 ppm, respectively. The efficacy of Eucalyptus oil depended on surface area rather than volume of water, and the residual efficacy of Eucalyptus oil was up to 8 days. Conclusions: Eucalyptus oil was more effective against mosquito larvae at lower concentration as compared to neem oil. It can, therefore, be utilized in the community in artificial and small temporary water bodies as an eco-friendly vector control measure in the era of increasing resistance to chemical insecticides.

10.
Data Brief ; 25: 104079, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31249852

RESUMO

Accumulation of heavy metals in vegetables adversely affects the well-being of human health. In this study, we investigated the heavy metals (Hg, Zn, Cu, Pb and Mn) contamination in different environmental samples collected from five major sites (Gaighat, Paijawa, Danapur, Ranipur and Marchi) of Patna. In all the samples concentration of manganese (Mn) was found to be higher in soil samples. The concentration of heavy metals in soil samples were in the order Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb > Hg in water sample; Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu > Hg, and in vegetables Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb > Hg. In all sites, majority of heavy metal were within the permissible limits except the Zn and Pb. The Zn and Pb contents in vegetables and soil were measured above the permissible limit recommended by WHO/FAO (2007) and Indian standard. The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for the heavy metal transfer from soils to vegetables are analysed and were ranked in the order of Hg > Pb > Zn > Cu > Mn. The estimated daily intake of metals suggested low health risk despite higher metal content in soil/vegetables. The metal pollution index (MPI) analysis showed high MPI for spinach (15.6) followed by red spinach (14.0) whereas beans (8.6) showed lower metal pollution index.

11.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 8(4): 1508-1510, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31143752

RESUMO

Resistance to linezolid is rare in clinical isolates of Enterococcus faecalis. Here, we report cases of linezolid resistant Enterococcus fecalis in leukemia patients with review of literature.

12.
J Lab Physicians ; 11(1): 45-50, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to investigate gonococcal isolates using phenotypic and genotypic methods. METHODOLOGY: Sixty gonococcal isolates obtained were examined. Strains were divided into 9 resistant phenotypes: Chromosomally mediated penicillin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CMRNGP), penicillinase-producing NG (PPNG), chromosomally mediated tetracycline-resistant NG (CMRNGT), TRNG, PPNG and TRNG, CMRNGPT, quinolone resistant NG (QRNG), Azithro R, and decreased susceptibility (DS) to ceftriaxone. These isolates were also subjected to auxotyping and NG-multi-antigen sequence typing (MAST). RESULTS: Of 60 isolates, 32 (53.33%) PPNG and only one was CMRNGP; 16 (26.66%) were CMRNGT, while 18 (30%) were TRNG. Both PPNG and TRNG found in 13 (21.66%) and none were CMRNGPT. QRNG was seen in 93.33%, 5% Azithromycin R, and 6.66% were DS to ceftriaxone. Based on auxotyping, 24 (40%) nonrequiring, 16 (26.66%) were proline requiring, 13 (21.66%) arginine requiring while 7 (11.66%) belonged to others. The most common ST was 6058 (32.5%). The discriminatory indices of antibiogram, auxotyping and NG-MAST were 0.77, 0.72, and 0.95, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: NG-MAST is the method of choice for epidemiological studies.

13.
J Lab Physicians ; 11(1): 94-96, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30983811

RESUMO

Gas gangrene is a necrotic infection of the skin and soft tissue that is associated with high mortality and often necessitating amputation to control the infection. Clostridial myonecrosis is most often cause of gas gangrene and usually present in settings of trauma, surgery, malignancy, and other underlying immunocompromised conditions. The most common causative organism of clostridial myonecrosis is Clostridium perfringens followed by Clostridium septicum. Here, we are reporting an unusual case report of posttraumatic gas gangrene caused by Clostridium sordelli.

14.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 37(3): 376-380, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003336

RESUMO

Introduction: Central venous catheters (CVCs) implanted in patients with malignancies may often be associated with local or central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI), which are a major source of morbidity and rarely mortality, making such patients' care difficult and complicated. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study is a single-centre's experience including both paediatric and adult patients with malignancy, who had a CVC inserted and were receiving care at cancer centre of our hospital over a period between January 2017 and June 2018. Results: In the period from January 2017 to June 2018, 73 confirmed cases of CLABSIs among cancer patients were included in this study. The rate of CLABSIs was estimated as 2.1 episodes/1000 CVC days. Out of 73 CLABSI cases, Gram-negative bacilli were the predominant causative agents of CLABSI constituting 72.6% (n = 53/73) of isolated organisms, 21.9% (n = 16/73) of infections were caused by Gram-positive cocci while polymicrobial infections accounted for 5.4% (n = 4/73) of these cases. Conclusion: Over the last 20 years, an epidemiologic shift has occurred among CLABSI in cancer patients. These findings should be considered with the development of interventions that will prevent Gram-negative CLABSI after CVC insertion. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting data on the incidence of CLABSIs in cancer patients at tertiary care hospital from North Indian hospital.


Assuntos
Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/sangue , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Cateteres Venosos Centrais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bacteriemia/etiologia , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 36(3): 324-333, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429383

RESUMO

Legionella pneumophila was first recognised as a fatal cause of pneumonia more than four decades ago, during the 1976-American Legion convention in Philadelphia, USA. Legionella spp. continue to cause disease outbreaks of public health significance, and at present, Legionnaires' disease (LD) has emerged as an important cause of community and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Parallel to this, the understanding of LD has also increased exponentially. However, the disease is likely to be underreported in many countries because of the dearth of common definitions, diagnostic tests and active surveillance systems. In this review, we outline the basic concepts of Legionella including clinical presentations, epidemiology, laboratory diagnosis and the status of LD in India. This article also summarises the progress of research related to Legionella in this country, identifying the research gaps and discussing priorities to explore this unexplored pathogen in India.


Assuntos
Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/patologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/patologia , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Doença dos Legionários/diagnóstico , Doença dos Legionários/patologia
17.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 7(3): 212-216, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30198498

RESUMO

Background: Tuberculosis is a major global health problem. Tuberculous lymphadenopathy is a most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), constitutes 35% of all cases of EPTB. Due to the paucibacillary nature of specimens, smear microscopy and culture offer low sensitivity. Methods: The aim of the present study was to find the clinicodemographic profiles and comparing the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960, histopathological examination, and clinical follow-up of patients in diagnosing of smear-negative tuberculous lymphadenopathy. Results: A total of 140 clinically suspected cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis cases were enrolled in this study. MGIT-960 culture, conventional PCR, and Xpert MTB/RIF were performed. Most of the patients presented with unilateral (87.14%), single (81.42%), matted (87.85%) lymph nodes, 3 cm-6 cm (52.14%), commonly in the right side (68.02%), and associated lung lesion was found in 12.86% of cases. The detection rates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) by Xpert MTB/RIF, conventional PCR, and MGIT were 25.71%, 20.71%, and 17.85%, respectively. Both the tests: Xpert MTB/RIF and PCR, PCR and MGIT, Xpert MTB/RIF and MGIT were positive in 15.71%, 15.71%, and 11.42% of cases, respectively. Most of the patients (74.1%) were cured with 6 months of antitubercular drugs. Conclusion: Clinicians often face the diagnostic dilemmas presented in the study. Individual modalities of the diagnosis are available, but all have drawbacks with varied sensitivity and specificity. Combining the available clinical, radiological, and microbiological modality to reach early diagnosis can go a long way to avoid misdiagnosis and unnecessary delay in treatment, especially in cases, without the pulmonary involvement and fulfilling the aim of National Tuberculosis Control Programme for EPTB cases.


Assuntos
Linfonodos/microbiologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Criança , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Humanos , Linfadenopatia/microbiologia , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 7(6): 1425-1428, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613536

RESUMO

Background: Leptospirosis is an important emerging public health problem in India. There is limited information regarding the seroprevalence of leptospirosis in population from northern states of India. This study reports result of a 4-year-retrospective sero-epidemiological survey of leptospirosis conducted in a teaching tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India. The aim of our study was to explore seroprevalence and clinical pattern of disease occurrence in suspected cases of leptospirosis and to search for any co-existing infections in northern areas such as New Delhi, India. Methods: The patients with clinically suspected leptospirosis who attended outpatient or admitted to the Departments of Medicine, Gastroenterology, Pediatrics and Neurology, etc. of our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The qualitative determination of anti-leptospira-specific immunoglobulin (IgM) antibodies was carried out using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Panbio Diagnostics, Brisbane, Australia). Results: Of these 1545 patients, 6.47% (100/1545) were seropositive for anti-leptospira-specific immunoglobulin (IgM) antibodies. Using modified Faine's criteria, a diagnosis of presumptive and possible leptospirosis was made in 79/100 (79%) and 21/100 (21%) patients. Significant declining trend of seroprevalence rate of leptospirosis from 26.90% in 2000-2010 and 20% in 2011-2014 to 6.47% in 2014-2018 (P value <0.05) in our referral tertiary care center. Seventeen patients showed co-infection with other common pathogen prevailing locally. Conclusion: There is a need to increase awareness among public and clinicians, however, more region/province-wise studies on seroprevalence of leptospirosis are required to improve our understanding of the actual burden.

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