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1.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 51(9): 1226-1236, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527115

RESUMO

The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether antibiotics, compared to placebo, can prevent infection or dry socket after third molar surgery. A systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed following registration of the protocol (CRD42021276266). Four databases and the grey literature were searched, and papers were selected based on the PICOS question. RoB 2 and GRADE were used to evaluate the risk of bias and certainty of the evidence, respectively. The NMA was performed using Stata. Of 58 randomized clinical trials identified, 34 were included in the NMA. Patients treated with amoxicillin (relative risk (RR) 0.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-0.84; low quality of evidence) and those treated with metronidazole (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.84; low quality of evidence) showed a lower risk of infection and dry socket when compared to patients given a placebo. Postoperative amoxicillin (750 mg) and amoxicillin plus clavulanate (500 mg + 125 mg, or 2000 mg + 125 mg), and preoperative metronidazole (800 mg) are useful to prevent infection or dry socket when compared to placebo. The low rate of infection after third molar surgery, the correct concept of antibiotic prophylaxis, and antibiotic resistance must be taken into account when choosing to treat healthy patients undergoing third molar surgery with antibiotics.


Assuntos
Alvéolo Seco , Dente Serotino , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Combinação Amoxicilina e Clavulanato de Potássio/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Humanos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Dente Serotino/cirurgia , Metanálise em Rede
2.
Poult Sci ; 101(2): 101606, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936959

RESUMO

The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms isolated from eggshells, especially Enterococcus, might serve as a parameter to assess the selection of bacteria due to the use of drugs in the diet of laying hens. In order to evaluate the frequency and the antimicrobial resistance profile of Enterococcus spp. isolated from the eggshells, 225 Hy-line laying hens were submitted to a 25-d long trial. The treatments were the following: hens fed ration without antimicrobials (control) and groups that received oxytetracycline (10 mg kg-1), doxycycline (20 mg kg-1), lincomycin (50 mg kg-1), and enrofloxacin (10 mg kg-1) in the ration for 5 d. Six replications were analyzed per treatment, composed of a pool of 5 eggs each. They were collected before treatment and on days 3, 6, 15, and 25, totaling 150 samples. Eggshells were submitted to counts of Enterococcus spp., which were identified by proteomic analyses. Antimicrobial resistance was determined by the disk-diffusion test. It was observed that 97.3% (n = 146) of the samples were contaminated with Enterococcus spp. There were no differences (P > 0.05) in the bacterial counts between treatments on the same day of evaluation. E. faecalis and E. faecium were the most frequent on the eggshells of all treatments. Multiresistance to the four classes of antimicrobials was also verified in the isolated bacteria. A total of 83% of the Enterococcus isolates showed resistance to neomycin, which was not administered to the hens, demonstrating an environmental problem. Thus, feeding laying hens with diets added with antimicrobials induces drug resistance in Enterococcus spp., isolated form the eggshells.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Enterococcus , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Casca de Ovo , Feminino , Óvulo , Proteômica
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(5): 1713-1718, Sept.-Oct. 2020. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1131538

RESUMO

A total of 480 milk samples were analyzed in four repetitions with four preservative treatments (no preservative, Bronopol, Bronolat and Brononata), three storage times at temperatures up to 4 °C (24, 48 and 72hours after reception), five different water additions (0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0%) and two analytical instruments (electronic cryoscope and FTIR). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of these parameters in the determination of the freezing point by the reference method and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thus determining the best analytical conditions and establishing a mathematical equation for electronic determination by FTIR spectroscopy. Bronolat was the best preservative and Brononata was the worst and is not recommended to analyze freezing point by FTIR. The storage time of the samples did not interfere in the analytical determinations by the precision method and by FTIR.(AU)


Foram analisadas 480 amostras de leite em quatro repetições em relação a quatro tratamentos por conservantes (sem conservante, bronopol, bronolat e brononata), três tempos de armazenamento, em temperatura até 4ºC desde a recepção da amostra (24, 48 e 72 horas), cinco porcentagens de adição de água (0,0; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0%) e dois instrumentos analíticos (crioscópio eletrônico e FTIR). O objetivo foi avaliar o efeito desses parâmetros na determinação do índice crioscópico pelo método de precisão em crioscópio eletrônico e por espectroscopia com transformada de Fourier no infravermelho, determinando-se, assim, as melhores condições analíticas. Entre os conservantes utilizados, bronolat foi o melhor e brononata foi o menos eficiente, não sendo, portanto, recomendado para análise de crioscopia por FTIR. O tempo de armazenamento das amostras não interferiu nas determinações analíticas pelo método de precisão e por FTIR.(AU)


Assuntos
Leite/química , Alimentos Crus/análise , Conservantes de Alimentos , Congelamento , Alimentos Congelados/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
4.
Prev Vet Med ; 182: 105091, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683190

RESUMO

This study aimed to measure the impact of productivity and the consequent economic losses related to lung lesions caused by M. hyopneumoniae. Five-hundred 75 days-old pigs were selected and weighed at the beginning and at the end of the finishing phase to assess the average daily gain (ADG). These animals were evaluated at the slaughter, and samples were collected for laboratory analysis to confirm the presence of M. hyopneumoniae DNA. The lungs of each pig were examined and classified into groups based on the extension of macroscopic lung lesions. Four-hundred eighty-six lungs were examined and 68.5% (n = 333) had macroscopic lung lesions. All pigs with lesions were positive for M. hyopneumoniae in qPCR. Linear mixed regression models (proc Glimmix) were performed on SAS to estimate the effect of macroscopic lung lesion scores on the ADG of finishing pigs. All pairwise comparisons among lesion score groups were performed using p < 0.05. For each increase of one percent in the lesion area, there was a decrease of 1.8 g in the daily weight gain. All the groups had a numerically lower ADG when compared to Group 1 (no lesions). The economic analysis was performed by simulation on Excel to estimate and compare the financial performance of the different lung lesion score groups. The negative correlation found between the group with no lung lesions and the group with more than 15.1% of lesions, showed a statistical difference in ADG, which could mean an opportunity to gain up to $ 6.55 per pig at slaughter. The presence of lesions causes the animals to decrease their productive potential, causing financial loss and generating impacts on the production system.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Pulmão/patologia , Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae/fisiologia , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/patologia , Sus scrofa/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/economia , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Suína Micoplasmática/virologia , Suínos
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 641-646, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1128497

RESUMO

Cheese whey is a nutritious byproduct in the dairy industry, however, due to low commercial value, its use as a milk adulterant is a common practice not easily detected by routine analysis. In Brazil, quantification of caseinomacropeptide (CMP) index, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), is officially used to investigate illegal cheese whey addition to milk. Milk with CMP index above 30mg/L is considered not suitable for human consumption. The objective of this research was to report the CMP index in 185 samples of pasteurized milk, representing 73 commercial brands produced in 51 counties and ten mesoregions of the state of Minas Gerais, from 2011 to 2013 (58 samples) and 2015 to 2017 (127 samples). CMP index was considered normal (up to 30mg/L) in 75.1% of the samples. However, 21.1% presented CMP index above 75mg/L and 3.8% from 31 to 75mg/L. CMP index above 75mg/L was found in 17.4% of the samples produced during the dry season (April to September) and in 24.7% during the rainy season (October to March). These data point to the need of more efficient monitoring and inspection processes to hinder adulteration with cheese whey addition to milk.(AU)


Assuntos
Peptídeos , Caseínas/análise , Leite , Pasteurização , Fraude , Brasil , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(2): 641-646, Mar./Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-29536

RESUMO

Cheese whey is a nutritious byproduct in the dairy industry, however, due to low commercial value, its use as a milk adulterant is a common practice not easily detected by routine analysis. In Brazil, quantification of caseinomacropeptide (CMP) index, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), is officially used to investigate illegal cheese whey addition to milk. Milk with CMP index above 30mg/L is considered not suitable for human consumption. The objective of this research was to report the CMP index in 185 samples of pasteurized milk, representing 73 commercial brands produced in 51 counties and ten mesoregions of the state of Minas Gerais, from 2011 to 2013 (58 samples) and 2015 to 2017 (127 samples). CMP index was considered normal (up to 30mg/L) in 75.1% of the samples. However, 21.1% presented CMP index above 75mg/L and 3.8% from 31 to 75mg/L. CMP index above 75mg/L was found in 17.4% of the samples produced during the dry season (April to September) and in 24.7% during the rainy season (October to March). These data point to the need of more efficient monitoring and inspection processes to hinder adulteration with cheese whey addition to milk.(AU)


Assuntos
Peptídeos , Caseínas/análise , Leite , Pasteurização , Fraude , Brasil , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4100-4108, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197850

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causative agents of food poisoning. This bacterium is an important component of cheese microbiota and plays an important role in foodborne diseases. Another important component of the microbiota is the lactic acid bacterium, which actively participates in processes that define the physicochemical, sensorial, and microbiological features of cheese. Of the various microbiological interactions in cheese, the interaction between lactic acid bacteria and Staph. aureus is most relevant. To this end, we evaluated the viability of Staph. aureus strains and the expression of their enterotoxins in cheeses produced experimentally, using Weissella paramesenteroides GIR16L4 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus D1 or both as starter cultures. Over 7 d, we observed that the presence of lactic acid bacteria did not impair Staph. aureus growth. However, via qPCR we observed a change in the gene expression of staphylococcal enterotoxins, suggesting that molecular communication exists between Staph. aureus strains and lactic acid bacteria in cheese.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Queijo/microbiologia , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Superantígenos/metabolismo , Weissella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Queijo/análise , Enterotoxinas/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Leite , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Superantígenos/genética , Transcriptoma , Weissella/metabolismo
8.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(3): 2098-2110, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980224

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main pathogens found in cheeses produced with raw milk, including Minas artisanal cheese from Brazil. However, information about S. aureus isolated from artisanal cheeses and its sources of production in small-scale dairies is very limited. We aimed to characterize the virulence factors of S. aureus isolated from raw milk, endogenous starter culture, Minas artisanal cheese, and cheese handlers from the region of Campo das Vertentes, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We identified the staphylococcal isolates by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We evaluated biofilm production on Congo red agar and polystyrene plates. We used PCR to detect icaA, icaB, icaC, sea, seb, sec, sed, see, tsst-1, agr, and mecA. We evaluated the expression of staphylococcal toxin genes in PCR-positive staphylococcal isolates using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and we evaluated the production of these toxins and their hemolytic activity in vitro. We also evaluated the antimicrobial resistance profile of the staphylococcal isolates. For statistical analysis, we used cluster analysis, χ2 tests, and correspondence tests. We analyzed 76 staphylococcal isolates. According to PCR, 18.42, 18.42, 2.63, and 77.63% were positive for sea, tsst-1, sec, and agr, respectively. We found low expression of staphylococcal toxin genes according to quantitative reverse-transcription PCR, and only 2 staphylococcal isolates produced toxic shock syndrome toxins. A total of 43 staphylococcal isolates (56.58%) had hemolytic activity; 53 were biofilm-forming on Congo red agar (69.73%), and 62 on polystyrene plates (81.58%). None of the staphylococcal isolates expressed the mecA gene, and none presented a multi-drug resistance pattern. The highest resistance was observed for penicillin G (67.11%) in 51 isolates and for tetracycline (27.63%) in 21 isolates. The staphylococcal isolates we evaluated had toxigenic potential, with a higher prevalence of sea and tsst-1. Biofilm production was the main virulence factor of the studied bacteria. Six clusters were formed whose distribution frequencies differed for hemolytic activity, biofilm formation (qualitative and quantitative analyses), and resistance to penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. These findings emphasize the need for effective measures to prevent staphylococcal food poisoning by limiting S. aureus growth and enterotoxin formation throughout the food production chain and the final product.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Queijo/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Choque Séptico/microbiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar Estafilocócica/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Fatores de Virulência , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Brasil , Enterotoxinas/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Superantígenos/genética
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 102(7): 5957-5961, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128873

RESUMO

Some Lactobacillus strains may contribute to the health of the host when administered in adequate concentrations, demonstrating their probiotic potential. In contrast, Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that can cause enteropathy, meningoencephalitis, abortion, and septicemia. The aim of this survey was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum B7 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus D1, isolated from Minas artisanal cheese of the Serra da Canastra (Minas Gerais, Brazil), against Lis. monocytogenes. We submitted B7 and D1 to in vitro testing (antibiogram, tolerance to bile salts and artificial gastric fluid, and spot-on-lawn) and in vivo testing (relative weight gain in mice). Both Lactobacillus strains demonstrated in vitro inhibitory activity against Lis. monocytogenes, as well as sensitivity to antimicrobials and resistance to gastric acids and bile salts. In the in vivo assays, mice treated with D1 gained more weight than mice in the other groups. These results indicate that D1 could have higher probiotic potential than B7 because improvements in feed conversion may help animals fight infection.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Listeria monocytogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/química , Brasil , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
10.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 647-657, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011286

RESUMO

Minas artisanal cheese is made from endogenous starter cultures, including lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Some LAB may possess probiotic potential. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro probiotic properties of lactobacilli isolated from Minas artisanal cheeses produced in Minas Gerais. Ten samples of lactobacilli, formerly isolated from those cheeses, were submitted to the following assays: antimicrobial susceptibility, tolerance to artificial gastric juice and biliary salts, production of hydrogen peroxide and antagonism against pathogenic and non-pathogenic micro-organisms. Only L. plantarum (C0) was sensitive to all tested antimicrobials, while the other LAB samples were resistant to at least one drug. Six samples were tolerant to artificial gastric juice, and L. brevis (A6) even grew in that medium. Three samples were tolerant to biliary salts. Only L. brevis (E35) produced hydrogen peroxide. Difference (P< 0.05) was observed among the means of inhibition haloes of lactobacilli against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 and Lactobacillus plantarum C24 in spot-on-the-lawn assay. All samples of lactobacilli inhibited Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in co-culture antagonism test (P< 0.0001). Most lactobacilli samples showed in vitro probiotic potential. From the tested samples, L. brevis (A6) presented the best results considering all in vitro probiotic tests.(AU)


O queijo minas artesanal é produzido por culturas starters endógenas, incluindo bactérias ácido-láticas (BAL). Algumas BAL podem possuir potencial probiótico. Com isso, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades probióticas in vitro de lactobacilos isolados de queijo minas artesanal produzido no estado de Minas Gerais. Dez amostras de lactobacilos, previamente isoladas desses queijos, foram submetidas aos seguintes testes: susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos, tolerância ao suco gástrico artificial e aos sais biliares, produção de peróxido de hidrogênio e antagonismo contra micro-organismos patogênicos e não patogênicos. Apenas L. plantarum (C0) foi sensível a todos os antimicrobianos testados, enquanto as outras amostras de BAL foram resistentes a, pelo menos, uma droga testada. Seis amostras foram tolerantes ao suco gástrico artificial, e L. brevis (A6) apresentou crescimento nesse meio. Três amostras foram tolerantes aos sais biliares. Apenas L. brevis (E35) produziu peróxido de hidrogênio. Diferença (P<0,05) foi observada entre as médias dos halos de inibição de lactobacilos contra Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 e Lactobacillus plantarum C24 no teste do spot-on-the-lawn. Todas as amostras de lactobacilos inibiram Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 no teste de antagonismo em cocultura (P<0,0001). A maioria das amostras de lactobacilos apresentou potencial probiótico in vitro. Com base nas amostras testadas, L. brevis (A6) apresentou os melhores resultados, considerando-se todos os testes probióticos in vitro.(AU)


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Antibiose
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 647-657, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-23555

RESUMO

Minas artisanal cheese is made from endogenous starter cultures, including lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Some LAB may possess probiotic potential. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the in vitro probiotic properties of lactobacilli isolated from Minas artisanal cheeses produced in Minas Gerais. Ten samples of lactobacilli, formerly isolated from those cheeses, were submitted to the following assays: antimicrobial susceptibility, tolerance to artificial gastric juice and biliary salts, production of hydrogen peroxide and antagonism against pathogenic and non-pathogenic micro-organisms. Only L. plantarum (C0) was sensitive to all tested antimicrobials, while the other LAB samples were resistant to at least one drug. Six samples were tolerant to artificial gastric juice, and L. brevis (A6) even grew in that medium. Three samples were tolerant to biliary salts. Only L. brevis (E35) produced hydrogen peroxide. Difference (P< 0.05) was observed among the means of inhibition haloes of lactobacilli against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 and Lactobacillus plantarum C24 in spot-on-the-lawn assay. All samples of lactobacilli inhibited Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 in co-culture antagonism test (P< 0.0001). Most lactobacilli samples showed in vitro probiotic potential. From the tested samples, L. brevis (A6) presented the best results considering all in vitro probiotic tests.(AU)


O queijo minas artesanal é produzido por culturas starters endógenas, incluindo bactérias ácido-láticas (BAL). Algumas BAL podem possuir potencial probiótico. Com isso, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as propriedades probióticas in vitro de lactobacilos isolados de queijo minas artesanal produzido no estado de Minas Gerais. Dez amostras de lactobacilos, previamente isoladas desses queijos, foram submetidas aos seguintes testes: susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos, tolerância ao suco gástrico artificial e aos sais biliares, produção de peróxido de hidrogênio e antagonismo contra micro-organismos patogênicos e não patogênicos. Apenas L. plantarum (C0) foi sensível a todos os antimicrobianos testados, enquanto as outras amostras de BAL foram resistentes a, pelo menos, uma droga testada. Seis amostras foram tolerantes ao suco gástrico artificial, e L. brevis (A6) apresentou crescimento nesse meio. Três amostras foram tolerantes aos sais biliares. Apenas L. brevis (E35) produziu peróxido de hidrogênio. Diferença (P<0,05) foi observada entre as médias dos halos de inibição de lactobacilos contra Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 19433 e Lactobacillus plantarum C24 no teste do spot-on-the-lawn. Todas as amostras de lactobacilos inibiram Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Salmonella enterica var. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 no teste de antagonismo em cocultura (P<0,0001). A maioria das amostras de lactobacilos apresentou potencial probiótico in vitro. Com base nas amostras testadas, L. brevis (A6) apresentou os melhores resultados, considerando-se todos os testes probióticos in vitro.(AU)


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Probióticos/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Antibiose
12.
Poult Sci ; 98(6): 2466-2473, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690560

RESUMO

Different sanitization methods were evaluated as alternatives to formaldehyde fumigation for the reduction of eggshell and yolk sac microbiological counts, improvement of eggshell quality, incubation parameters, and day-old chick quality. A total of 10,080 hatching eggs were collected from a 70-wk-old commercial broiler breeder flock and distributed in a completely randomized block design with seven treatments: fumigation with paraformaldehyde (5.03 g/m3/30 min), fumigation with ozone (5-15 ppm/30 min), ultraviolet light-C irradiation (8.09 mW/cm2; 120 s; UV-C), hydrogen peroxide spraying (3%; 0.69 mL/egg), peracetic acid spraying (0.3%; 0.69 mL/egg; PAA), water spraying (0.69 mL/egg; water control), and without disinfection (dry control-DC). Spraying eggs with PAA and UV-C significantly reduced aerobic bacteria plate counts compared to the DC group. In addition, eggs disinfected with PAA had lower Enterobacteriaceae counts than the DC and water control groups. Eggshell quality, incubation parameters, and microbiological counts for yolk sac did not differ (P > 0.05) among treatments. This study demonstrated the potential for the application of PAA and UV-C for eggshell disinfection instead of formaldehyde; however, an electronic microscopic evaluation of the eggshell is necessary to determine if these methods cause any damage to the cuticle.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Galinhas , Desinfecção/métodos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/microbiologia , Animais , Casca de Ovo/microbiologia , Formaldeído/uso terapêutico , Fumigação/métodos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/uso terapêutico , Ozônio/uso terapêutico , Ácido Peracético/uso terapêutico , Raios Ultravioleta , Saco Vitelino/microbiologia
13.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 50(7): 1493-1497, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29656341

RESUMO

The main objective of this research was to conduct an exploratory study of the lactation curve in order to characterize the productive potential of Pantaneiro ewes and lambs. Fifty ewes were bred using four rams in two different mating seasons. The ewes were kept with their lambs on pasture of Brachiaria brizantha. Ewe body score, ewe weight, and lamb weight were evaluated. Milk sampling was performed every week. In the morning for milk collections, the ewes were treated with 1 UI of oxytocin (intramuscular) for complete milking. Lambs were separated from the ewes for 4 h and milk collections were performed. The total milk production over 24 h was estimated by multiplying the production of this period (4 h) by 6. The data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure (P < 0.05) in SAS. Milk production data were fitted to the curve using the incomplete gamma function of Wood, and lamb growth data were fitted using the Gompertiz equation. The average milk production of the ewes was 1.03 kg/day-1. Younger ewes had the lowest milk production (18 = 798 ± 330, 24 = 1001 ± 440, 36 = 1100 ± 490, and 48 = 1106 ± 490 g/day-1). Ewe body score at lambing affected initial milk production (1.0 = 816 ± 660, 1.5 = 1089 ± 105, and 2.0 = 1424 ± 1600 g/day-1). Lambs were weaned with an average weight of 20.3 kg. Daily weight gain from birth to weaning was 181 g. Locally adapted Pantaneiro ewes showed a linear decreasing lactation curve, with reduced production from the second week of lactation. Overall, evaluation of the dairy production and lamb performance revealed great variation, denoting potential for selection.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Lactação/fisiologia , Carneiro Doméstico/fisiologia , Desmame , Aumento de Peso , Ração Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Leite , Parto , Folhas de Planta , Gravidez , Reprodução , Estações do Ano , Ovinos
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(1): 247-253, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-888089

RESUMO

Este trabalho se propôs a desenvolver um modelo preditivo para identificação de perda de estabilidade e de sedimentação em leite UAT por determinação da atividade enzimática de aminopeptidase no leite por espectrofotometria. Foram analisadas amostras de leite cru, pasteurizado e UAT após envase durante seis meses, na região Sul do Brasil. Acidez, crioscopia, gordura, extrato seco total, extrato seco desengordurado e densidade foram analisados nos leites cru e pasteurizado. Amostras de leite cru foram ainda submetidas à análise de contagem de psicrotróficos e à atividade de aminopeptidase, e amostras de leite UAT estocadas foram analisadas quanto ao grau de proteólise mediante análises sensoriais e atividade de aminopeptidase. Alterações sensoriais foram observadas em tempos de estocagem menores para amostras originadas de leite cru com contagem de psicrotróficos acima de 107 UFC mL-1. Não houve correlação entre a atividade de aminopeptidase e proteólise e também não foi observada correlação significativa entre os parâmetros físico-químicos e a ocorrência de proteólise no leite estocado. O modelo estudado não foi apto para predizer perda de estabilidade e ocorrência de proteólise no leite UAT.(AU)


The aim of this work was to develop a predictive model for identifying loss of stability and sedimentation in UHT milk by determining the enzymatic activity of aminopeptidasis in milk by spectrophotometry. Samples of raw milk, pasteurized and UHT after filling for 6 months in Southern Brazil were analyzed. Acidity, freezing point, fat, total solids, nonfat solids and density were analyzed in raw and pasteurized milk. Raw milk samples were also subjected to psychrotrophic count analysis and aminopeptidasis activity and UAT samples of stored milk were analyzed for degree of proteolysis through sensory analysis and aminopeptidasis activity. Sensory changes were observed in smaller storage time for samples of raw milk originated with psychrotrophic count above 107 CFU ml-1. There was no correlation between aminopeptidasis activity and proteolysis and there was also no significant correlation between physicochemical parameters and the occurrence of proteolysis in stored milk. The model was unable to predict loss of stability and occurrence of proteolysis in UHT milk.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Leite/enzimologia , Proteólise , Aminopeptidases/análise , Espectrofotometria , Bovinos
15.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(1): 247-253, jan.-fev. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-18414

RESUMO

Este trabalho se propôs a desenvolver um modelo preditivo para identificação de perda de estabilidade e de sedimentação em leite UAT por determinação da atividade enzimática de aminopeptidase no leite por espectrofotometria. Foram analisadas amostras de leite cru, pasteurizado e UAT após envase durante seis meses, na região Sul do Brasil. Acidez, crioscopia, gordura, extrato seco total, extrato seco desengordurado e densidade foram analisados nos leites cru e pasteurizado. Amostras de leite cru foram ainda submetidas à análise de contagem de psicrotróficos e à atividade de aminopeptidase, e amostras de leite UAT estocadas foram analisadas quanto ao grau de proteólise mediante análises sensoriais e atividade de aminopeptidase. Alterações sensoriais foram observadas em tempos de estocagem menores para amostras originadas de leite cru com contagem de psicrotróficos acima de 107 UFC mL-1. Não houve correlação entre a atividade de aminopeptidase e proteólise e também não foi observada correlação significativa entre os parâmetros físico-químicos e a ocorrência de proteólise no leite estocado. O modelo estudado não foi apto para predizer perda de estabilidade e ocorrência de proteólise no leite UAT.(AU)


The aim of this work was to develop a predictive model for identifying loss of stability and sedimentation in UHT milk by determining the enzymatic activity of aminopeptidasis in milk by spectrophotometry. Samples of raw milk, pasteurized and UHT after filling for 6 months in Southern Brazil were analyzed. Acidity, freezing point, fat, total solids, nonfat solids and density were analyzed in raw and pasteurized milk. Raw milk samples were also subjected to psychrotrophic count analysis and aminopeptidasis activity and UAT samples of stored milk were analyzed for degree of proteolysis through sensory analysis and aminopeptidasis activity. Sensory changes were observed in smaller storage time for samples of raw milk originated with psychrotrophic count above 107 CFU ml-1. There was no correlation between aminopeptidasis activity and proteolysis and there was also no significant correlation between physicochemical parameters and the occurrence of proteolysis in stored milk. The model was unable to predict loss of stability and occurrence of proteolysis in UHT milk.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Leite/enzimologia , Proteólise , Aminopeptidases/análise , Bovinos , Espectrofotometria
16.
Benef Microbes ; 8(4): 579-588, 2017 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28789560

RESUMO

Ingestion of milks fermented by Lactobacillus strains showing probiotic properties is an important tool to maintain gastrointestinal health. In this study, Lactobacillus rhamnosus D1 and Lactobacillus plantarum B7, isolated from Brazilian artisanal cheese, were used as starters for the functional fermented milks to assess their probiotic properties in a gnotobiotic animal model. Male germ-free Swiss mice received a single oral dose of milk fermented by each sample, and were challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium five days afterwards. Milk fermented by both Lactobacillus strains maintained counts above 108 cfu/ml during cold storage. Lactobacillus strains colonised the gut of the germ-free-mice, maintaining their antagonistic effect. This colonisation led to a protective effect against Salmonella challenge, as demonstrated by reduced pathogen translocation and histological lesions, when compared to control group, especially for Lactobacillus rhamnosus D1. Additionally, mRNA expression of inflammatory (interferon gamma, interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha) and anti-inflammatory (transforming growth factor ß1) cytokines was augmented in animals previously colonised and then challenged, when compared to other experimental groups. Lactobacillus plantarum B7 colonisation also promoted higher expression of IL-17, showing a proper maturation of colonised germ-free-mice immune system. IL-5 was stimulated by both strains' colonisation and not by S. Typhimurium challenge.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Leite/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/prevenção & controle , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Fermentação , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-17/genética , Interleucina-17/imunologia , Interleucina-5/genética , Interleucina-5/imunologia , Lactobacillus/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Infecções por Salmonella/genética , Infecções por Salmonella/imunologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
17.
Public Health ; 153: 9-15, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28806579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Studies of health geography are important in the planning and allocation of emergency health services. The geographical distribution of health facilities is an important factor in timely and quality access to emergency services; therefore, the present study analyzed the emergency health care network in Brazil, focusing the analysis at the roles of small hospitals (SHs). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional ecological study. METHODS: Data were collected from 9429 hospitals of which 3524 were SHs and 5905 were high-complexity centers (HCCs). For analytical purposes, we considered four specialties when examining the proxies of emergency care capability: adult, pediatrics, neonatal, and obstetric. We analyzed the spatial distribution of hospitals, identifying municipalities that rely exclusively on SHs and the distance of these cities from HCCs. RESULTS: More than 14 and 30 million people were at least 120 km away from HCCs with an adult intensive care unit (ICU) and pediatric ICU, respectively. For neonatal care distribution, 12% of the population was more than 120 km away from a health facility with a neonatal ICU. The maternities situation is different from other specialties, where 81% of the total Brazilian population was within 1 h or less from such health facilities. CONCLUSION: Our results highlighted a polarization in distribution of Brazilian health care facilities. There is a concentration of hospitals in urban areas more developed and access gaps in rural areas and the Amazon region. Our results demonstrate that the distribution of emergency services in Brazil is not facilitating access to the population due to geographical barriers associated with great distances.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Análise Espacial
18.
Benef Microbes ; 8(2): 217-230, 2017 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28116929

RESUMO

The indigenous microbiota is the population of microorganisms normally present on the surface and mucosa of an individual, where it performs essential health functions, including the colonisation resistance (CR) against pathogens. To identify the bacteria responsible and the mechanisms involved in the CR, the germ-free (GF) animal model has been used, because in vitro studies cannot always be extrapolated to what occurs in vivo. In this study, ex vivo antagonism assays against seven enteropathogenic bacteria using stools from 15 healthy human donors confirmed that the CR showed individual variation. Using in vitro antagonism assays, 14 strains isolated from dominant faecal microbiota of donors with elevated CR were selected for mono-association in GF mice to test the in vivo antagonism against Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. Mice mono-associated with Enterococcus hirae strain 8.2, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron strain 16.2 and Lactobacillus ruminis strain 18.1 had significant reductions in faecal counts of the pathogen during the challenge. After five days of infection, the group associated with E. hirae 8.2 showed a reduction in the translocation of S. Typhimurium to the spleen, while the group associated with L. ruminis 18.1 presented an increased translocation to the liver. The histological data confirmed these results and revealed that the mice associated with E. hirae 8.2 showed fewer lesions on ileum and liver, compared to the damage caused by S. Typhimurium alone, while in mice associated with L. ruminis 18.1 there was significantly worse lesions. Concluding, from the dominant faecal microbiota from healthy human with high CR, through ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo assays, a bacterium was characterised for its high CR potential, being a candidate for probiotic use.


Assuntos
Antibiose/fisiologia , Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Infecções por Salmonella/terapia , Salmonella typhimurium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Andrologia ; 48(9): 862-868, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27739145

RESUMO

Cooled semen has been used routinely to prolong sperm viability until artificial insemination time. However, spermatozoa are subjected to oxidative stress. The aim of the present work was to investigate the protective and antioxidant effect of the milk proteins lactoferrin (Lf) and caseinate added to equine semen cooling extenders. Semen from six stallions was cooled at 5 °C after resuspension with C1) milk- and glucose-based, C2) 0.6% caseinate, C3) C2 + Lf 200 µg ml-1 , C4) C2 + Lf 500 µg ml-1 and C5) C2 + Lf 1000 µg ml-1 extenders, and kept at 5 °C for 24 h. Sperm motility characteristics and intact membrane rates were not different among the treatments (P > 0.05). As a result of the cooling process, the nitrite concentration increased significantly in the cooled semen (69.6 ± 78.9 µm per ×106 spermatozoa) compared with the fresh semen (8.6 ± 1.9 µm per ×106 spermatozoa). In contrast, the H2 O2 concentrations were lower in the 0.6% caseinate extender (265.9 ± 221.3 µm per ×106 spermatozoa) than in the milk extender (430.9 ± 199.8 µm per ×106 spermatozoa, P < 0.05), showing an antioxidative effect of the caseinate compared with the milk. However, in all groups, hydrogen peroxide concentrations were similar to the undiluted fresh semen (332.8 ± 151.3 µm per ×106 spermatozoa). Caseinate showed to be as efficient as milk to protect equine-cooled spermatozoon.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Cavalos , Preservação do Sêmen/veterinária , Animais , Caseínas , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Inseminação Artificial/métodos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Lactoferrina , Masculino , Leite , Nitritos/metabolismo , Sêmen/metabolismo , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 99(8): 6086-6096, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27289151

RESUMO

Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Leite/microbiologia , Estações do Ano , Microbiologia da Água , Animais , Brasil , Queijo/análise , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Ácido Láctico , Lactobacillaceae/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillus plantarum/isolamento & purificação , Lactococcus lactis/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Chuva , Água
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