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1.
Braz. J. Vet. Pathol. ; 14(1): 66-69, mar. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-31224

RESUMO

An approximately 3-month-old crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) was found by environmental authorities in the State of Paraiba, Northeastern Brazil and referred to a wildlife care center. The fox was presenting respiratory distress and it was referred to the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Paraiba (UFPB) for ancillary testing. Abdominal and thoracic ultrasound and radiographies were performed. These imaging tests indicated the fox had a possible diaphragmatic hernia and ectopic kidney. The imageology results were confirmed on necropsy, which revealed a postero-lateral focal discontinuity of the dorsal aspect of the diaphragmatic muscle with protrusion of the gastrointestinal tract into the thoracic cavity. The stomach and intestinal loops were filled with gas and obliterated the visualization of the heart and lungs. Additionally, only the right kidney was found, and no vestigial left kidney was identified. Congenital diaphragmatic hernias are not commonly observed in wildlife but should be considered as a potential differential diagnosis for acute onset of respiratory distress in young carnivores.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Hérnia Diafragmática/classificação , Hérnia Diafragmática/diagnóstico , Rim Único/classificação , Rim Único/diagnóstico , Raposas , Xiphosura americana
2.
R. bras. Reprod. Anim. ; 45(2): 91-97, 2021. graf, ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-33423

RESUMO

A reprodução descontrolada de animais semi-domiciliados está envolvida com abandono e riscos à saúde pública devido às possíveis zoonoses veiculadas. Projetos de extensão de controle da natalidade de cães e gatos proporcionam aprendizagem e treinamento dos alunos sob a supervisão, bem como a orientação de tutores sobre o manejo adequado de seus animais e a guarda responsável. O objetivo do projeto foi promover o treinamento clínico, cirúrgico e aproximação dos estudantes com os tutores de animais de companhia. Alunos do curso de medicina veterinária realizaram, sob supervisão dos docentes e pós graduandos, atendimento clínico e cirurgias eletivas de castração de cães e gatos de tutores desafiados financeiramente. Após seis meses de treinamento foi aplicado um questionário aos discentes, o objetivo foi avaliar a evolução dos conhecimentos adquiridos. Trinta alunos responderam aos questionários, sendo que 47% demonstraram ter adquirido maior conhecimento na prática cirúrgica; 23% nas habilidades anestésicas; 20% em outros procedimentos e 10% no trabalho em equipe. Estes resultados confirmam a necessidade de treinamento dos graduandos em ações extra sala de aula, para que seja possível a formação de um profissional capacitado e seguro para exercer a profissão, estimulando e fortalecendo o trabalho em equipe(AU)


The concern with semi-domiciled animals is involved with the uncontrolled reproduction, abandonment and risk to the public health due to the possible zoonoses transmitted. Cat and dog birth control extension projects provide learning and training for students, under the supervision of professors as well as tutors are advised on the proper management of their animals by encouraging responsible custody. The objective was to promote student training on clinical, surgical and access with the reality of pet owners. Veterinary medicine students underwent clinical and surgical care, under the supervision of the professors, in order to carry out elective castration of patients of financially challenged tutors. After six months of training, a questionnaire was developed in order to identify if there was evolution in relation to the acquired knowledge. Thirty students answered the questionnaires, 47% of whom demonstrated greater knowledge in the surgical practice; 23% in anesthetic skills; 20% in other procedures and 10% in teamwork. These results demonstrate the need for training of undergraduates, with participation in extra-classroom actions, so that it is possible to train a qualified and safe professional to practice the profession, stimulating and strengthening teamwork.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Gatos , Cães , Cães , Gatos , Avaliação Educacional , Educação em Veterinária/métodos , Educação em Veterinária/organização & administração
3.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 91(5): 053301, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486736

RESUMO

This work describes the new facility for applied nuclear physics at the University of Sao Paulo, mainly for irradiation of electronic devices. It is a setup composed of a quadrupole doublet for beam focusing/defocusing plus multiple scattering through gold foils to produce low intensity, large-area, and high-uniformity heavy-ion beams from 1H to 107Ag. Beam intensities can be easily adjusted from 102 particles cm2/s to hundreds of nA for an area as large as 2.0 cm2 and uniformity better than 90%. Its irradiation chamber has a high-precision motorized stage, and the system is controlled by a LabViewTM environment, allowing measurement automation. Design considerations and examples of use are presented.

4.
Physiol Res ; 69(5): 803-812, 2020 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469230

RESUMO

Methylphenidate is commonly used for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The cardiovascular safety of methylphenidate has been a subject of debate with some studies indicating that methylphenidate increases the likelihood of experiencing a myocardial infarction. However, it is unknown whether methylphenidate worsens the extent of injury during an ischemic insult. The purpose of this study was to determine whether short term exposure to methylphenidate increases the extent of myocardial injury during an ischemic insult. Male and female rats received methylphenidate (5 mg/kg/day) or saline for 10 days by oral gavage. Hearts were subjected to 20 min of ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion on a Langendorff isolated heart apparatus on day 11. Cardiac contractile function was monitored via an intraventricular balloon and myocardial injury was assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Methylphenidate significantly increased locomotor activity in male and female rats, confirming absorption of this psychostimulant into the central nervous system. Male hearts had significantly larger infarcts than female hearts, but methylphenidate had no impact on infarct size or postischemic recovery of contractile function in hearts of either sex. These data indicate that methylphenidate does not increase the extent of injury induced by an ischemic insult.


Assuntos
Metilfenidato/farmacologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/induzido quimicamente , Isquemia Miocárdica/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Masculino , Metilfenidato/efeitos adversos , Contração Miocárdica/efeitos dos fármacos , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica
5.
AIDS Care ; 32(4): 512-517, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801367

RESUMO

Suicide is an important problem in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The importance of mental disorders and social vulnerability on suicidal behaviors is described in the literature; however, the impact of childhood traumatic events in this scenario is not clear. The aim of this study was to verify the mediation effect of mental disorder comorbidities and social vulnerability in association with childhood trauma intensity and suicide risk level. This cross-sectional study of HIV-positive outpatients was conducted in a specialized care service in the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil. Sociodemographic data and HIV-related information were collected and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was applied. A total of 364 patients underwent psychiatric evaluation using MINI Plus including module C of suicide risk severity. Suicide risk was present in 39.3% of the sample. The relation between childhood traumatic events and the level of suicide risk is mediated by mental disorder comorbidities and socioeconomic vulnerability. Specific psychosocial interventions in PLWHA should consider the potential role of abusive traumatic experiences in the current mental health conditions and suicidal behaviors.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(5): 1355-1361, set.-out. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-20695

RESUMO

Os tumores da bainha perineural são pouco frequentes em animais domésticos. Relata-se o caso de um cão, sem raça definida, de cinco anos, fêmea, com histórico de aumento de volume em região retrobulbar do globo ocular direito (GOD) havia três semanas. Ao exame clínico, constatou-se a presença de uma neoformação retrobulbar direita com deslocamento do globo ocular cranialmente. Aos exames realizados durante o internamento, não foi possível localizar a origem e a extensão da neoformação. O animal veio a óbito por parada cardiorrespiratória e foi encaminhado para a necropsia. À avaliação macroscópica, observou-se neoformação esbranquiçada fixada à base do crânio em região selar, com possível origem no terceiro (III) par de nervos cranianos, a qual se infiltrava no encéfalo na altura do hipotálamo, estendia-se caudalmente em direção ao tronco encefálico e cranialmente à órbita direita, comprimindo, assim, o GOD. Microscopicamente consistia de feixes curtos entrelaçados ou enovelados de células fusiformes com pleomorfismo discreto a moderado, alternando-se a áreas de necrose multifocalmente, compatível com tumor da bainha perineural. Ao exame imuno-histoquímico, apresentou marcação fraca para S100 e GFAP e marcação positiva para vimentina, o que indica caráter maligno.(AU)


Tumors of the perineural sheath are uncommon in domestic animals. We report the case of a 5-year-old female dog with a history of increased volume in the retrobulbar region of the right eye (RE) three weeks ago. The clinical examination revealed a presence of a right retrobulbar neoformation with cranial ocular globe displacement. In the examinations carried out during hospitalization, it was not possible to locate a source and an extension of the neoformation. The animal died of cardiorespiratory arrest and was referred to an autopsy. The macroscopic evaluation revealed a whitish neoformation fixated to the base of the skull in a seal region, with a possible non-III origin of cranial nerves, infiltrating non-encephalon at the height of the hypothalamus, extending caudally towards the brainstem and cranially to the orbit right, compressing RE. Microscopically it consisted of short bundles intertwined or enovelados of spindle cells with discrete to moderate pleomorphism, alternating to areas of multifocal necrosis, compatible with tumor of the perineural sheath. Immunohistochemical examination showed weak marking for S100 and GFAP and positive marking for vimentin, indicating malignancy.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Bradicardia/veterinária , Cães/anormalidades , Síndrome de Horner/veterinária , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(5): 1355-1361, set.-out. 2018. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-946806

RESUMO

Os tumores da bainha perineural são pouco frequentes em animais domésticos. Relata-se o caso de um cão, sem raça definida, de cinco anos, fêmea, com histórico de aumento de volume em região retrobulbar do globo ocular direito (GOD) havia três semanas. Ao exame clínico, constatou-se a presença de uma neoformação retrobulbar direita com deslocamento do globo ocular cranialmente. Aos exames realizados durante o internamento, não foi possível localizar a origem e a extensão da neoformação. O animal veio a óbito por parada cardiorrespiratória e foi encaminhado para a necropsia. À avaliação macroscópica, observou-se neoformação esbranquiçada fixada à base do crânio em região selar, com possível origem no terceiro (III) par de nervos cranianos, a qual se infiltrava no encéfalo na altura do hipotálamo, estendia-se caudalmente em direção ao tronco encefálico e cranialmente à órbita direita, comprimindo, assim, o GOD. Microscopicamente consistia de feixes curtos entrelaçados ou enovelados de células fusiformes com pleomorfismo discreto a moderado, alternando-se a áreas de necrose multifocalmente, compatível com tumor da bainha perineural. Ao exame imuno-histoquímico, apresentou marcação fraca para S100 e GFAP e marcação positiva para vimentina, o que indica caráter maligno.(AU)


Tumors of the perineural sheath are uncommon in domestic animals. We report the case of a 5-year-old female dog with a history of increased volume in the retrobulbar region of the right eye (RE) three weeks ago. The clinical examination revealed a presence of a right retrobulbar neoformation with cranial ocular globe displacement. In the examinations carried out during hospitalization, it was not possible to locate a source and an extension of the neoformation. The animal died of cardiorespiratory arrest and was referred to an autopsy. The macroscopic evaluation revealed a whitish neoformation fixated to the base of the skull in a seal region, with a possible non-III origin of cranial nerves, infiltrating non-encephalon at the height of the hypothalamus, extending caudally towards the brainstem and cranially to the orbit right, compressing RE. Microscopically it consisted of short bundles intertwined or enovelados of spindle cells with discrete to moderate pleomorphism, alternating to areas of multifocal necrosis, compatible with tumor of the perineural sheath. Immunohistochemical examination showed weak marking for S100 and GFAP and positive marking for vimentin, indicating malignancy.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cães , Bradicardia/veterinária , Cães/anormalidades , Síndrome de Horner/veterinária , Neoplasias/diagnóstico
8.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 6333, 2017 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28740140

RESUMO

Nutrient inputs and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) are global factors affecting the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, particularly clear-water ecosystems. We performed experiments in two model lakes highly exposed to UVR fluxes in order to test the effect that future increases in mineral nutrients transported by dust aerosol might exert on primary producers depending on the likelihood of atmospheric inputs. Lake La Caldera (Northern Hemisphere) has been receiving recurrent dust inputs from the Sahara Desert while lake Los Cántaros (Southern Hemisphere) has been less affected by dust aerosol. UVR × Nutrient synergistically stimulated primary production (PP), chlorophyll a (Chl a), with a smaller increase in phytoplanktonic biomass in La Caldera, but not in Los Cántaros, where nutrient addition unmasked the UVR inhibitory effect on phytoplankton. The proportional decrease of mixotrophic nanoflagellates (MNFs) after the nutrient pulse (in Los Cántaros) and the long-term decline of MNFs in La Caldera associated with the increase in aerosol-dust intrusions from the Sahara during the last 40 years suggest that a future scenario of intensified aerosol events from desert and desertified areas would not only reduce functional diversity with the decline of MNFs, but would ultimately alter the C flux towards the grazing chain in oligotrophic ecosystems.


Assuntos
Lagos/microbiologia , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Fitoplâncton/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clorofila A/análise , Poeira , Lagos/química , Fitoplâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoplâncton/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta
9.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 49(10): e5344, 2016 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27626305

RESUMO

Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is frequently observed in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and results from the compromise of subcortical brain structures by the virus. The manifestations of NCI range from asymptomatic impairment to dementia. In addition to cognitive impairment resulting from HIV infection, other factors such as depression are associated with the loss of cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of NCI in HIV-positive patients in a city in southern Brazil and to establish possible associations for the prevalence of NCI with HIV-related and other risk factors. This cross-sectional study of HIV-positive outpatients was conducted in a specialized care service in the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil. Sociodemographic data and HIV-related information were collected, and all patients underwent psychiatric and neurocognitive evaluations. The prevalence of NCI among the 392 patients was 54.1% when tracked using the IHDS (International HIV Dementia Scale) and 36.2% when the IHDS was associated with a battery of complementary tests. A bivariate analysis suggested an association of NCI with gender, age, educational level, depression, current CD4 count and lowest CD4 count. The association of NCI with depression remained in the Poisson regression (PR=1.96, 95%CI=1.12-3.42). The prevalence of cognitive impairment in HIV-positive patients estimated in this study is in accordance with international and Brazilian data. Of the factors analyzed, depression showed the greatest evidence of association with neurocognitive loss. Based on our findings, the inclusion of instruments to evaluate depression in our services for patients with HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is recommended.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/virologia , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/virologia , Complexo AIDS Demência/complicações , Complexo AIDS Demência/epidemiologia , Complexo AIDS Demência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo/virologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
10.
Microb Ecol ; 71(1): 18-28, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26563321

RESUMO

Volcanic eruptions discharge massive amounts of ash and pumice that decrease light penetration in lakes and lead to concomitant increases in phosphorus (P) concentrations and shifts in soluble C/P ratios. The consequences of these sudden changes for bacteria community composition, metabolism, and enzymatic activity remain unclear, especially for the dynamic period immediately after pumice deposition. Thus, the main aim of our study was to determine how ambient bacterial communities respond to pumice inputs in lakes that differ in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and P concentrations and to what extent these responses are moderated by substrate C/P stoichiometry. We performed an outdoor experiment with natural lake water from two lakes that differed in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. We measured nutrient concentrations, alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), and DOC consumption rates and assessed different components of bacterial community structure using next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Pumice inputs caused a decrease in the C/P ratio of dissolved resources, a decrease in APA, and an increase in DOC consumption, indicating reduced P limitation. These changes in bacteria metabolism were coupled with modifications in the assemblage composition and an increase in diversity, with increases in bacterial taxa associated with biofilm and sediments, in predatory bacteria, and in bacteria with gliding motility. Our results confirm that volcanic eruptions have the potential to alter nutrient partitioning and light penetration in receiving waterways which can have dramatic impacts on microbial community dynamics.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Carbono/análise , Lagos/microbiologia , Fósforo/análise , Silicatos/análise , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Lagos/química , Fósforo/metabolismo , Silicatos/metabolismo , Erupções Vulcânicas/análise
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 49(10): e5344, 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-951648

RESUMO

Neurocognitive impairment (NCI) is frequently observed in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and results from the compromise of subcortical brain structures by the virus. The manifestations of NCI range from asymptomatic impairment to dementia. In addition to cognitive impairment resulting from HIV infection, other factors such as depression are associated with the loss of cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of NCI in HIV-positive patients in a city in southern Brazil and to establish possible associations for the prevalence of NCI with HIV-related and other risk factors. This cross-sectional study of HIV-positive outpatients was conducted in a specialized care service in the city of Pelotas in Southern Brazil. Sociodemographic data and HIV-related information were collected, and all patients underwent psychiatric and neurocognitive evaluations. The prevalence of NCI among the 392 patients was 54.1% when tracked using the IHDS (International HIV Dementia Scale) and 36.2% when the IHDS was associated with a battery of complementary tests. A bivariate analysis suggested an association of NCI with gender, age, educational level, depression, current CD4 count and lowest CD4 count. The association of NCI with depression remained in the Poisson regression (PR=1.96, 95%CI=1.12-3.42). The prevalence of cognitive impairment in HIV-positive patients estimated in this study is in accordance with international and Brazilian data. Of the factors analyzed, depression showed the greatest evidence of association with neurocognitive loss. Based on our findings, the inclusion of instruments to evaluate depression in our services for patients with HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is recommended.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Adulto Jovem , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/virologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/virologia , Encéfalo/virologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Complexo AIDS Demência/complicações , Complexo AIDS Demência/psicologia , Complexo AIDS Demência/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/psicologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Carga Viral , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/diagnóstico , Escolaridade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(5): 1321-1326, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-764448

RESUMO

A infecção por algumas espécies ou genótipos de Cryptosporidium representa um risco em potencial para a saúde pública, principalmente por causa de morbidade e mortalidade em crianças de zero a cinco anos de idade e em pacientes imunodeprimidos. Embora existam alguns relatos de infecção por Cryptosporidium em animais de companhia, sua participação na epidemiologia da criptosporidiose humana é incerta, e a literatura sobre esse tema ainda é bastante escassa. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência e realizar a classificação molecular de Cryptosporidium spp. em amostras fecais de animais exóticos criados como animais de estimação no Brasil. Um total de 386 amostras de seis espécies de animais foi colhido e armazenado em solução de dicromato de potássio 5% a 4°C. Os oocistos foram purificados por centrífugo-sedimentação em água/éter, seguindo-se a extração de DNA genômico e a realização da nestedPCR para amplificação de fragmento parcial do gene da subunidade 18S do rRNA. Positividade para Cryptosporidium spp. foi observada em 11,40% (44/386) das amostras. O sequenciamento de fragmentos amplificados permitiu a identificação de Cryptosporidium tyzzeri em camundongos,Cryptosporidium murisem camundongos, hamster e chinchila, Cryptosporidium parvumem chinchila, Cryptosporidiumgenótipo hamsterem hamstere Cryptosporidium sp. em porquinho-da-índia. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que há uma variedade de espécies de Cryptosporidium presentes em animais exóticos de companhia no Brasil. Os dados sugerem que esses animais podem participar da epidemiologia da criptosporidiose humana, particularmente por seu estreito convívio.


Infection by some species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium represents a potential risk to public health, mainly because of the morbidity and mortality in children from zero to five years of age and in immunocompromised patients. Although there are some reports of Cryptosporidium infection in animals raised as pets, their participation in the epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis is uncertain and studies on this topic are still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence, as well as to perform the molecular classification of Cryptosporidium spp. in faecal samples of exotic animals raised as pets in Brazil. A total of 386 faecal samples from six species of animals was collected and stored in a solution 5% potassium dichromate at 4°C. The oocysts were purified by centrifugal sedimentation in water-ether, followed by genomic DNA extraction and the performance of the nested-PCR to amplify a partial fragment of 18S rRNA gene. Positivity for Cryptosporidium spp. was obtained in 11.40% (44/386) of samples. The sequencing of the amplified fragments allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium tyzzeri in mice, Cryptosporidium muris in mice, hamster and chinchilla, Cryptosporidium parvum in chinchilla, Cryptosporidium hamster genotype in hamster and Cryptosporidium sp. in guinea pig. The results of this study show that there is a variety of species of Cryptosporidium present in exotic animals raised as pets in Brazil. The data suggest that these animals may have zoonotic potential and participate in the epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Cryptosporidium , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Animais Exóticos , Oocistos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Saúde Pública Veterinária
13.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 67(5): 1321-1326, 2015. tab
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-334044

RESUMO

A infecção por algumas espécies ou genótipos de Cryptosporidiumrepresenta um risco em potencial para a saúde pública, principalmente por causa de morbidade e mortalidade em crianças de zero a cinco anos de idade e em pacientes imunodeprimidos. Embora existam alguns relatos de infecção por Cryptosporidiumem animais de companhia, sua participação na epidemiologia da criptosporidiose humana é incerta, e a literatura sobre esse tema ainda é bastante escassa. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a ocorrência e realizar a classificação molecular deCryptosporidiumspp. em amostras fecais de animais exóticos criados como animais de estimação no Brasil. Um total de 386 amostras de seis espécies de animais foi colhido e armazenado em solução de dicromato de potássio 5% a 4°C. Os oocistos foram purificados por centrífugo-sedimentação em água/éter, seguindo-se a extração de DNA genômico e a realização da nestedPCR para amplificação de fragmento parcial do gene da subunidade 18S do rRNA. Positividade para Cryptosporidiumspp. foi observada em 11,40% (44/386) das amostras. O sequenciamento de fragmentos amplificados permitiu a identificação de Cryptosporidium tyzzeri em camundongos,Cryptosporidium murisem camundongos, hamster e chinchila, Cryptosporidium parvumem chinchila, Cryptosporidiumgenótipo hamsterem hamstere Cryptosporidiumsp. em porquinho-da-índia. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que há uma variedade de espécies de Cryptosporidiumpresentes em animais exóticos de companhia no Brasil. Os dados sugerem que esses animais podem participar da epidemiologia da criptosporidiose humana, particularmente por seu estreito convívio.(AU)


Infection by some species or genotypes of Cryptosporidium represents a potential risk to public health, mainly because of the morbidity and mortality in children from zero to five years of age and in immunocompromised patients. Although there are some reports of Cryptosporidium infection in animals raised as pets, their participation in the epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis is uncertain and studies on this topic are still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence, as well as to perform the molecular classification of Cryptosporidium spp. in faecal samples of exotic animals raised as pets in Brazil. A total of 386 faecal samples from six species of animals was collected and stored in a solution 5% potassium dichromate at 4°C. The oocysts were purified by centrifugal sedimentation in water-ether, followed by genomic DNA extraction and the performance of the nested-PCR to amplify a partial fragment of 18S rRNA gene. Positivity for Cryptosporidium spp. was obtained in 11.40% (44/386) of samples. The sequencing of the amplified fragments allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium tyzzeri in mice, Cryptosporidium muris in mice, hamster and chinchilla, Cryptosporidium parvum in chinchilla, Cryptosporidium hamster genotype in hamster and Cryptosporidium sp. in guinea pig. The results of this study show that there is a variety of species of Cryptosporidium present in exotic animals raised as pets in Brazil. The data suggest that these animals may have zoonotic potential and participate in the epidemiology of human cryptosporidiosis.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Cryptosporidium , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Oocistos , Saúde Pública Veterinária , Animais Exóticos
14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 3: e297, 2013 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23982629

RESUMO

Mood disorders, such as major depressive disorder, are characterized by abnormal reward responsiveness. The Response Bias Probabilistic Reward Task (hereafter referred to as probabilistic reward task (PRT)) quantifies reward responsiveness in human subjects, and an equivalent animal assessment is needed to facilitate preclinical translational research. Thus, the goals of the present studies were to develop, validate and characterize a rat analog of the PRT. Adult male Wistar and Long-Evans rats were trained in operant testing chambers to discriminate between two tone stimuli that varied in duration (0.5 and 2 s). During a subsequent test session consisting of 100 trials, the two tones were made ambiguous (0.9 and 1.6 s) and correct identification of one tone was reinforced with a food pellet three times more frequently than the other tone. In subsequent experiments, Wistar rats were administered either a low dose of the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist pramipexole (0.1 mg kg(-1), subcutaneous) or the psychostimulant amphetamine (0.5 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneal) before the test session. Similar to human subjects, both rat strains developed a response bias toward the more frequently reinforced stimulus, reflecting robust reward responsiveness. Mirroring prior findings in humans, a low dose of pramipexole blunted response bias. Moreover, in rats, amphetamine potentiated response bias. These results indicate that in rats, reward responsiveness can be quantified and bidirectionally modulated by pharmacological manipulations that alter striatal dopamine transmission. Thus, this new procedure in rats, which is conceptually and procedurally analogous to the one used in humans, provides a reverse translational platform to investigate abnormal reward responsiveness across species.


Assuntos
Anfetamina/farmacologia , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/farmacologia , Recompensa , Animais , Aprendizagem por Discriminação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Pramipexol , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Ratos Wistar , Reforço Psicológico
15.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 15(4): 575-582, 2013. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-695243

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a correlação entre o conteúdo de fenóis de extratos de 18 plantas medicinais comuns nas Farmácias Vivas com a atividade sequestradora do radical livre DPPH e com a inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase. Maiores conteúdos de fenóis totais foram encontrados nas plantas: Eugenia uniflora, Lippia alba, Lippia microphylla, Mentha x villosa, Ocimum gratissimum e Ocimum selloi. As espécies que apresentaram maior atividade antioxidante, semelhante a quercetina, foram: Spondias mombim, Malphigia glabra, L. alba e Croton zenhtneri,. As plantas Cecropia pachystachia, L. alba, L. microphylla, M. glabra, O. gratissimum e Plectranthus ornatus mostraram maiores halos de inibição da enzima acetilcolinesterase. Combinando as duas ações, as plantas mais ativas foram a M. glabra e a L. alba e somente a segunda correlaciona-se diretamente com o maior teor de fenóis totais. Através deste estudo, M. glabra e L. alba foram consideradas as plantas mais promissoras para estudos subsequentes a fim de encontrar novos compostos com ação potencial contra a doença de Alzheimer.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenolic content of 18 medicinal plant extracts of "Live Pharmacies" and correlate them with their free radical scavenging activity and inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Higher amounts of phenolic compounds were found in the following plants: Eugenia uniflora, Lippia alba, Lippia microphylla, Mentha x villosa, Ocimum gatissimum, and Ocimum selloi. The species that showed higher anti-radical activity were Croton zenhtneri, Lippia alba, Malphigia glabra, and Spondias mombim, similar to quercetin. The plants Cecropia pachystachia, L. alba, L. microplylla, M. glabra, O. gratissimum, and Plectranthus ornatus showed larger inhibition zones of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. By correlating the two actions L. alba and M. glabra are common as more active to both tests and only L. alba correlates directly with the phenolic content. Through this study, L. alba and M. glabra are considered the most promising plants for further studies to find new compounds with potential action against Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos , Doença de Alzheimer/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem
16.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 64(3): 568-576, 2012. ilus
Artigo em Português | VETINDEX | ID: vti-1341

RESUMO

Realizou-se a observação comportamental de nove cães terapeutas (oito da raça Labrador Retriever e um Golden Retriever), dosaram-se cortisol sérico e salivar, aferiram-se a temperatura retal, a pressão arterial sistólica e as frequências cardíaca e respiratória nos seguintes momentos: M0 (média de três avaliações do cão em repouso) e em M1, M2 e M3 (imediatamente antes, imediatamente após e decorridas 24h das atividades de terapia assistida por animais - TAA), respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa quanto às características estudadas (P>0,05), exceto pela temperatura, que foi mais elevada em M1 e M2 do que em M0 (P=0,009). A avaliação comportamental, realizada de maneira descritiva, não apresentou alteração negativa. Houve diferença significativa quanto à concentração de cortisol sérico entre os momentos M1 e M3 (P=0,071), e não ocorreu diferença da concentração do cortisol salivar entre os quatro momentos (P=0,746). As alterações observadas foram atribuídas à contenção e à manipulação dos animais e não desencadearam desconforto físico ou estresse dignos de nota em cães.(AU)


Behavioral observation of nine therapist dogs (eight Labrador Retrievers and one Golden Retriever) was performed and serum and salivar cortisol dosage, rectal temperature, systolic blood pressure and heart and respiratory rates were measured and evaluated at the following moments: M0 (average of three evaluations of the dog at rest) and M1, M2 e M3 (immediately before, at the end and 24 hours after the AAT activities, respectively). There was no significant difference in the parameters between the moments (P>0.05) except for temperature, which was higher in M1 and M2 than M0 (P=0.009). The behavioral assessment was conducted in a descriptive way and didn't present a negative effect. There was significant difference when comparing the serum cortisol levels between M1 and M3 (P=0.0712). There wasn't asignificant difference in salivary cortisol levels when comparing the values of the four moments (P=0.7458). The observed alterations are probably related to the containment and handling of animals, demonstrating that the therapy doesn't have a negative effect on dogs.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Cães , Comportamento Animal , Terapia de Relaxamento , Estresse Mecânico , Pressão Arterial , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Saliva/química
17.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 64(3): 568-576, June 2012. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-640119

RESUMO

Realizou-se a observação comportamental de nove cães terapeutas (oito da raça Labrador Retriever e um Golden Retriever), dosaram-se cortisol sérico e salivar, aferiram-se a temperatura retal, a pressão arterial sistólica e as frequências cardíaca e respiratória nos seguintes momentos: M0 (média de três avaliações do cão em repouso) e em M1, M2 e M3 (imediatamente antes, imediatamente após e decorridas 24h das atividades de terapia assistida por animais - TAA), respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa quanto às características estudadas (P>0,05), exceto pela temperatura, que foi mais elevada em M1 e M2 do que em M0 (P=0,009). A avaliação comportamental, realizada de maneira descritiva, não apresentou alteração negativa. Houve diferença significativa quanto à concentração de cortisol sérico entre os momentos M1 e M3 (P=0,071), e não ocorreu diferença da concentração do cortisol salivar entre os quatro momentos (P=0,746). As alterações observadas foram atribuídas à contenção e à manipulação dos animais e não desencadearam desconforto físico ou estresse dignos de nota em cães.


Behavioral observation of nine therapist dogs (eight Labrador Retrievers and one Golden Retriever) was performed and serum and salivar cortisol dosage, rectal temperature, systolic blood pressure and heart and respiratory rates were measured and evaluated at the following moments: M0 (average of three evaluations of the dog at rest) and M1, M2 e M3 (immediately before, at the end and 24 hours after the AAT activities, respectively). There was no significant difference in the parameters between the moments (P>0.05) except for temperature, which was higher in M1 and M2 than M0 (P=0.009). The behavioral assessment was conducted in a descriptive way and didn't present a negative effect. There was significant difference when comparing the serum cortisol levels between M1 and M3 (P=0.0712). There wasn't asignificant difference in salivary cortisol levels when comparing the values of the four moments (P=0.7458). The observed alterations are probably related to the containment and handling of animals, demonstrating that the therapy doesn't have a negative effect on dogs.

18.
Braz J Biol ; 72(4): 915-8, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23295522

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to elaborate a preliminary list of the mite species associated with rubber trees in the municipality of Santana, in the state of Amapá, Brazil. Two collections of rubber tree leaves were conducted on May 2nd and June 5th , 2010. Twenty-five plants were sampled at random. Three leaves were collected per plant, from the lower third of the crown. The samples were placed in paper bags, packed in an isothermal box chilled gel-based pulp plant (Gelo-X(®)), and transported to the Entomology Laboratory at Embrapa Amapá, in Macapá. The leaflets were examined under a stereomicroscope, and the mites found on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves were collected with a stilet, mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium, and later identified. We collected a total of 1,722 mites of 10 families: Acaridae, Cunaxidae, Eriophyidae, Iolinidae, Phytoseiidae, Stigmaeidae, Tarsonemidae, Tenuipalpidae, Tydeidae, and Winterschmidtiidae, in addition to unidentified species of the suborders Oribatida and Astigmatina. The family Phytoseiidae represented only 2.90% of specimens collected, but showed the highest species richness (5 species). The only representative of Tenuipalpidae was Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, 1945, but 81.13% of the mites collected in this study belonged to this species.


Assuntos
Hevea/parasitologia , Ácaros/classificação , Animais , Brasil , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia
19.
Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes ; 119(9): 549-53, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21667441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal hyperglycemia during early pregnancy is associated with increased risk of abnormalities in the offspring. Malformation rates among the offspring of diabetic mothers are 2-5-fold higher than that of the normal population, and congenital malformations are the major cause of mortality and morbidity in the offspring of diabetic mothers. Metabolic changes, such as hyperglycemia and the metabolites obtained from cigarettes both increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the embryo or fetus, causing DNA damage. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the maternal and fetal genotoxicity, and to assess the incidence of fetal anomaly in diabetic female rats exposed to cigarette smoke at different stages of pregnancy in rats. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin administration and cigarette smoke exposure was produced by a mechanical smoking device that generated mainstream smoke that was delivered into a chamber. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to: non-diabetic (ND) and diabetic (D) groups exposed to filtered air; a diabetic group exposed to cigarette smoke prior to and during pregnancy (DS) and a diabetic group only exposed to cigarette smoke prior to pregnancy (DSPP). On pregnancy day 21, blood samples were obtained for DNA damage analysis and fetuses were collected for congenital anomaly assessment. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05 for all analysis. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Exposure of diabetic rats to tobacco smoke prior to pregnancy increased fetal DNA damage, but failed to induce teratogenicity. Thus, these results reinforce the importance for women to avoid exposure to cigarette smoke long before they become pregnant.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/patologia , Dano ao DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Feto/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna , Gravidez em Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/sangue , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/embriologia , Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/etiologia , Animais , Câmaras de Exposição Atmosférica , Ensaio Cometa , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feto/patologia , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/patologia , Gravidez , Gravidez em Diabéticas/sangue , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/patologia , Estreptozocina
20.
Parasite Immunol ; 33(6): 330-4, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21332759

RESUMO

Inflammation causes increases in the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which, in central nervous system (CNS), are associated with neuroinflammation and disruption of blood-brain barrier. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is pivotal for detecting diseases in CNS and, although a specific diagnosis may not be achieved, this analysis is helpful to confirm the diagnosis or to rule out relevant differential diagnoses. This study examined the levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the CSF of dogs using gelatin zymography to verify possible alterations in these enzymes during natural systemic infection with Leishmania chagasi. Latent and active forms of MMP-2 were detected in some dogs of both groups, with high levels in the control group. In contrast, latent and active forms of MMP-9 were detected only in some animals with leishmaniasis. These results clearly demonstrate that MMP-9 is elevated in CSF of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Although these results are preliminary, they suggest that MMP-9 might play a role in disruption of blood-brain barrier and/or blood-CSF barrier. While the presence of MMPs in CSF is not a condition exclusive to VL, their presence and persistence in CSF supports the hypothesis of an inflammatory state within CNS of dogs with VL.


Assuntos
Líquido Cefalorraquidiano/química , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/análise , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Eletroforese , Feminino , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Masculino
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