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1.
J Comp Physiol B ; 2024 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38459993

RESUMO

Many teleosts possess a unique set of respiratory characteristics allowing enhanced oxygen unloading to the tissues during stress. This system comprises three major components: highly pH sensitive haemoglobins (large Bohr and Root effects), rapid red blood cell (RBC) intracellular pH (pHi) protection, and a heterogeneous distribution of membrane-bound plasma-accessible carbonic anhydrase (paCA; absence in the gills). The first two components have received considerable research effort; however, the evolutionary loss of branchial paCA has received little attention. In the current study, we investigated the availability of branchial membrane-bound CA, along with several other CA-related characteristics in species belonging to three basal actinopterygian groups: the Lepisosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Polypteriformes to assess the earlier hypothesis that Root effect haemoglobins constrain branchial paCA availability. We present the first evidence suggesting branchial membrane-bound CA presence in a basal actinopterygian species: the Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus) and show that like the teleosts, white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) do not possess branchial membrane-bound CA. We discuss the varying respiratory strategies for these species and propose that branchial paCA may have been lost much earlier than previously thought, likely in relation to the changes in haemoglobin buffer capacity associated with the increasing magnitude of the Bohr effect. The findings described here represent an important advancement in our understanding of the evolution of the unique system of enhanced oxygen unloading thought to be present in most teleosts, a group that encompasses half of all vertebrates.

2.
J Morphol ; 284(8): e21612, 2023 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37458082

RESUMO

Mudskippers are a group of amphibious fishes in the family Oxudercidae, whose species inhabit a range of habitats from mostly aquatic to mostly terrestrial. Most of our understanding about habitat preference comes from natural history observations, particularly where they are collected (i.e., low intertidal vs. high intertidal regions). Mudskippers have undergone several morphological changes to accommodate a terrestrial life, including major changes to the pectoral and pelvic girdles. These changes result in a novel crutching gait, which mudskippers use to move over land. Though the appendicular morphology and crutching gait of mudskippers have been described in some species, few studies have compared skeletal structures across the family. In our study, we use microcomputed tomography (µCT) scans to compare the skeletal anatomy of 16 species of aquatic and terrestrial mudskippers. Linear discriminant analysis is used to analyze measurements obtained through geometric morphometrics (landmarks). We found bone structures of the pectoral region in the terrestrial group were significantly longer and wider than those in the aquatic group. Furthermore, a significant difference in anatomy is shown between terrestrial and aquatic genera with both axial and appendicular elements contributing to the separation between groups. This work describes the differences in skeletal morphology associated with terrestriality in mudskippers and provides valuable insights into specific anatomical characteristics contributing to their adaptation to novel environments.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais , Ecossistema , Animais , Microtomografia por Raio-X , Peixes/anatomia & histologia
3.
J Exp Biol ; 226(9)2023 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37042272

RESUMO

Control of locomotion involves the interplay of sensory signals and motor commands. Sensory information is essential for adjusting locomotion in response to environmental changes. A previous study using mathematical modelling of lamprey swimming has shown that, in the absence of sensory feedback, increasing fluid viscosity constrains swimming kinematics, limiting tail amplitude and body wavelength, resulting in decreased swimming speed. In contrast, previous experiments with Polypterus senegalus reported increased magnitude swimming kinematics (increased body curvature, body wave speed and frequency, and pectoral fin frequency) in high viscosity water suggesting that sensory information is used to adjust swimming form. It is not known what sensory systems are providing the necessary information to respond to these environmental changes. We tested the hypothesis that lateral line and visual input are responsible for the sensory-driven increase in swimming kinematics in response to experimentally increased fluid viscosity. The kinematics of five P. senegalus were recorded in two different viscosities of water while removing lateral line and visual sensory feedback. Unlike the mathematical model devoid of sensory feedback, P. senegalus with lateral line and/or visual senses removed did not reduce the magnitude of swimming kinematic variables, suggesting that additional sensory feedback mechanisms are present in these fish to help overcome increased fluid viscosity. Increases in swimming speed when both lateral line and visual sensory feedback were removed suggest that lateral line and visual information may be used to regulate swimming speed in P. senegalus, possibly using an internal model of predictions to adjust swimming form.


Assuntos
Privação Sensorial , Natação , Animais , Natação/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Água
4.
J Exp Biol ; 225(23)2022 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36426909

RESUMO

Amphibious fishes moving from water to land experience continuous changes in environmental forces. How these subtle changes impact behavioural transitions cannot be resolved by comparisons of aquatic and terrestrial locomotion. For example, aquatic and terrestrial locomotion appear distinct in the actinopterygian fish Polypterus senegalus; however, it is unclear how gradual water level changes influence the transition between these locomotor behaviours. We tested the hypothesis in P. senegalus that swimming and walking are part of an incremental continuum of behaviour and muscle activity across the environmental transition from water to land rather than two discrete behaviours, as proposed by previous literature. We exposed P. senegalus to discrete environments from fully aquatic to fully terrestrial while recording body and pectoral fin kinematics and muscle activity. Anterior axial red muscle effort increases as water depth decreases; however, a typical swimming-like anterior-to-posterior wave of axial red muscle activity is always present, even during terrestrial locomotion, indicating gradual motor control changes. Thus, walking appears to be based on swimming-like axial muscle activity whereas kinematic differences between swimming and walking appear to be due to mechanical constraints. A discrete change in left-right pectoral fin coordination from in-phase to out-of-phase at 0.7 body depths relies on adductor muscle activity with a similar duty factor and adductor muscle effort that increases gradually as water depth decreases. Thus, despite distinct changes in kinematic timing, neuromuscular patterning is similar across the water depth continuum. As the observed, gradual increases in axial muscle effort reflect muscle activity changes between aquatic and terrestrial environments observed in other elongate fishes, a modified, swimming-like axial muscle activity pattern for terrestrial locomotion may be common among elongate amphibious fishes.


Assuntos
Natação , Caminhada , Músculos , Água
5.
J Fish Biol ; 101(4): 756-779, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35788929

RESUMO

Movement of fishes in the aquatic realm is fundamental to their ecology and survival. Movement can be driven by a variety of biological, physiological and environmental factors occurring across all spatial and temporal scales. The intrinsic capacity of movement to impact fish individually (e.g., foraging) with potential knock-on effects throughout the ecosystem (e.g., food web dynamics) has garnered considerable interest in the field of movement ecology. The advancement of technology in recent decades, in combination with ever-growing threats to freshwater and marine systems, has further spurred empirical research and theoretical considerations. Given the rapid expansion within the field of movement ecology and its significant role in informing management and conservation efforts, a contemporary and multidisciplinary review about the various components influencing movement is outstanding. Using an established conceptual framework for movement ecology as a guide (i.e., Nathan et al., 2008: 19052), we synthesized the environmental and individual factors that affect the movement of fishes. Specifically, internal (e.g., energy acquisition, endocrinology, and homeostasis) and external (biotic and abiotic) environmental elements are discussed, as well as the different processes that influence individual-level (or population) decisions, such as navigation cues, motion capacity, propagation characteristics and group behaviours. In addition to environmental drivers and individual movement factors, we also explored how associated strategies help survival by optimizing physiological and other biological states. Next, we identified how movement ecology is increasingly being incorporated into management and conservation by highlighting the inherent benefits that spatio-temporal fish behaviour imbues into policy, regulatory, and remediation planning. Finally, we considered the future of movement ecology by evaluating ongoing technological innovations and both the challenges and opportunities that these advancements create for scientists and managers. As aquatic ecosystems continue to face alarming climate (and other human-driven) issues that impact animal movements, the comprehensive and multidisciplinary assessment of movement ecology will be instrumental in developing plans to guide research and promote sustainability measures for aquatic resources.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Peixes/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Água Doce , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
6.
J Exp Biol ; 225(8)2022 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303097

RESUMO

Understanding the mechanisms that create phenotypic variation within and among populations is a major goal of physiological ecology. Variation may be a consequence of functional trade-offs (i.e. improvement in one trait comes at the expense of another trait) or alternatively may reflect the intrinsic quality of an organism (i.e. some individuals are simply better overall performers than others). There is evidence for both ideas in the literature, suggesting that environmental context may mediate whether variation results from trade-offs or differences in individual quality. We tested this overarching 'context dependence' hypothesis by comparing the aquatic and terrestrial athletic performance of the amphibious fish Kryptolebias marmoratus captured from two contrasting habitats, a large pond and small burrows. Overall, pond fish were superior terrestrial athletes but burrow fish were better burst swimmers, suggestive of a performance trade-off at the population level. Within each population, however, there was no evidence of a performance trade-off. In burrow fish, athletic performance was positively correlated with muscle content and body condition, consistent with the individual quality hypothesis. In pond fish, there was only a relationship between glycolytic white muscle and aquatic burst performance. Notably, pond fish were in better body condition, which may mask relationships between condition and athletic performance. Overall, our data highlight that population-level trends are insufficient evidence for the existence of phenotypic trade-offs in the absence of similar within-population patterns. Furthermore, we only found evidence for the individual quality hypothesis in one population, suggesting that patterns of phenotypic covariance are context dependent.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes , Peixes Listrados , Animais , Composição Corporal , Ciprinodontiformes/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Peixes , Humanos , Natação
7.
Front Robot AI ; 8: 629713, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124171

RESUMO

Animals are incredibly good at adapting to changes in their environment, a trait envied by most roboticists. Many animals use different gaits to seamlessly transition between land and water and move through non-uniform terrains. In addition to adjusting to changes in their environment, animals can adjust their locomotion to deal with missing or regenerating limbs. Salamanders are an amphibious group of animals that can regenerate limbs, tails, and even parts of the spinal cord in some species. After the loss of a limb, the salamander successfully adjusts to constantly changing morphology as it regenerates the missing part. This quality is of particular interest to roboticists looking to design devices that can adapt to missing or malfunctioning components. While walking, an intact salamander uses its limbs, body, and tail to propel itself along the ground. Its body and tail are coordinated in a distinctive wave-like pattern. Understanding how their bending kinematics change as they regrow lost limbs would provide important information to roboticists designing amphibious machines meant to navigate through unpredictable and diverse terrain. We amputated both hindlimbs of blue-spotted salamanders (Ambystoma laterale) and measured their body and tail kinematics as the limbs regenerated. We quantified the change in the body wave over time and compared them to an amphibious fish species, Polypterus senegalus. We found that salamanders in the early stages of regeneration shift their kinematics, mostly around their pectoral girdle, where there is a local increase in undulation frequency. Amputated salamanders also show a reduced range of preferred walking speeds and an increase in the number of bending waves along the body. This work could assist roboticists working on terrestrial locomotion and water to land transitions.

8.
Integr Comp Biol ; 61(2): 414-426, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34048550

RESUMO

We modeled swimming kinematics and body mechanics of several fish species of varying habitat and body shape based on measurements of internal vertebral morphology. SYNOPSIS: One key evolutionary innovation that separates vertebrates from invertebrates is the notochord, a central element that provides the stiffness needed for powerful movements. Later, the notochord was further stiffened by the vertebrae, cartilaginous, and bony elements, surrounding the notochord. The ancestral notochord is retained in modern vertebrates as intervertebral material, but we know little about its mechanical interactions with surrounding vertebrae. In this study, the internal shape of the vertebrae-where this material is found-was quantified in 16 species of fishes with various body shapes, swimming modes, and habitats. We used micro-computed tomography to measure the internal shape. We then created and mechanically tested physical models of intervertebral joints. We also mechanically tested actual vertebrae of five species. Material testing shows that internal morphology of the centrum significantly affects bending and torsional stiffness. Finally, we performed swimming trials to gather kinematic data. Combining these data, we created a model that uses internal vertebral morphology to make predictions about swimming kinematics and mechanics. We used linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to assess the relationship between vertebral shape and our categorical traits. The analysis revealed that internal vertebral morphology is sufficient to predict habitat, body shape, and swimming mode in our fishes. This model can also be used to make predictions about swimming in fishes not easily studied in the laboratory, such as deep sea and extinct species, allowing the development of hypotheses about their natural behavior.


Assuntos
Peixes , Coluna Vertebral , Natação , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Microtomografia por Raio-X
9.
J Exp Biol ; 223(Pt 11)2020 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414872

RESUMO

The ability of bones to sense and respond to mechanical loading is a central feature of vertebrate skeletons. However, the functional demands imposed on terrestrial and aquatic animals differ vastly. The pectoral girdle of the basal actinopterygian fish Polypterus senegalus was previously shown to exhibit plasticity following terrestrial acclimation, but the pectoral fin itself has yet to be examined. We investigated skeletal plasticity in the pectoral fins of P. senegalus after exposure to terrestrial loading. Juvenile fish were divided into three groups: a control group was kept under aquatic conditions without intervention, an exercised group was also kept in water but received daily exercise on land, and a terrestrial group was kept in a chronic semi-terrestrial condition. After 5 weeks, the pectoral fins were cleared and stained with Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red to visualize cartilage and bone, allowing measurements of bone length, bone width, ossification and curvature to be taken for the endochondral radial bones. Polypterus senegalus fin bones responded most strongly to chronic loading in the terrestrial condition. Fish that were reared in a terrestrial environment had significantly longer bones compared with those of aquatic controls, wider propterygia and metapterygia, and more ossified metapterygia and medial radials, and they showed changes in propterygial curvature. Exercised fish also had longer and more ossified medial radials compared with those of controls. Polypterus senegalus fin bones exhibit plasticity in response to novel terrestrial loading. Such plasticity could be relevant for transitions between water and land on evolutionary scales, but key differences between fish and tetrapod bone make direct comparisons challenging.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais , Peixes , Aclimatação , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Osso e Ossos
10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18288, 2019 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792255

RESUMO

Amphibious animals adapt their body coordination to compensate for changing substrate properties as they transition between terrestrial and aquatic environments. Using behavioural experiments and mathematical modelling of the amphibious centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, we reveal an interplay between descending command (brain), local pattern generation, and sensory feedback that controls the leg and body motion during swimming and walking. The elongated and segmented centipede body exhibits a gradual transition in the locomotor patterns as the animal crosses between land and water. Changing environmental conditions elicit a mechano-sensory feedback mechanism, inducing a gait change at the local segment level. The body segments operating downstream of a severed nerve cord (no descending control) can generate walking with mechano-sensory inputs alone while swimming behaviour is not recovered. Integrating the descending control for swimming initiation with the sensory feedback control for walking in a mathematical model successfully generates the adaptive behaviour of centipede locomotion, capturing the possible mechanism for flexible motor control in animals.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Artrópodes/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Sensorial/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Teóricos , Caminhada
11.
J Morphol ; 280(3): 329-338, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707482

RESUMO

Fishes are effectively weightless in water due to the buoyant support of the environment, but amphibious fishes must cope with increased effective weight when on land. Delicate structures such as gills are especially vulnerable to collapse and loss of surface area out of water. We tested the 'structural support' hypothesis that amphibious Polypterus senegalus solve this problem using phenotypically plastic changes that provide mechanical support and increase stiffness at the level of the gill lamellae, the filaments, and the whole arches. After 7 d in terrestrial conditions, enlargement of an inter-lamellar cell mass filled the water channels between gill lamellae, possibly to provide structural support and/or reduce evaporative water loss. Similar gill remodelling has been described in several other actinopterygian fishes, suggesting this may be an ancestral trait. There was no change in the mechanical properties or collagen composition of filaments or arches after 7 days out of water, but 8 months of terrestrial acclimation caused a reduction in gill arch length and mineralized bone volume. Thus, rather than increasing the size and stiffness of the gill skeleton, P. senegalus may instead reduce investment in supportive gill tissue while on land. These results are strikingly similar to the evolutionary trend of gill loss that occurred during the tetrapod invasion of land, raising the possibility that genetic assimilation of gill plasticity was an underlying mechanism.


Assuntos
Aclimatação/fisiologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Brânquias/anatomia & histologia , Animais
12.
J Fish Biol ; 95(1): 263-273, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29956322

RESUMO

The present study assessed the aerial and aquatic visual abilities of juvenile grey bichir Polypterus senegalus, fish capable of terrestrial locomotion, by measuring the optokinetic response to stimuli of varying speed and spatial frequency. In water, fish tracked slow-moving (2° s-1 ) stimuli moderately well and fast-moving stimuli very poorly. Spatial acuity was very low compared with many other species, with maximum response observed at 0.05-0.075 stimulus cycles per degree of visual arc; however, it should be noted that adult fish, with their larger eyes, are likely to have somewhat improved spatial acuity. Low spatial acuity and limited stimulus tracking ability might be expected in a nocturnal ambush predator such as P. senegalus, where gaze stabilization may be less crucial and other sensory inputs may have greater importance in perception of the environment. In air, spatial and temporal acuity were both poorer by every measure, but some visual ability persisted. As the eye shows no anatomical specialization for aerial vision, poor vision was expected; however, the large decrease in saccade velocity observed in air trials was unexpected. Stimulus parameters typically have little effect on the characteristics of the saccade, so this finding may suggest that the function of the reflex system itself could be compromised in the aerial vision of some fishes capable of terrestrial locomotion.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual , Animais , Locomoção , Movimentos Sacádicos
13.
J Exp Biol ; 221(Pt 17)2018 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967218

RESUMO

The ability to modulate the function of muscle is integral to an animal's ability to function effectively in the face of widely disparate challenges. This modulation of function can manifest through short-term changes in neuromuscular control, but also through long-term changes in force profiles, fatiguability and architecture. However, the relative extent to which shorter-term modulation and longer-term plasticity govern locomotor flexibility remains unclear. Here, we obtain simultaneously recorded kinematic and muscle activity data of fin and body musculature of an amphibious fish, Polypterus senegalus After examining swimming and walking behaviour in aquatically raised individuals, we show that walking behaviour is characterized by greater absolute duration of muscle activity in most muscles when compared with swimming, but that the magnitude of recruitment during walking is only increased in the secondary bursts of fin muscle and in the primary burst of the mid-body point. This localized increase in intensity suggests that walking in P. senegalus is powered in a few key locations on the fish, contrasting with the more distributed, low intensity muscle force that characterizes the stroke cycle during swimming. Finally, the increased intensity in secondary, but not primary, bursts of the fin muscles when walking probably underscores the importance of antagonistic muscle activity to prevent fin collapse, add stabilization and increase body support. Understanding the principles that underlie the flexibility of muscle function can provide key insights into the sources of animal functional and behavioural diversity.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais/fisiologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Músculo Estriado/fisiologia , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
14.
J Exp Biol ; 220(Pt 19): 3406-3410, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28784682

RESUMO

Muscle fiber types in the pectoral fins of fishes have rarely been examined, despite their morphological and functional diversity. Here, we describe the distribution of fast and slow muscle fibers in the pectoral fins of Polypterus senegalus, an amphibious, basal actinopterygian. Each of the four muscle groups examined using mATPase staining showed distinct fiber-type regionalization. Comparison between fish raised in aquatic and terrestrial environments revealed terrestrially reared fish possess 28% more fast muscle compared with aquatically reared fish. The pattern of proximal-distal variation in the abductors differed, with a relative decrease in fast muscle fibers near the pectoral girdle in aquatic fish compared with an increase in terrestrial fish. Terrestrially reared fish also possess a greater proportion of very small diameter fibers, suggesting that they undergo more growth via hyperplasia. These observations may be a further example of adaptive plasticity in Polypterus, allowing for greater bursts of power during terrestrial locomotion.


Assuntos
Meio Ambiente , Peixes/fisiologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Nadadeiras de Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Peixes/genética , Locomoção , Masculino
15.
Zoology (Jena) ; 119(5): 447-454, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27267147

RESUMO

Amphibious fishes show wide variation in form and function. Examination of terrestrial locomotion in fishes has largely focused on highly specialized taxa. From an evolutionary perspective we are interested in how relatively unspecialized fishes locomote when exposed to different terrestrial environments. In this study, we explore the locomotory repertoire of the basal actinopterygian Polypterus senegalus. We describe its terrestrial locomotory strategies on different surfaces and compare them with steady aquatic locomotion. Our study is the first to describe axial and appendicular-based terrestrial locomotion across a range of substrates in this species and shows two distinct terrestrial gaits in P. senegalus, each with substantial variation. One uses body undulation against complex surfaces and the other incorporates alternating, supportive pectoral fins to achieve a tetrapod-like gait. Gait use is correlated with substrate. P. senegalus uses body and pectoral fins in diverse ways, showing opportunistic and flexible strategies of navigating novel environments.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Extremidades/fisiologia , Atividade Motora
16.
J Anat ; 226(6): 511-22, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25994125

RESUMO

Polypterus, a member of the most primitive living group of ray-finned fishes, has demonstrated the ability to perform fin-assisted terrestrial locomotion, a behavior that indicates a complex pectoral musculoskeletal system. Review of the literature reveals that many aspects of the pectoral muscular anatomy of Polypterus are still unclear, with a number of conflicting descriptions. We provide a new interpretation of the pectoral musculature using soft tissue-enhanced microCT scanning and gross anatomical dissection. The results demonstrate a complex musculature, with six independent muscles crossing the glenoid-fin joint. Comparisons with other bony-fish (Osteichthyes), including both ray-finned (Actinopterygii) and lobed-fin (Sarcopterygii) fish, indicate the presence of novel muscles within Polypterus: coracometapterygialis I+II and the zonopropterygialis medialis. Examination of these muscular additions in the context of osteichthyan phylogeny indicates that this represents a previously unrecognized event in the evolution of pectoral musculature in Osteichthyes. Despite its phylogenetic position as a basal actinopterygian, the musculature of Polypterus has more similarities both anatomically and functionally with that of sarcopterygians. This anatomy, along with other features of Polypterus anatomy such as lobed fins, ventral paired lungs, and a large spiracle, may make it a good model for inferences of stem tetrapod locomotion.


Assuntos
Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Peitorais/anatomia & histologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Microtomografia por Raio-X
17.
Nature ; 513(7516): 54-8, 2014 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25162530

RESUMO

The origin of tetrapods from their fish antecedents, approximately 400 million years ago, was coupled with the origin of terrestrial locomotion and the evolution of supporting limbs. Polypterus is a member of the basal-most group of ray-finned fish (actinopterygians) and has many plesiomorphic morphologies that are comparable to elpistostegid fishes, which are stem tetrapods. Polypterus therefore serves as an extant analogue of stem tetrapods, allowing us to examine how developmental plasticity affects the 'terrestrialization' of fish. We measured the developmental plasticity of anatomical and biomechanical responses in Polypterus reared on land. Here we show the remarkable correspondence between the environmentally induced phenotypes of terrestrialized Polypterus and the ancient anatomical changes in stem tetrapods, and we provide insight into stem tetrapod behavioural evolution. Our results raise the possibility that environmentally induced developmental plasticity facilitated the origin of the terrestrial traits that led to tetrapods.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Meio Ambiente , Extremidades/anatomia & histologia , Extremidades/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Locomoção , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Osso e Ossos/anatomia & histologia , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Feminino , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/fisiologia , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Músculos/anatomia & histologia , Músculos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Natação/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Caminhada/fisiologia
18.
J Exp Biol ; 215(Pt 16): 2869-80, 2012 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22837461

RESUMO

The fast-start escape response is critically important to avoid predation, and axial movements driving it have been studied intensively. Large median dorsal and anal fins located near the tail have been hypothesized to increase acceleration away from the threat, yet the contribution of flexible median fins remains undescribed. To investigate the role of median fins, C-start escape responses of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) were recorded by three high-speed, high-resolution cameras at 500 frames s(-1) and the 3-D kinematics of individual dorsal and anal fin rays were analyzed. Movement and orientation of the fin rays relative to the body axis were calculated throughout the duration of the C-start. We found that: (1) timing and magnitude of angular displacement varied among fin rays based on position within the fin and (2) kinematic patterns support the prediction that fin rays are actively resisting hydrodynamic forces and transmitting momentum into the water. We suggest that regions within the fins have different roles. Anterior regions of the fins are rapidly elevated to increase the volume of water that the fish may interact with and transmit force into, thus generating greater total momentum. The movement pattern of all the fin rays creates traveling waves that move posteriorly along the length of the fin, moving water as they do so. Flexible posterior regions ultimately act to accelerate this water towards the tail, potentially interacting with vortices generated by the caudal fin during the C-start. Despite their simple appearance, median fins are highly complex and versatile control surfaces that modulate locomotor performance.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais/fisiologia , Reação de Fuga/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Orientação/fisiologia , Perciformes/fisiologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
19.
J Exp Biol ; 215(Pt 16): 2881-90, 2012 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22837462

RESUMO

Although kinematic analysis of individual fin rays provides valuable insight into the contribution of median fins to C-start performance, it paints an incomplete picture of the complex movements and deformation of the flexible fin surface. To expand our analysis of median fin function during the escape response of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), patterns of spanwise and chordwise curvature of the soft dorsal and anal fin surfaces were examined from the same video sequences previously used in analysis of fin-ray movement and orientation. We found that both the span and chord undergo undulation, starting in the anterior region of either fin. Initiated early in Stage 1 of the C-start, the undulation travels in a postero-distal direction, reaching the trailing edge of the fins during early Stage 2. Maximum spanwise curvature typically occurred among the more flexible posterior fin rays, though there was no consistent correlation between maximum curvature and fin-ray position. Undulatory patterns suggest different mechanisms of action for the fin regions. In the anterior fin region, where the fin rays are oriented dorsoventrally, undulation is directed primarily chordwise, initiating a transfer of momentum into the water to overcome the inertia of the flow and direct the water posteriorly. Within the posterior region, where the fin rays are oriented caudally, undulation is predominantly directed spanwise; thus, the posterior fin region acts to ultimately accelerate this water towards the tail to increase thrust forces. Treatment of median fins as appendages with uniform properties does not do justice to their complexity and effectiveness as control surfaces.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Nadadeiras de Animais/fisiologia , Reação de Fuga/fisiologia , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
J Exp Biol ; 211(Pt 2): 187-95, 2008 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18165246

RESUMO

Fish swimming has often been simplified into the motions of a two-dimensional slice through the horizontal midline, as though fishes live in a flat world devoid of a third dimension. While fish bodies do undulate primarily horizontally, this motion has important three-dimensional components, and fish fins can move in a complex three-dimensional manner. Recent results suggest that an understanding of the three-dimensional body shape and fin motions is vital for explaining the mechanics of swimming, and that two-dimensional representations of fish locomotion are misleading. In this study, we first examine axial swimming from the two-dimensional viewpoint, detailing the limitations of this view. Then we present data on the kinematics and hydrodynamics of the dorsal fin, the anal fin and the caudal fin during steady swimming and maneuvering in brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus, and yellow perch, Perca flavescens. These fishes actively move the dorsal and anal fins during swimming, resulting in curvature along both anterio-posterior and dorso-ventral axes. The momentum imparted to the fluid by these fins comprises a substantial portion of total swimming force, adding to thrust and contributing to roll stability. While swimming, the caudal fin also actively curves dorso-ventrally, producing vortices separately from both its upper and lower lobes. This functional separation of the lobes may allow additional control of three-dimensional orientation, but probably reduces swimming efficiency. In contrast, fish may boost the caudal fin's efficiency by taking advantage of the flow from the dorsal and anal fins as it interacts with the flow around the caudal fin itself. During maneuvering, fish readily use their fins outside of the normal planes of motion. For example, the dorsal fin can flick laterally, orienting its surface perpendicular to the body, to help in turning and braking. These data demonstrate that, while fish do move primarily in the horizontal plane, neither their bodies nor their motions can accurately be simplified in a two-dimensional representation. To begin to appreciate the functional consequences of the diversity of fish body shapes and locomotor strategies, one must escape Flatland to examine all three dimensions.


Assuntos
Extremidades/anatomia & histologia , Extremidades/fisiologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Natação/fisiologia
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