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1.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254251, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34852138

RESUMO

Blood and fecal samples of chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar), albino pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) and turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were analyzed to check parasitic prevalence. To record parasites these five avian species were placed kept in separate cages at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife an Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. 100 fecal and 100 blood samples for each bird species were inspected to analyze internal parasites. During present study, 17 species of endoparasites 14 from fecal samples and three from blood were examined. Two species of ectoparasites i.e. mite Dermanyssus gallinae 42% and fowl ticks Args persicus 41%were studied. Blood parasites included Plasmodium juxtanucleare 50%, Leucoctoyzoon simond having parasitic prevalence 40%, and Aegyptinella pullorum having parasitic prevalence of 40%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Allodpa suctoria 2%. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 60%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Ascardia galli 24%, Capillaria anatis 40% and Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 50% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 21% were also documented from fecal avian samples . Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 72% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having parasitic prevalence of 21%, Giardia lamblia 41% and Histomonas meleagridis 18% were documented during corpological analysis. In our recommendation, proper sanitation, medication and vaccination of bird's enclousres are suggested to avoid parasites.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34816973

RESUMO

During the present study, specimens were collected from selected sites of Cholistan desert and Kalabagh Game Reserve, Punjab province, Pakistan. Each captured specimen was tagged with voucher number and morphometric measurements were taken. The average snout to vent length was 172.559±1.40 mm and average weight was 92.1±1.30 g. The DNA of Uromastyx hardwickii was amplified and sequenced using 16S rRNA primer set. The obtained DNA sequence has shown reliable and clear species identification. After trimming ambiguous bases, the obtained 16S rRNA fragment was 520 bp while 16S rRNA fragments aligned with closely matched sequence from NCBI comprised of 510 bp. Closely matched sequences of genus Uromastyx were retrieved from NCBI in blast searches. Neighbour-joining tree of genus Uromastyx was constructed based on p-distance using MEGA X. The mean intraspecific variation was 0.095±0.01 while intraspecific variation was ranging from 0-1%. Similarly, interspecific variation of Uromastyx hardwikii with Saara asmussi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti, Uromastyx geyri, Uromastyx thomasi, Uromastyx alfredschmidti was 0-12%, 0-19%, 0-19%, 0-20%, 12-19% respectively. The newly produced DNA was submitted to NCBI and accession number was obtained (MW052563.1). Results of current study provided information about the molecular and morphological identification of Genus Uromastyx. In our recommendation, comprehensive molecular based identification of Pakistan's reptiles is required to report any new or subspecies from country.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Animais , Variação Genética/genética , Paquistão , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S
3.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696429

RESUMO

Papillomaviruses dysregulate the G1/S cell cycle transition in order to promote DNA synthesis in S phase, which is a requirement for viral replication. The human papillomaviruses (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins mediate degradation of the cell cycle regulators p53 and Rb, which are two of the most universally disrupted tumor-suppressor genes in all of cancer. The G1/S checkpoint is activated in normal cells to allow sufficient time for DNA repair in G1 before proceeding to replicate DNA and risk propagating unrepaired errors. The TP53 pathway suppresses a variety of such errors, including translocation, copy number alterations, and aneuploidy, which are thus found in HPV-associated tumors similarly to HPV-negative tumors with other mechanisms of TP53 disruption. However, E6 and E7 maintain a variety of other virus-host interactions that directly disrupt a growing list of other DNA repair and chromatin remodeling factors, implying HPV-specific repair deficiencies. In addition, HPV-associated squamous cell carcinomas tumors clinically respond differently to DNA damaging agents compared to their HPV negative counterparts. The focus of this review is to integrate three categories of observations: (1) pre-clinical understanding as to the effect of HPV on DNA repair, (2) genomic signatures of DNA repair in HPV-associated tumor genomes, and (3) clinical responses of HPV-associated tumors to DNA damaging agents. The goals are to try to explain why HPV-associated tumors respond so well to DNA damaging agents, identify missing pieces, and suggest clinical strategies could be used to further improve treatment of these cancers.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246229, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468515

RESUMO

During this one year study, blood and fecal samples of doves (Zenaida asiatica), ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), pigeons (Columba livia), partridges (Alectoris chukar), turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and goose (Chen caerulescens) were collected to assess the parasitic prevalence in these birds. The birds were kept at Avian Conservation and Research Center, Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. All these avian species were kept in separate cages and their entire body was inspected on regularly basis to record external parasites. For internal parasites, 100 blood and 100 fecal samples for each species were analyzed. During present study, two species of ectoparasites i.e. fowl ticks (Args persicus) and mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) while 17 species of endoparasites; three from blood and 14 from fecal samples were identified. Prevalence of blood parasites was Plasmodium juxtanucleare 29.3%, Aegyptinella pullorum 15% and Leucoctoyzoon simond 13%. Parasitic species recorded from fecal samples included 6 species of nematodes viz. Syngamus trachea with parasitic prevalence of 50%, Capillaria anatis 40%, Capillaria annulata 37.5%, Heterakis gallinarum 28.3%, Ascardia galli 24% and Allodpa suctoria 2%. Similarly, two species of trematodes viz. Prosthogonimus ovatus having parasitic prevalence of 12.1% and Prosthogonimus macrorchis 9.1% were also recorded from fecal samples of the birds. Single cestode species Raillietina echinobothrida having parasitic prevalence of 27% and 3 protozoan species i.e. Eimeria maxima having prevalence 20.1%, Histomonas meleagridis 8% and Giardia lamblia 5.3% were recorded. In our recommendation, proper medication and sanitation of the bird's houses and cages is recommended to avoid parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves , Parasitos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Columbidae , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência
5.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 25(5): 675-678, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949636

RESUMO

COVID-19 disrupted numerous disciplines which led to widespread misinformation on the virus. Thirteen students from across the USA designed a web-based conference, or "webinar," to minimize the misinformation among student populations. Professionals presented the current and possible future impacts of COVID-19 in their respective fields. Pre- and post-conference surveys were administered to the attendees to gauge the impact of the conference. Survey results demonstrated increased knowledge and a lower degree of feeling overwhelmed by COVID-19 information overall, indicating a niche use for webinars during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Comunicação , Escolaridade , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e114, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866992

RESUMO

In November 2017, eight confirmed measles cases were reported to Public Health England from a hospital in the West Midlands. A multidisciplinary Incident Management Team (IMT) was established to determine the extent of the problem and coordinate an outbreak response. Between 1 November 2017 and 4 June 2018, a total of 116 confirmed and 21 likely measles cases were linked to this outbreak; just under half (43%) were aged over 15 years of age. Fifty-five of the confirmed cases were hospitalised (48%) and no deaths were reported. At the start of the outbreak, cases were mostly individuals of Romanian origin; the outbreak subsequently spread to the wider population. Over the 8-month response, the IMT conducted the following control measures: extensive contact tracing, immediate provision of post-exposure prophylaxis, community engagement amongst specific high-risk groups, MMR awareness raising including catch-up campaigns and enhanced vaccination services at selected GP surgeries. Key challenges to the effective control measures included language difficulties limiting community engagement; delays in diagnosis, notification and appropriate isolation of cases; limited resources for contact tracing across multiple high-risk settings (including GPs and hospitals) and lack of timely data on vaccine coverage in sub-groups of the population to guide public health action.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Sarampo/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comunicação em Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Masculino , Sarampo/transmissão , Vírus do Sarampo , Vacina contra Sarampo-Caxumba-Rubéola/administração & dosagem , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 49(13): e74, 2021 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877327

RESUMO

Double strand break (DSB) repair primarily occurs through 3 pathways: non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), alternative end-joining (Alt-EJ), and homologous recombination (HR). Typical methods to measure pathway usage include integrated cassette reporter assays or visualization of DNA damage induced nuclear foci. It is now well understood that repair of Cas9-induced breaks also involves NHEJ, Alt-EJ, and HR pathways, providing a new format to measure pathway usage. Here, we have developed a simple Cas9-based system with validated repair outcomes that accurately represent each pathway and then converted it to a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) readout, thus obviating the need for Next Generation Sequencing and bioinformatic analysis with the goal to make Cas9-based system accessible to more laboratories. The assay system has reproduced several important insights. First, absence of the key Alt-EJ factor Pol θ only abrogates ∼50% of total Alt-EJ. Second, single-strand templated repair (SSTR) requires BRCA1 and MRE11 activity, but not BRCA2, establishing that SSTR commonly used in genome editing is not conventional HR. Third, BRCA1 promotes Alt-EJ usage at two-ended DSBs in contrast to BRCA2. This assay can be used in any system, which permits Cas9 delivery and, importantly, allows rapid genotype-to-phenotype correlation in isogenic cell line pairs.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reparo de DNA por Recombinação , Proteína BRCA1/fisiologia , Proteína BRCA2/fisiologia , Proteína 9 Associada à CRISPR , Linhagem Celular , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Transfecção
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(43): 21573-21579, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591214

RESUMO

Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) arising from aerodigestive or anogenital epithelium that are associated with the human papillomavirus (HPV) are far more readily cured with radiation therapy than HPV-negative SCCs. The mechanism behind this increased radiosensitivity has been proposed to be secondary to defects in DNA repair, although the specific repair pathways that are disrupted have not been elucidated. To gain insight into this important biomarker of radiosensitivity, we first examined genomic patterns reflective of defects in DNA double-strand break repair, comparing HPV-associated and HPV-negative head and neck cancers (HNSCC). Compared to HPV-negative HNSCC genomes, HPV+ cases demonstrated a marked increase in the proportion of deletions with flanking microhomology, a signature associated with a backup, error-prone double-strand break repair pathway known as microhomology-mediated end-joining (MMEJ). Then, using 3 different methodologies to comprehensively profile double-strand break repair pathways in isogenic paired cell lines, we demonstrate that the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein suppresses canonical nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and promotes error-prone MMEJ, providing a mechanistic rationale for the clinical radiosensitivity of these cancers.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Papillomavirus Humano 16/genética , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Linhagem Celular , DNA/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Quebras de DNA de Cadeia Dupla , Epitélio/patologia , Epitélio/virologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia , Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/virologia
9.
Cancer Lett ; 433: 232-241, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003927

RESUMO

Radiation therapy (XRT) is a standard treatment for prostate cancer (PCa). Although dose escalation increases local control, toxicity hampers further escalation. Broader improvement will be possible by the addition of adjuvant therapies, which can synergize with radiation and thus improve efficacy. We have identified a natural compound (Nexrutine, Nx) that inhibits the survival and growth of PCa cells in combination with radiation. Combination studies demonstrated strong interaction between Nx and radiation both in vitro in multiple PCa cell lines and in the Transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Nx potentiated growth inhibitory effects of IR by down regulating ribosomal protein S6K (RPS6KB1), CyclinD1, Chk1 and HIF-1 α and prolonging G2/M checkpoint block. RPS6KB1 is upregulated in prostate cancers and its expression is correlated with tumor grade. Knockdown of RPS6KB1 in PCa cells increased their sensitivity toward radiation-induced survival inhibition. Overall, we provide scientific evidence (i) in support of Nx as an adjuvant in PCa patients receiving XRT (ii) suggesting that RPS6KB1 is an important player in Nx-mediated combinatorial benefits and emphasizes that RPS6KB1 is a novel target for PCa treatment. These data underscore the need to test the agent in additional preclinical models to validate these observations.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos da radiação , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos da radiação , Quinase 1 do Ponto de Checagem/biossíntese , Ciclina D1/biossíntese , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/biossíntese , Masculino , Camundongos , Células PC-3 , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/biossíntese
10.
J Hosp Infect ; 97(4): 389-396, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28694086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2011, 15 deep-seated Propionibacterium acnes infections were identified in patients following craniotomies in a hospital in the UK. AIM: To describe the outbreak and report findings from the investigation undertaken in order to identify the source and risk factors and inform control measures. METHODS: Data were obtained from hospital clinical records and included patient and surgical variables. Cases were defined as patients with microbiologically confirmed deep or organ space surgical site infection (SSI) caused by P. acnes following craniotomy undertaken in 2011. Four controls per case were randomly selected from patients who had a craniotomy in 2011 but who did not develop any SSI. The relationship between infection and putative exposures was examined using multivariate regression techniques. Infection prevention procedures and the theatre environment were reviewed to assess compliance with existing standards. FINDINGS: Fifteen cases and 65 controls were recruited. Odds of infection were higher for those who had a dural implant inserted during their operation [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 14.6; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-∞] and for those who had alcohol/Betadine®/chlorhexidine mix as a disinfectant (aOR: 7.9; 95% CI: 0.8-∞). Environmental investigations suggested that theatre ventilation systems delivered air exchange rates below the recommended standard. CONCLUSION: There was a positive association between using dural implants and P. acnes infection. Infection may have been facilitated by inefficient use of skin disinfectant and environmental factors. Recommendations included ongoing surveillance, the use of chlorhexidine skin disinfectant, ensuring adequate air exchanges and appropriate use of doors in theatre to minimize air turbulence.


Assuntos
Craniotomia/efeitos adversos , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Propionibacterium acnes/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Public Health ; 151: 51-58, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28732304

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe an outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis phage type (PT) 14b in people who had eaten at a restaurant, and the investigation and subsequent prosecution of the food business operator (FBO). STUDY DESIGN: The local health protection team and environmental health department formed an outbreak control team to investigate the outbreak. METHODS: Epidemiological, microbiological, and environmental investigations were undertaken. Epidemiological investigations involved case finding and interviews. Microbiological investigation: stool samples from the suspected cases and environmental samples from the implicated food business were investigated. Salmonella isolates obtained were subjected to multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) profiling and whole genome sequencing. In addition, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hygiene swab tests were used to verify the quality of cleaning procedures and data loggers were used to determine the water temperature of the mechanical dishwasher. RESULTS: Fifteen cases of illness where the causative agent was shown to be S. enteritidis PT14b were identified, all of whom had eaten at the same restaurant. S. enteritidis PT14b was also identified from three of the 11 food and environmental samples taken at the restaurant and found to have the same MLVA profile as the cases. A case for prosecution was built and the FBO was successfully prosecuted in July 2015. CONCLUSIONS: This investigation highlighted that the use of molecular typing as part of thorough epidemiological, microbiological, and environmental investigations can present a robust case for prosecution against restaurants which pose a risk to public health.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Restaurantes , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Gastroenterite/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tipagem Molecular , Restaurantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella enteritidis/classificação , Adulto Jovem
12.
Semin Cancer Biol ; 40-41: 233-246, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27397504

RESUMO

The rise in cancer incidence and mortality in developing countries together with the human and financial cost of current cancer therapy mandates a closer look at alternative ways to overcome this burgeoning global healthcare problem. Epidemiological evidence for the association between cancer and diet and the long latency of most cancer progression have led to active exploration of whole and isolated natural chemicals from different naturally occurring substances in various preclinical and clinical settings. In general the lack of systemic toxicities of most 'whole' and 'isolated' natural compounds, their potential to reduce toxic doses and potential to delay the development of drug-resistance makes them promising candidates for cancer management. This review article examines the suggested molecular mechanisms affected by these substances focusing to a large extent on prostate cancer and deliberates on the disparate results obtained from cell culture, preclinical and clinical studies in an effort to highlight the use of whole extracts and isolated constituents for intervention. As such these studies underscore the importance of factors such as treatment duration, bioavailability, route of administration, selection criteria, standardized formulation and clinical end points in clinical trial design with both entities. Overall lack of parallel comparison studies between the whole natural products and their isolated compounds limits decisive conclusions regarding the superior utility of one over the other. We suggest the critical need for rigorous comparative research to identify which one of the two or both entities from nature would be best qualified to take on the mantle of cancer management.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Dieta , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Humanos , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Curr Pharmacol Rep ; 1(6): 365-372, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26539341

RESUMO

The current standard of care for prostate cancer includes hormone therapy, radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy, each with its own set of undesirable side effects. In this regard there is an unmet need to develop strategies that can prevent or delay the development of clinical prostate cancer. One potential area involves the use of natural compounds involving botanicals. Along these lines we have found that Nexrutine®, a dietary supplement derived from Phellodendron amurense bark extract, has prostate cancer prevention activity. The "extract" nature of this botanical, which constitutes a blend of several active protoberberine alkaloids, allows it to target several pathways deregulated in prostate cancer simultaneously. In this review, we will emphasize the prospective translational benefit of Nexrutine® as a chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer management. The potential of Nexrutine® was first identified and has subsequently been most exhaustively studied with reference to prostate cancer. Therefore the focus of this review is on the use of Nexrutine® in prostate cancer. In addition we have summarized the emerging evidence regarding the use of Nexrutine® in other tumor models to demonstrate the potential benefits of Nexrutine®.

14.
Epidemiol Infect ; 142(2): 428-37, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23731730

RESUMO

The West Midlands was the first English region to report sustained community transmission during the 'containment' phase of the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic in England. To describe the epidemiological experience in the region, West Midlands and national datasets containing laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 virus cases in the region during the 'containment' phase were analysed. The region accounts for about 10·5% of England's population, but reported about 42% of all laboratory-confirmed cases. Altogether 3063 cases were reported, with an incidence rate of 56/100 000 population. School-associated cases accounted for 25% of cases. Those aged <20 years, South Asian ethnic groups, and residents of urban and socioeconomically deprived areas were disproportionately affected. Imported cases accounted for 1% of known exposures. Regional R 0 central estimates between 1·41 and 1·43 were obtained. The West Midlands experience suggests that interpretation of transmission rates may be affected by complex interactions within and between sub-populations in the region.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1 , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Áreas de Pobreza , Fatores de Risco , Serviços de Saúde Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Indian J Pharm Sci ; 74(1): 29-35, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23204619

RESUMO

THE LEAVES EXTRACTS OF TWO INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF ETHIOPIA: Clematis longicauda steud ex A. Rich. and Clematis burgensis Engl. are used in Southwestern Ethiopia to treat otorrhoea and eczema. Antimicrobial activity and MIC of crude extracts were determined by disk diffusion and broth dilution. Phytochemical screening was performed on the extracts. The methanol and petroleum ether extracts of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. Sensitivity of reference strains was concentration dependent. Methanol and petroleum ether extracts of C. burgensis leaves exerted greater inhibitory effects than C. longicauda extracts whereas aqueous extracts of both plants were inactive. The MIC study revealed a concentration of 0.78 mg/ml on bacteria and 3.125 mg/ml on fungi for methanol extract and 1.56 mg/ml on both fungi and bacteria for petroleum ether extract. Phytochemical screening results indicated the presence of proteins, fixed oils, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and steroids. Preliminary chromatographic investigation showed fluorescing spots with R(f) values that ranged from 0.05 to 0.96 for phenolic compounds and saponins. As the study is one of the first reports on the two indigenous species of Clematis; isolation, purification and characterization of the different primary and secondary metabolites may further yield alternative options to the microbial chemotherapy.

16.
Acad Emerg Med ; 18(5): 477-82, 2011 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21569167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Focused assessment of sonography in trauma (FAST) has been shown useful to detect clinically significant hemoperitoneum in adults, but not in children. The objectives were to determine test characteristics for clinically important intraperitoneal free fluid (FF) in pediatric blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) using computed tomography (CT) or surgery as criterion reference and, second, to determine the test characteristics of FAST to detect any amount of intraperitoneal FF as detected by CT. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of consecutive children (0-17 years) who required trauma team activation for BAT and received either CT or laparotomy between 2004 and 2007. Experienced physicians performed and interpreted FAST. Clinically important FF was defined as moderate or greater amount of intraperitoneal FF per the radiologist CT report or surgery. RESULTS: The study enrolled 431 patients, excluded 74, and analyzed data on 357. For the first objective, 23 patients had significant hemoperitoneum (22 on CT and one at surgery). Twelve of the 23 had true-positive FAST (sensitivity = 52%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 31% to 73%). FAST was true negative in 321 of 334 (specificity = 96%; 95% CI = 93% to 98%). Twelve of 25 patients with positive FAST had significant FF on CT (positive predictive value [PPV] = 48%; 95% CI = 28% to 69%). Of 332 patients with negative FAST, 321 had no significant fluid on CT (negative predictive value [NPV] = 97%; 95% CI = 94% to 98%). Positive likelihood ratio (LR) for FF was 13.4 (95% CI = 6.9 to 26.0) while the negative LR was 0.50 (95% CI = 0.32 to 0.76). Accuracy was 93% (333 of 357, 95% CI = 90% to 96%). For the second objective, test characteristics were as follows: sensitivity = 20% (95% CI = 13% to 30%), specificity = 98% (95% CI = 95% to 99%), PPV = 76% (95% CI = 54% to 90%), NPV = 78% (95% CI = 73% to 82%), positive LR = 9.0 (95% CI = 3.7 to 21.8), negative LR = 0.81 (95% CI = 0.7 to 0.9), and accuracy = 78% (277 of 357, 95% CI = 73% to 82%). CONCLUSION: In this population of children with BAT, FAST has a low sensitivity for clinically important FF but has high specificity. A positive FAST suggests hemoperitoneum and abdominal injury, while a negative FAST aids little in decision-making.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemoperitônio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/normas , Ultrassonografia/normas , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Hemoperitônio/etiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Laparotomia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Centros de Traumatologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos
17.
Trop Med Int Health ; 15(8): 890-3, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20545913

RESUMO

Over the period 1998-2001 women attending Jimma hospital (southwest Ethiopia) with cervical dysplasia were screened for human papillomavirus (HPV), identifying a prevalence of 67.1% in this population. High-risk HPV types 16 (55.7%), 18 (8.2%), 56 (8.2%), 45 (4.1%), 39 (2.5%), 52 (1.6%), 31 (1.6%), 35 (1.6%), 58 (0.8%), 33 (0.8%), 59 (0.8%) caused severe pathology as single/multiple infection. Strategies need to be envisioned for vaccinating children, young women prior to first sexual contact and preventive screening of HPV high-risk types.


Assuntos
Papillomaviridae/classificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/virologia , Displasia do Colo do Útero/virologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/virologia , Adulto , Idoso , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papillomaviridae/genética , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/complicações , Infecções Tumorais por Vírus/epidemiologia , Displasia do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia
18.
West J Emerg Med ; 11(1): 31-4, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20411072

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a medical student emergency ultrasound clerkship has an effect on the number of patients undergoing ultrasonography and the number of total scans in the emergency department. METHODS: We conducted a prospective, single-blinded study of scanning by emergency medicine residents and attendings with and without medical students. Rotating ultrasound medical students were assigned to work equally on all days of the week. We collected the number of patients scanned and the number of scans, as well as participation of resident and faculty. RESULTS: In seven months 2,186 scans were done on the 109 days with students and 707 scans on the 72 days without them. Data on 22 days was not recorded. A median of 13 patients per day were scanned with medical students (CI 12-15) versus seven (CI 6-9) when not. In addition, the median number of scans was 18 per day with medical students (CI 16-20) versus eight (CI 6-10) without them. CONCLUSION: There were significantly more patients scanned and scans done when ultrasound medical students were present.

19.
West J Emerg Med ; 10(2): 79-84, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19561823

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of adverse events in elderly trauma patients with isolated blunt thoracic trauma, and to identify variables associated with these adverse events. METHODS: We performed a chart review of 160 trauma patients age 65 and older with significant blunt thoracic trauma, drawn from an American College of Surgeons Level I Trauma Center registry. Patients with serious injury to other body areas were excluded to prevent confounding the cause of adverse events. Adverse events were defined as acute respiratory distress syndrome or pneumonia, unanticipated intubation, transfer to the intensive care unit for hypoxemia, or death. Data collected included history, physical examination, radiographic findings, length of hospital stay, and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: Ninety-nine patients had isolated chest injury, while 61 others had other organ systems injured and were excluded. Sixteen patients developed adverse events [16.2% 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.5-24.9%], including two deaths. Adverse events were experienced by 19.2%, 6.1%, and 28.6% of those patients 65-74, 75-84, and >/=85 years old, respectively. The mean length of stay was 14.6 days in patients with an adverse event and 5.8 days in patients without. Post hoc analysis revealed that all 16 patients with an adverse event had one or more of the following: age >/=85, initial systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg, hemothorax, pneumothorax, three or more unilateral rib fractures, or pulmonary contusion (sensitivity 100%, CI 79.4-100%; specificity 38.6%, CI 28.1-49.9%). CONCLUSION: Adverse events from isolated thoracic trauma in elderly patients complicate 16% of our sample. These criteria were 100% sensitive and 38.5% specific for these adverse events. This study is a first step to identifying variables that might aid in identifying patients at high risk for serious adverse events.

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