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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e258048, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374689

RESUMO

The mosaic landscape composition of forest fragments located on high slopes, shallow soils hinder ecological interactions and the survival of plant species. This study aimed to show, in an environment with these characteristics, the effect of the environmental gradient relating the soil, slope, and vegetation of a fragment of the Montane Seasonal Semideciduous Forest. The forest structure was sampled in 12 continuous rectangular plots, with 30 X 20m, totaling 0.72ha. Soil samples were taken by drilling every 20m along the hydrographic divisor and opening of three trenches used as soil sampling sites for in situ determination of soil color, horizon, and nutrients. Horizons were classified as O/A/Cr in the altered rock with a marked presence of gravels, and the soil was classified as Litholic Neosol. The area has a steep slope, from 18.05% to 36.99%. Linear regression analysis indicated an opposite pattern for species richness in relation to slope and a positive relationship between slope and the number of standing dead individuals. Species richness was also positively related to the distance from forest edges. The evaluation evidenced the strong influence of slope and human activities in forest remnant as common to several high-altitude remnants, and small conservation actions can guarantee their maintenance.


Efeito da Inclinação na Estrutura de uma Floresta do Domínio Mata Atlântica no Sul do Brasil. A composição da paisagem em mosaico de fragmentos florestais localizados em encostas altas, solos rasos dificultam as interações ecológicas e a sobrevivência de espécies vegetais. Este estudo teve como objetivo mostrar em um ambiente com essas características o efeito do gradiente ambiental relacionando o solo, a declividade e a vegetação de um fragmento de Floresta Estacional Semidecidual Montana. A estrutura da floresta foi amostrada em 12 parcelas retangulares contínuas, com 30X20m, totalizando 0,72ha. As amostras de solo foram coletadas por perfuração a cada 20m ao longo do divisor hidrográfico e abertura de três trincheiras usadas como locais de amostragem de solo para determinação in situ da cor do solo, horizonte e nutrientes. Os horizontes foram classificados como O/A/Cr na rocha alterada com presença marcante de cascalhos, e o solo foi classificado como Neossolo Litólico. A área apresenta declive acentuado, de 18,05% a 36,99%. A análise de regressão linear destacou o padrão oposto de riqueza de espécies em relação à inclinação e uma relação positiva entre a inclinação e o número de indivíduos mortos em pé. A riqueza de espécies também foi positivamente relacionada à distância das bordas da floresta. A avaliação evidenciou que a forte influência do declive e das atividades antrópicas no remanescente florestal são fatores comuns a diversos remanescentes de altitude, e pequenas ações de conservação podem garantir sua manutenção.


Assuntos
Solo , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Altitude , Brasil
2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e258048, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35588517

RESUMO

The mosaic landscape composition of forest fragments located on high slopes, shallow soils hinder ecological interactions and the survival of plant species. This study aimed to show, in an environment with these characteristics, the effect of the environmental gradient relating the soil, slope, and vegetation of a fragment of the Montane Seasonal Semideciduous Forest. The forest structure was sampled in 12 continuous rectangular plots, with 30 X 20m, totaling 0.72ha. Soil samples were taken by drilling every 20m along the hydrographic divisor and opening of three trenches used as soil sampling sites for in situ determination of soil color, horizon, and nutrients. Horizons were classified as O/A/Cr in the altered rock with a marked presence of gravels, and the soil was classified as Litholic Neosol. The area has a steep slope, from 18.05% to 36.99%. Linear regression analysis indicated an opposite pattern for species richness in relation to slope and a positive relationship between slope and the number of standing dead individuals. Species richness was also positively related to the distance from forest edges. The evaluation evidenced the strong influence of slope and human activities in forest remnant as common to several high-altitude remnants, and small conservation actions can guarantee their maintenance.


Assuntos
Florestas , Solo , Brasil , Humanos , Plantas
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 203-206, Jan.-Feb. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153036

RESUMO

Teratoma is a rare neoplasia with differentiation in two or three germ cell lines. Intracranial teratoma in birds has rarely been reported, especially affecting the brain. This is the first report of a brain teratoma in a mallard with neurological clinical signs. The neoplasm was characterized as a mature brain teratoma, extending from the cerebellum to the brainstem, and with one nodule in the cortex.(AU)


O teratoma é uma neoplasia rara, com diferenciação em duas ou três linhagens de células germinativas. Teratomas intracranianos, em aves, são raramente relatados, principalmente, com localização cerebral. Este é o primeiro relato de teratoma cerebral em um pato-real com sinais clínicos neurológicos. A neoplasia foi caracterizada como um teratoma cerebral maduro, estendendo do cerebelo ao tronco encefálico e com um nódulo no córtex.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Teratoma/veterinária , Neoplasias Encefálicas/veterinária , Patos , Animais Selvagens
4.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 53(5): 648-655, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28285957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Fenestrated endovascular repair (FEVAR) has been used to treat complex abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The risk of renal function deterioration compared with infrarenal endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) has not been determined. METHODS: Patients with preserved renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] > 45 mL/minute) enrolled in two prospective, non-randomised studies evaluating Zenith fenestrated and AAA stent grafts were matched (1:2) by propensity scores for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, and pre-operative eGFR. Sixty-seven patients were treated by FEVAR and 134 matched controls treated by EVAR. Mean follow-up was 30 ± 20 months. Outcomes included acute kidney injury (AKI) defined by RIFLE and changes in serum creatinine (sCr), eGFR, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) staging up to 5 years. RESULTS: AKI at 1 month was similar between groups, with > 25% decline in eGFR observed in 5% of FEVAR and 9% of EVAR patients (p = .39). There were no significant differences in > 25% decline in eGFR at 2 years (FEVAR 20% vs. EVAR 20%; p > .99) or 5 years (FEVAR 27% vs. EVAR 50%; p = .50). Progression to stage IV-V CKD was similar at 2 years (FEVAR 2% vs. EVAR 3%; p > .99) and 5 years (FEVAR 7% vs. EVAR 8%; p > .99), with similar sCr and eGFR up to 5 years. During follow-up, there were more renal artery stenosis/occlusions (15/67 [22%] vs. 3/134 [2%]; p < .001) and renal related re-interventions (12/67 [18%] vs. 4/134 [3%]; p < .001) in patients treated by FEVAR. Rate of progression to renal failure requiring dialysis was low and identical in both groups (1.5% vs. 1.5%; p > .99). CONCLUSION: Aortic repair with FEVAR and EVAR was associated with similar rates of renal function deterioration in patients with preserved pre-operative renal function. Renal related re-interventions were higher following FEVAR, although net changes in renal function were similar in both groups.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Nefropatias/etiologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Stents , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Biomarcadores/sangue , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Creatinina/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Nefropatias/diagnóstico , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Nefropatias/terapia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Desenho de Prótese , Diálise Renal , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
6.
Nutr Diabetes ; 6(9): e229, 2016 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27643724

RESUMO

Hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity individually reflect insulin resistance, but their combined effect on glucose homeostasis in mid-pregnancy is unknown. A cohort of 476 pregnant women prospectively underwent sonographic assessment of hepatic fat and visceral (VAT) and total (TAT) adipose tissue at 11-14 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression was used to assess the relation between the presence of maternal hepatic fat and/or the upper quartile (Q) of either VAT or TAT and the odds of developing the composite outcome of impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks' gestation, based on a 75 g OGTT. Upon adjusting for maternal age, ethnicity, family history of DM and body mass index (BMI), the co-presence of hepatic fat and quartile 4 (Q4) of VAT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.5, 95% CI: 2.3-18.5) or hepatic fat and Q4 of TAT (aOR 7.8 95% CI 2.8-21.7) were each associated with the composite outcome, relative to women with neither sonographic feature. First-trimester sonographic evidence of maternal hepatic fat and abdominal adiposity may independently predict the development of impaired glucose homeostasis and GDM in mid-pregnancy.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Intolerância à Glucose/diagnóstico , Fígado/patologia , Obesidade Abdominal/complicações , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Tecido Adiposo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/diagnóstico , Feminino , Intolerância à Glucose/complicações , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Homeostase , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 141(8): 1731-40, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23040669

RESUMO

In order to estimate influenza-associated excess mortality in southern Brazil, we applied Serfling regression models to monthly mortality data from 1980 to 2008 for pneumonia/influenza- and respiratory/circulatory-coded deaths for all ages and for those aged ≥60 years. According to viral data, 73∙5% of influenza viruses were detected between April and August in southern Brazil. There was no clear influenza season for northern Brazil. In southern Brazil, influenza-associated excess mortality was 1∙4/100,000 for all ages and 9∙2/100,000 person-years for persons aged ≥60 years using underlying pneumonia/influenza-coded deaths and 10∙0/100,000 for all ages and 86∙6/100,000 person-years for persons aged ≥60 years using underlying respiratory/circulatory-coded deaths. Influenza-associated excess mortality rates for southern Brazil are similar to those published for other countries. Our data support the need for continued influenza surveillance to guide vaccination campaigns to age groups most affected by this virus in Brazil.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Modelos Biológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epidemias , Humanos , Lactente , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/complicações , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Análise de Regressão , Doenças Respiratórias/complicações , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 15(4): 595-604, 2013. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-695246

RESUMO

Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar o levantamento etnobotânico das principais espécies utilizadas para fins medicinais pela comunidade Salobrinho, no município de Ilhéus (BA). Foi realizada entrevista com aplicação de questionário semi-estruturado juntamente com a coleta de material vegetal para identificação das espécies citadas. Apesar do elevado número de citações de plantas nas residências dos entrevistados apenas 51 espécies são cultivadas, as quais estão distribuídas em 32 famílias e 42 gêneros, sendo a família Lamiaceae a mais representativa, seguida por Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Verbenaceae e Poaceae. A maioria destas espécies é de porte herbáceo ou arbustivo e são plantas introduzidas. A parte mais utilizada para o preparo de remédios foi a folha (86%), sendo o chá a forma de preparo mais comum (70%). Dentre 86 diferentes indicações de uso terapêutico, as mais citadas foram relacionadas à problemas gastrointestinais com 308 citações, seguida por 171 citações referente a afecções respiratórias. A espécie com maior índice de concordância de uso corrigido foi a Lippia alba, indicada para o tratamento de dor de barriga e como calmante. Conclui-se que a localização afastada do bairro em relação aos espaços construídos da cidade, a origem rural dos seus moradores, e sua condição sócio-econômica, possivelmente contribuíram para o acúmulo de conhecimento sobre o tratamento de diversas enfermidades utilizando preparados feitos à base de plantas medicinais.


This study aimed to conduct an ethnobotanical survey of the main speciesused for medicinal purposes by the Salobrinho community in Ilhéus (BA). Several interviews were conducted wit theh application of a semi-structured questionnaire and the collection of plant material for identification. Despite the high number of cited plants, only 51 cultivated species were found in the households of the respondents which are distributed into 32 families and 42 genera, with Lamiaceae as the most representative family, followed by Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae and Verbenaceae. Most of them were herbaceous or shrub introduced plants. The leaves were the most used portion of the plant to prepare medications (86%) and the tea was the main use (70%). There were 86 different indications and the most cited ones were related to gastrointestinal problems, with 308 citations, followed by 171 indications relating to respiratory diseases. The species with the highest corrected concordance use index was Lippia alba, indicated for the treatment of stomachache and as a tranquilizer. It was concluded that the remote location of the district in relation to the built areas of the city, the rural origins of its inhabitants, and their socioeconomic status possibly contributed to the accumulation of knowledge about the treatment of various diseases using medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino
9.
J Med Microbiol ; 61(Pt 12): 1758-1765, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22956748

RESUMO

At present, few data are available on the prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Candida parapsilosis complex isolates from HIV-infected individuals. The C. parapsilosis complex comprises three species, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto, C. metapsilosis and C. orthopsilosis. Fifteen of 318 Candida isolates were identified as members of the C. parapsilosis complex by PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). The prevalence of C. parapsilosis complex isolates was 4.7 %, 2.2 % being identified as C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and 2.5 % as C. metapsilosis, while no C. orthopsilosis was isolated. This is believed to be the first study that has identified isolates of C. metapsilosis obtained from the oral cavity of HIV-infected individuals. Antifungal susceptibility tests indicated that all the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FLC), ketoconazole (KTC), itraconazole (ITC), voriconazole (VRC) and caspofungin (CASPO). Although isolates of C. parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. metapsilosis were susceptible to FLC, isolates of C. metapsilosis showed a tendency for higher MICs (≥1.0 µg ml(-1)). Based upon the frequency of candidiasis and the fact that certain isolates of the C. parapsilosis complex respond differently to FLC therapy, our data may be of therapeutic relevance with respect to susceptibility and potential resistance to specific antifungal agents. Our data suggest that C. metapsilosis can be a human commensal; its importance as a pathogen has yet to be confirmed.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase Bucal/microbiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Boca/microbiologia , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Candida/classificação , Candidíase Bucal/complicações , Candidíase Bucal/tratamento farmacológico , Caspofungina , Equinocandinas/farmacologia , Feminino , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Lipopeptídeos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Voriconazol
10.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 18(1): 103-108, 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-618196

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus causes significant morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients and those having undergone bone marrow or another transplant. PP65 antigenemia is based on detecting viral antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes through immunochemistry and by monitoring the infection in immunocompromised individuals. The present study aimed to set up this diagnostic technique in AIDS patients with active cytomegalovirus infection and verify its occurrence in the Botucatu region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Fifty patients, 35 men and 15 women aged from 24 to 69 years, were recruited from those attended at the Department of Tropical Diseases of Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, and divided into three groups according to CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and antiretroviral treatment. The control group comprised bone marrow transplant patients. Fourteen AIDS patients with low CD4+ cell counts tested positive for PP65 antigenemia, which could predict cytomegalovirus infection and indicate prophylactic treatment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Idoso , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Citomegalovirus , Infecções por Citomegalovirus
11.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 18(2): 225-235, 2012. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-639482

RESUMO

This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%), Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%), Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%), Endolimax nana - two (15.4%), and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%). There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-γ, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-α and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores Imunológicos , Enteropatias/parasitologia , HIV
12.
J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. ; 18(2): 225-235, 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-8044

RESUMO

This study applied a socioeconomic questionnaire designed to evaluate the frequency of intestinal parasites and characterize epidemiological, nutritional, and immunological variables in 105 HIV/AIDS patients - with and without parasitic infections, attending the Day Hospital in Botucatu, UNESP, from 2007 to 2008. Body mass index was calculated and the following tests performed: parasitological stool examinations; eosinophil, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocyte cell counts; albumin test; viral load measure; and TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine levels. Results were positive for parasitic intestinal infections in 12.4% of individuals. Most patients had good socioeconomic conditions with basic sanitation, urban dwellings, treated water supply and sewage, good nutritional and immunological status and were undergoing HAART. Parasites were found at the following frequencies: Entamoeba - five patients (38.5%), Giardia lamblia - four (30.7%), Blastocystis hominis - three (23.0%), Endolimax nana - two (15.4%), and Ascaris lumbricoides - one (7.7%). There were no significant differences between the two groups for eosinophils, albumin, IgE, CD4+ T and CD8+ T lymphocytes, INF-γ, IL-2, or IL-10. Most patients also showed undetectable viral load levels. Significant differences were found for TNF-α and IL-5. These results show the importance of new studies on immunodeficient individuals to increase understanding of such variables.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , HIV/patogenicidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/parasitologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Interleucina-5/análise , Doenças Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Intestinos/parasitologia
13.
J. Venom. Anim. Toxins incl. Trop. Dis. ; 18(1): 103-108, 2012. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-8028

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus causes significant morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients and those having undergone bone marrow or another transplant. PP65 antigenemia is based on detecting viral antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes through immunochemistry and by monitoring the infection in immunocompromised individuals. The present study aimed to set up this diagnostic technique in AIDS patients with active cytomegalovirus infection and verify its occurrence in the Botucatu region of São Paulo state, Brazil. Fifty patients, 35 men and 15 women aged from 24 to 69 years, were recruited from those attended at the Department of Tropical Diseases of Botucatu Medical School, UNESP, and divided into three groups according to CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and antiretroviral treatment. The control group comprised bone marrow transplant patients. Fourteen AIDS patients with low CD4+ cell counts tested positive for PP65 antigenemia, which could predict cytomegalovirus infection and indicate prophylactic treatment.(AU)


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/mortalidade , Citomegalovirus/patogenicidade
14.
Oral Oncol ; 45(9): 777-82, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19359212

RESUMO

This study evaluated 724 primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in young and old patients, with regard to clinical profile and immunohistochemical expression of p53 protein. Associations among age, epidemiological and clinicopathological parameters, and survival analysis were evaluated. HNSCC in young people occurred in 14.5% (median age 40.7years; male-to-female ratio 5.9:1). A statistical association was demonstrated between age and family history of cancer, and between age and anatomical site. Among older patients, a higher presence of disease was noted in posterior sites. Expression of p53 was found in 71.7% of the samples and a higher expression was noted in lesions of young patients. Survival analysis showed that the age parameter is not a reliable prognostic factor for HNSCC. Among young patients, cervical metastasis was associated with worse survival. The presence of a family history of cancer in young patients could indicate genetic susceptibility and molecular disturbances in the p53 pathway in HNSCC of young and older patients seem to be distinct.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
15.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 14(1): 152-160, 2008. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-479346

RESUMO

From the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) has been distinguished as one of the most frequent opportunistic diseases with high morbid-mortality. As from 1996, the advent of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed the characteristics of such epidemic by reducing its related diseases and, as a result, AIDS-related mortality. With the purpose to estimate PCP occurrence and HAART interference, 376 HIV-infected or AIDS patients were studied from January 1992 to December 2002. Among them, 58 (15.5 percent) PCP cases were found. There was a higher occurrence of PCP in the group of patients in which HAART was not used, with 40 (69.0 percent) of the episodes. As regards the studied period, a tendency to a linear reduction in annual PCP incidence was observed. The mean of T CD4+ lymphocytes in the patients with PCP (117 cells/mm³) was significantly lower when compared to that of the other individuals (325 cells/mm³). Therefore, this study suggests a temporal reduction in PCP occurrence related to HAART use with higher T CD4+ lymphocyte counts. Nevertheless, this opportunistic infection still shows significant incidence in AIDS patients. (NCT00516581).


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/epidemiologia
16.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 14(4): 685-702, 2008. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-500142

RESUMO

A cross-sectional study was performed on HIV-1 infected individuals with or without antiretroviral treatment (ARV) in the AIDS Day Hospital, Botucatu Medical School, UNESP. Between August 2004 and October 2005, 73 HIV-1 infected individuals were divided into three groups: infected individuals with or without AIDS who had never received ARV (G1 = 15); patients on HAART that had had plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) equal to or greater than 50 copies/mL (G2 = 27); and patients on HAART with undetectable VL for at least the past six months (G3 = 31). There was also an additional group that comprised blood donors without any sign of the disease and with negative HIV serum tests (G4 = 20), which was the control group. Serum cytokine levels (values in pg/mL) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and specific mRNA expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both techniques were performed on the four groups for TNF-á, IL-2, INF-ã, IL-4 and IL-10. All patients were submitted to VL determination and CD4+ and CD8+T lymphocyte counts. The analysis of the results revealed a significant comparison among groups for both methods and an association between the latter (> 80% r² > 0.80). There was only one exception, in control individuals for IL-2 by ELISA. The cytokine profiles, in both methods, for the three patient groups, were mature Th-0. The behaviors of IL-2 and INF-ã required emphasis due to consequent expression of dominant Th profile. Both methods showed low IL-2 and high mean values of INF-ã in the three groups. Several authors have recently drawn attention to the substantial apoptosis of infected and non-infected CD4+T cells, mainly during primary infection, persisting only in those with INF-ã phenotype producer and not IL-2. HIV infected individuals submitted to HAART are expected to produce IL-2 in an attempt to present Th-1 profile, but in most cases this did not occur.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas , HIV-1 , Apoptose , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
17.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 13(4): 737-747, 2007. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-471137

RESUMO

The aim of the current work was to evaluate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium sp in AIDS patients in a region of São Paulo State, Brazil. Patients were divided into groups according to CD4+ T lymphocyte count and use of potent antiretroviral treatment. Two hundred and ten fecal samples from 105 patients were fixed in 10 percent formalin and subjected to centrifuge formol-ether sedimentation. Slides were stained with auramine and confirmed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen. Cryptosporidiosis occurrence was 10.5 percent with no relationship among gender, age or the presence of diarrhea. The number of oocysts in all samples was small, independent of CD4+ T lymphocyte count, HIV plasma viral load, and presence of diarrhea. These results may be due to the reduced prevalence of opportunistic infections in AIDS individuals after the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cryptosporidium , Diarreia/epidemiologia , HIV , Hospitais de Ensino
18.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 13(2): 431-445, 2007. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-452840

RESUMO

The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.


Assuntos
Humanos , HIV-1 , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Intestinos/microbiologia , Estado Nutricional
19.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 13(2): 509-526, 2007. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-452844

RESUMO

The extensive use of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has transformed HIV infection into a chronic condition. Thus, metabolic alterations including lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia have been associated with the use of such medications. The objective of the present study was to analyze clinical metabolic alterations and the profile of TNF-alpha, IFN-Y, IL-2, IL-10, and TNF-alpha type II soluble receptor in serum of HIV-1 individuals with and without lipodystrophy. Eighty-four adults were evaluated, 42 males and 42 females, mean age 37 years, and HAART time of at least 15 months. Two groups were formed, G1: 42 individuals with lipodystrophy, and G2: 42 without lipodistropy. From the HAART used, stavudine was more associated with the lipodystrophy group and zidovudine with the non-lipodystrophy group. CD4 and CD8 values, viral load, glucose, albumin, and lipids were not different between groups, except for triglycerides, which were high in the lipodystrophy group, and HDL, whose concentration was reduced in G1. TNF-alpha, TNF-RII, and IL-10 profiles were high and had positive correlation; IL-2 and IFN-gamma had reduced levels in the lipodystrophy group. High TNF-alpha and its receptor levels seem to be associated with lipodystrophy development in individuals under HAART therapy.


Assuntos
Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Citocinas , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Síndrome de Lipodistrofia Associada ao HIV/diagnóstico , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Hipertrigliceridemia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
20.
Histopathology ; 48(4): 377-86, 2006 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16487359

RESUMO

AIMS: To report nine additional well-defined cases with infiltrative myelopathy by paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), to describe the specific lesions and infection-related stromal abnormalities, to review the literature on this type of involvement and to introduce a new cause of granulomatous lesions of bone marrow. METHODS AND RESULTS: Different bone marrow specimens were studied (aspirated smears, aspirated clots, biopsy imprints and biopsies) from nine patients with acute or subacute forms of PCM known to have PCM infiltrative myelopathy. CONCLUSIONS: The biopsy specimens were the best for demonstrating bone marrow involvement by PCM. The lesions varied from compact and focal granulomas with few fungal cells to numerous disseminated fungal cells within a loose granulomatous inflammatory reaction, with a continuum between these extremes suggesting a spectrum of immune response to the fungi. Other findings such as bone marrow fibrosis, parenchymal coagulative necrosis and bone necrosis were also observed in the affected areas.


Assuntos
Doenças da Medula Óssea/patologia , Medula Óssea/patologia , Paracoccidioidomicose/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Biópsia , Doenças da Medula Óssea/etiologia , Exame de Medula Óssea , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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