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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257023, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360225

RESUMO

Abstract The present study examines the correlations between fifteen morphometric and ten meristic characters and total length (TL) of males, females, and combined sexes of Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833) collected from Karachi fish harbor, West Wharf of Karachi Coast. Statistical analyses of linear regression relationships show mostly strong correlations (r≥0.70; p<0.05) between total length (TL) and most morphometric characters in males, females, and combined sexes, except the height of pectoral-fin (PFH), and pelvic-fin base length (PelFL); whereas, meristic characters were found to be constant and indicate weak or negative type correlations (r≤0.50; p>0.05) with total length (TL). Hence, according to our present results, there is a direct relationship between the total length of fish and all morphometric characters, which were found to be the best indicators of positive allometric pattern growth in fish. Moreover, analysis of the 2-sample t-test revealed (t-test; p>0.05) that no sexual dimorphism was reported in Alepes vari. Thus, our present study could be valuable in systematic classification, sexual dimorphism, and management of this species on the Karachi coast.


Resumo O presente estudo examina as correlações entre 15 caracteres morfométricos e 10 caracteres merísticos e comprimento total (CT) de machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados de Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833), coletados do porto de Karachi, West Wharf, na costa de Karachi. As análises estatísticas das relações de regressão linear mostraram, principalmente, correlações fortes (r ≥ 0,70; p < 0,05) entre o CT e a maioria dos caracteres morfométricos em machos, fêmeas e sexos combinados, exceto a altura da nadadeira peitoral e o comprimento da base da nadadeira pélvica, enquanto os caracteres merísticos foram constantes, indicando correlações fracas ou negativas (r ≤ 0,50; p > 0,05) com o CT. Portanto, de acordo com nossos resultados, existe uma relação direta entre o CT dos peixes e todos os caracteres morfométricos, que foram considerados os melhores indicadores de crescimento do padrão alométrico positivo em peixes. Além disso, a análise do teste t de duas amostras revelou (teste t; p > 0,05) que nenhum dimorfismo sexual foi relatado em A. vari. Assim, o presente estudo pode ser valioso na classificação sistemática, dimorfismo sexual e manejo dessa espécie na costa de Karachi.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256817, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364511

RESUMO

Abstract The basic aim of this study was aimed to determine the ichthyofaunal diversity of River Panjkora in both upper and lower Dir districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.Fish samples were collected by using fishnets from March to September 2020. A total of 724 specimens were collected and classified into 5 families, 14 genera, and 18 species. The overall results revealed that most fish fauna of river Panjkora contains 8 species of family Cyprinidae (56.49%) followed by 4 species of Nemacheilidae (24.44%), 2 species of Channidae (10.63%), and Sisoridae (7.04%), and 1 species of Mastacembelidae (1.38%), respectively. Among all kinds of fish species, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16.57%) was highly dominated and followed by Carassius auratus (11.87%) and Racoma labiata (9.66%) and were reported as highly abundant, especially during April, May, and June. The least abundant species were Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii, and Mastacembelus armatus, that constituting 2.48%, 2.20%, and 1.38% of the total fish samples. The Overall Simpson's diversity (1-D= 0.919) and Simpson's Reciprocal index values (1/D= 12.3876), and Shannon's index (H= 2.68) were indicating that river Panjkora contains a quite rich and diverse group of fish species. The highest microplastics observed in site 7 compared to other study area. Conservation steps should be taken as a top priority to protect and conserve the marine environment and natural heritage from further loss, extinction and stop or minimize losses incurred through irresponsible fishery practices


Resumo O objetivo básico deste estudo foi determinar a diversidade ictiofaunística do rio Panjkora nos distritos de Lower e Upper de Dir, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Amostras de peixes foram coletadas com redes de arrasto de março a setembro de 2020. Foram coletados 724 espécimes, classificados em 5 famílias, 14 gêneros e 18 espécies. Os resultados gerais revelaram que a maioria da ictiofauna do rio Panjkora contém 8 espécies da família Cyprinidae (56,49%), seguidas por 4 espécies de Nemacheilidae (24,44%), 2 espécies de Channidae (10,63%) e Sisoridae (7,04%) e 1 espécie de Mastacembelidae (1,38%). Entre todas as espécies de peixes, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16,57%) foi altamente predominante, seguida por Carassius auratus (11,87%) e Racoma labiata (9,66%), e elas foram relatadas como altamente abundantes, especialmente nos meses de abril, maio e junho. As espécies menos abundantes foram Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii e Mastacembelus armatus, que constituíram 2,48%, 2,20% e 1,38%, respectivamente, do total de peixes amostrados. O índice de diversidade de Simpson (1-D = 0,919), o índice recíproco de Simpson (1/D = 12,3876) e o índice de Shannon (H = 2,68) indicaram que o rio Panjkora contém um grupo bastante rico e diversificado de espécies de peixes. Os microplásticos mais altos foram observados no local 7 em comparação com outra área de estudo. Medidas de conservação devem ser tomadas como prioridade máxima para proteger e conservar o ambiente marinho e o patrimônio natural de novas perdas e extinção e para parar ou minimizar as perdas ocorridas por práticas de pesca irresponsáveis.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254161, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364527

RESUMO

Abstract Salinity is one of the most critical environmental parameters regarding fish physiology, modifying food intake and growth performance in many fish species. The present study has investigated the effects of different salinity levels on growth performance, feeding and survival of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer juveniles. Asian seabass juveniles were reared at 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 22 (T3), 36 (T4), and 42 (T5) ppt salinity. Approximately eight hundred thirty fish individuals with an average weight of 1.24±0.52 g were randomly distributed (166 fish/Tank) in 5 concrete tanks (each tank 30×6×4 ft, volume 19,122 L) for forty days. Juveniles were initially fed 42% crude protein-containing diets at a rate of 6% of their body weight per day. The results showed that salinity level had a significant effect on the weight gain (WG), average daily weight gain (ADWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate (SR), total biomass and health indices (p<0.05). The highest WG (39.11±1.49 g), ADWG (1.00±0.12 g), SGR (8.74±0.03% d-1) and lowest FCR (0.96±0.20) were observed with T3 treatment, which was significantly higher compared to other treatment groups (p<0.05). Among the health indices, the highest hepatosomatic index and viscerosomatic index were found with T3 treatment, significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were found among the treatments in terms of survival rate (p>0.05), but the maximum survival rate (98.89±0.0%) was observed in the T3 and T2 treatments. The maximum level of crude proteins (19.99±1.4%) was found in the whole-body biochemical composition of Asian seabass juveniles in the T3 treatment group. The second-order polynomial regression showed that 20 ppt salinity is optimum for the best growth of Asian seabass. Thus, the present study recommends 20 to 36 ppt salinity for the commercial farming of Asian seabass under a closed aquaculture system.


Resumo A salinidade é um dos parâmetros ambientais mais críticos em relação à fisiologia dos peixes, modificando a ingestão de alimentos e o desempenho de crescimento em muitas espécies. O presente estudo investigou os efeitos de diferentes níveis de salinidade no desempenho de crescimento, alimentação e sobrevivência de jovens espécies de robalos asiáticos Lates calcarifer, as quais foram criadas sob salinidade 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 22 (T3), 36 (T4) e 42 (T5) ppt. Aproximadamente 830 indivíduos de peixes com peso médio de 1,24 ± 0,52 g foram distribuídos aleatoriamente (166 peixes / tanque) em cinco tanques de concreto (cada tanque tinha 30 × 6 × 4 pés (9,1 x 1,8 x 1,2 metros), com volume de 19,12 litros) por 40 dias. Os peixes foram inicialmente alimentados com uma dieta contendo 42% de proteína bruta a uma taxa de 6% do seu peso corporal por dia. Os resultados mostraram que o nível de salinidade teve um efeito significativo no ganho de peso (GP), ganho de peso médio diário (GPMD), taxa de crescimento específico (TCE), taxa de conversão alimentar (TCA), taxa de sobrevivência (TS), biomassa total e índices de saúde (p < 0,05). O maior GP (39,11 ± 1,49 g), GPMD (1,00 ± 0,12 g), TCE (8,74 ± 0,03% d-1) e o menor TCA (0,96 ± 0,20) foram observados com o tratamento T3, que foi significativamente superior em comparação com os outros tratamentos (p < 0,05). Entre os índices de saúde, os maiores índices hepatossomáticos e viscerossomáticos foram encontrados no tratamento T3, significativamente superior do que os demais grupos (p < 0,05). Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos quanto à TS (p > 0,05), mas a TS máxima (98,89 ± 0,0%) foi observada nos tratamentos T3 e T2. O nível máximo de proteína bruta (19,99 ± 1,4%) foi encontrado na composição bioquímica dos corpos dos jovens robalos asiáticos no grupo T3. A regressão polinomial de segunda ordem mostrou que a salinidade de 20 ppt é ótima para o melhor crescimento do robalo asiático. Assim, o presente estudo recomenda salinidade de 20 a 36 ppt para o cultivo comercial de robalo asiático em sistema de aquicultura fechado.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248978, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339406

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was planned to assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites in small ruminants of Upper Dir of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. For this purpose, the faecal material was collected randomly with gloved fingers directly from the rectum region of sheep and goats and the faecal materials were then put in hygienic plastic bottles with 10% formalin. The overall 315 (n=184 sheep and n= 131 goats) faecal samples were collected out of 315 samples, 281 were found positive for different parasites. Patterns-wise prevalence of GI parasites of the study area was found. Overall Single parasitism 89.20% (281/315) with 94.0% (173/184) in sheep and 82.43% (108/131) in goats. Double parasitic infection in small ruminant recorded in which Fasciola+ Haemonchus. contortus in sheep were found their prevalence was 25.54% (47/184). While in goats, the double parasitic infection in which Haemonchus contortus+Trichuris spp were found and their prevalence were 23.43% (30/131). The species found in the sample of sheep were includes, i.e., Strongyloides papillosus (41.30%), Heamonchus controtus (21.73%), Trichuris ovis (17.39%), and Fasciola hepatica (13.58%), the corresponding value for goat were Strongyloides spp 33.33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp 28.70%, (27/108), Trichuris spp 25.20% (27/184) and Fasciola spp 10.68% (14/184). The sheep of the study area are more infected as compared to goats. This study suggested that gastrointestinal parasites are major health problems of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore, a comprehensive study on species of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in the area, control options, cost-effective strategies and awareness about gastrointestinal parasites among the farmers in the study area should be instituted.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi planejada para avaliar a ocorrência de parasitas intestinais em pequenos ruminantes do distrito Upper Dir, da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Para tanto, o material fecal foi coletado aleatoriamente com dedos enluvados diretamente da região do reto de ovelhas e cabras, e os materiais fecais foram colocados em garrafas plásticas higiênicas com formol a 10%. No total, 315 (n = 184 ovelhas e n = 131 cabras) amostras fecais foram coletadas; destas, 281 foram consideradas positivas para diferentes parasitas. A prevalência de padrões de parasitas GI da área de estudo foi encontrada. Parasitismo global único 89,20% (281/315) com 94,0% (173/184) em ovinos e 82,43% (108/131) em cabras. Infecção parasitária dupla em pequenos ruminantes registrada em Fasciola + Haemonchus contortus em ovinos, sua prevalência foi de 25,54% (47/184). Já em caprinos, a dupla infecção parasitária em que Haemonchus contortus + Trichuris spp foram encontrados e sua prevalência foi de 23,43% (30/131). As espécies encontradas na amostra de ovinos foram: Strongyloides papillosus (41,30%), Heamonchus controtus (21,73%), Trichuris ovis (17,39%) e Fasciola hepatica (13,58%), o valor correspondente para cabra foi Strongyloides spp. 33,33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp. 28,70%, (27/108), Trichuris sp 25,20% (27/184) e Fasciola spp. 10,68% (14/184). As ovelhas da área de estudo estão mais infectadas do que as cabras. Este estudo sugeriu que os parasitas gastrointestinais são os principais problemas de saúde dos pequenos ruminantes na área de estudo. Portanto, um estudo abrangente sobre as espécies de parasitas gastrointestinais que circulam na área, opções de controle, estratégias de baixo custo e conscientização sobre parasitas gastrointestinais entre os agricultores na área de estudo deve ser instituído.


Assuntos
Animais , Parasitos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Ruminantes , Cabras , Ovinos , Prevalência , Fezes
5.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-5, 2023. mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765539

RESUMO

The present research was planned to assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites in small ruminants of Upper Dir of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. For this purpose, the faecal material was collected randomly with gloved fingers directly from the rectum region of sheep and goats and the faecal materials were then put in hygienic plastic bottles with 10% formalin. The overall 315 (n=184 sheep and n= 131 goats) faecal samples were collected out of 315 samples, 281 were found positive for different parasites. Patterns-wise prevalence of GI parasites of the study area was found. Overall Single parasitism 89.20% (281/315) with 94.0% (173/184) in sheep and 82.43% (108/131) in goats. Double parasitic infection in small ruminant recorded in which Fasciola+ Haemonchus. contortus in sheep were found their prevalence was 25.54% (47/184). While in goats, the double parasitic infection in which Haemonchus contortus+Trichuris spp were found and their prevalence were 23.43% (30/131). The species found in the sample of sheep were includes, i.e., Strongyloides papillosus (41.30%), Heamonchus controtus (21.73%), Trichuris ovis (17.39%), and Fasciola hepatica (13.58%), the corresponding value for goat were Strongyloides spp 33.33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp 28.70%, (27/108), Trichuris spp 25.20% (27/184) and Fasciola spp 10.68% (14/184). The sheep of the study area are more infected as compared to goats. This study suggested that gastrointestinal parasites are major health problems of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore, a comprehensive study on species of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in the area, control options, cost-effective strategies and awareness about gastrointestinal parasites among the farmers in the study area should be instituted.(AU)


A presente pesquisa foi planejada para avaliar a ocorrência de parasitas intestinais em pequenos ruminantes do distrito Upper Dir, da província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, no Paquistão. Para tanto, o material fecal foi coletado aleatoriamente com dedos enluvados diretamente da região do reto de ovelhas e cabras, e os materiais fecais foram colocados em garrafas plásticas higiênicas com formol a 10%. No total, 315 (n = 184 ovelhas e n = 131 cabras) amostras fecais foram coletadas; destas, 281 foram consideradas positivas para diferentes parasitas. A prevalência de padrões de parasitas GI da área de estudo foi encontrada. Parasitismo global único 89,20% (281/315) com 94,0% (173/184) em ovinos e 82,43% (108/131) em cabras. Infecção parasitária dupla em pequenos ruminantes registrada em Fasciola + Haemonchus contortus em ovinos, sua prevalência foi de 25,54% (47/184). Já em caprinos, a dupla infecção parasitária em que Haemonchus contortus + Trichuris spp foram encontrados e sua prevalência foi de 23,43% (30/131). As espécies encontradas na amostra de ovinos foram: Strongyloides papillosus (41,30%), Heamonchus controtus (21,73%), Trichuris ovis (17,39%) e Fasciola hepatica (13,58%), o valor correspondente para cabra foi Strongyloides spp. 33,33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp. 28,70%, (27/108), Trichuris sp 25,20% (27/184) e Fasciola spp. 10,68% (14/184). As ovelhas da área de estudo estão mais infectadas do que as cabras. Este estudo sugeriu que os parasitas gastrointestinais são os principais problemas de saúde dos pequenos ruminantes na área de estudo. Portanto, um estudo abrangente sobre as espécies de parasitas gastrointestinais que circulam na área, opções de controle, estratégias de baixo custo e conscientização sobre parasitas gastrointestinais entre os agricultores na área de estudo deve ser instituído.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Ruminantes/parasitologia , Carga Parasitária/veterinária , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Strongyloides , Fasciola , Prevalência
6.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e256817, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35293545

RESUMO

The basic aim of this study was aimed to determine the ichthyofaunal diversity of River Panjkora in both upper and lower Dir districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan.Fish samples were collected by using fishnets from March to September 2020. A total of 724 specimens were collected and classified into 5 families, 14 genera, and 18 species. The overall results revealed that most fish fauna of river Panjkora contains 8 species of family Cyprinidae (56.49%) followed by 4 species of Nemacheilidae (24.44%), 2 species of Channidae (10.63%), and Sisoridae (7.04%), and 1 species of Mastacembelidae (1.38%), respectively. Among all kinds of fish species, Schizothorax plagiostomus (16.57%) was highly dominated and followed by Carassius auratus (11.87%) and Racoma labiata (9.66%) and were reported as highly abundant, especially during April, May, and June. The least abundant species were Glyptothorax punjabensis, Glyptothorax sufii, and Mastacembelus armatus, that constituting 2.48%, 2.20%, and 1.38% of the total fish samples. The Overall Simpson's diversity (1-D= 0.919) and Simpson's Reciprocal index values (1/D= 12.3876), and Shannon's index (H= 2.68) were indicating that river Panjkora contains a quite rich and diverse group of fish species. The highest microplastics observed in site 7 compared to other study area. Conservation steps should be taken as a top priority to protect and conserve the marine environment and natural heritage from further loss, extinction and stop or minimize losses incurred through irresponsible fishery practices.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Rios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Paquistão , Plásticos
7.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e254161, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35239786

RESUMO

Salinity is one of the most critical environmental parameters regarding fish physiology, modifying food intake and growth performance in many fish species. The present study has investigated the effects of different salinity levels on growth performance, feeding and survival of Asian seabass Lates calcarifer juveniles. Asian seabass juveniles were reared at 0 (T1), 5 (T2), 22 (T3), 36 (T4), and 42 (T5) ppt salinity. Approximately eight hundred thirty fish individuals with an average weight of 1.24±0.52 g were randomly distributed (166 fish/Tank) in 5 concrete tanks (each tank 30×6×4 ft, volume 19,122 L) for forty days. Juveniles were initially fed 42% crude protein-containing diets at a rate of 6% of their body weight per day. The results showed that salinity level had a significant effect on the weight gain (WG), average daily weight gain (ADWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate (SR), total biomass and health indices (p<0.05). The highest WG (39.11±1.49 g), ADWG (1.00±0.12 g), SGR (8.74±0.03% d-1) and lowest FCR (0.96±0.20) were observed with T3 treatment, which was significantly higher compared to other treatment groups (p<0.05). Among the health indices, the highest hepatosomatic index and viscerosomatic index were found with T3 treatment, significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were found among the treatments in terms of survival rate (p>0.05), but the maximum survival rate (98.89±0.0%) was observed in the T3 and T2 treatments. The maximum level of crude proteins (19.99±1.4%) was found in the whole-body biochemical composition of Asian seabass juveniles in the T3 treatment group. The second-order polynomial regression showed that 20 ppt salinity is optimum for the best growth of Asian seabass. Thus, the present study recommends 20 to 36 ppt salinity for the commercial farming of Asian seabass under a closed aquaculture system.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Aquicultura/métodos , Peixes , Água Doce , Humanos , Salinidade
8.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e257023, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35195173

RESUMO

The present study examines the correlations between fifteen morphometric and ten meristic characters and total length (TL) of males, females, and combined sexes of Alepes vari (Cuvier, 1833) collected from Karachi fish harbor, West Wharf of Karachi Coast. Statistical analyses of linear regression relationships show mostly strong correlations (r≥0.70; p<0.05) between total length (TL) and most morphometric characters in males, females, and combined sexes, except the height of pectoral-fin (PFH), and pelvic-fin base length (PelFL); whereas, meristic characters were found to be constant and indicate weak or negative type correlations (r≤0.50; p>0.05) with total length (TL). Hence, according to our present results, there is a direct relationship between the total length of fish and all morphometric characters, which were found to be the best indicators of positive allometric pattern growth in fish. Moreover, analysis of the 2-sample t-test revealed (t-test; p>0.05) that no sexual dimorphism was reported in Alepes vari. Thus, our present study could be valuable in systematic classification, sexual dimorphism, and management of this species on the Karachi coast.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Peixes , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Caracteres Sexuais
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248978, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669799

RESUMO

The present research was planned to assess the occurrence of intestinal parasites in small ruminants of Upper Dir of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. For this purpose, the faecal material was collected randomly with gloved fingers directly from the rectum region of sheep and goats and the faecal materials were then put in hygienic plastic bottles with 10% formalin. The overall 315 (n=184 sheep and n= 131 goats) faecal samples were collected out of 315 samples, 281 were found positive for different parasites. Patterns-wise prevalence of GI parasites of the study area was found. Overall Single parasitism 89.20% (281/315) with 94.0% (173/184) in sheep and 82.43% (108/131) in goats. Double parasitic infection in small ruminant recorded in which Fasciola+ Haemonchus. contortus in sheep were found their prevalence was 25.54% (47/184). While in goats, the double parasitic infection in which Haemonchus contortus+Trichuris spp were found and their prevalence were 23.43% (30/131). The species found in the sample of sheep were includes, i.e., Strongyloides papillosus (41.30%), Heamonchus controtus (21.73%), Trichuris ovis (17.39%), and Fasciola hepatica (13.58%), the corresponding value for goat were Strongyloides spp 33.33% (36/108), Haemonchus spp 28.70%, (27/108), Trichuris spp 25.20% (27/184) and Fasciola spp 10.68% (14/184). The sheep of the study area are more infected as compared to goats. This study suggested that gastrointestinal parasites are major health problems of small ruminants in the study area. Therefore, a comprehensive study on species of gastrointestinal parasites circulating in the area, control options, cost-effective strategies and awareness about gastrointestinal parasites among the farmers in the study area should be instituted.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras , Parasitos , Doenças dos Ovinos , Animais , Fezes , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ruminantes , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia
10.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101333, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274571

RESUMO

Exposure to heat stress (HS) is one of the challenges facing the broiler industry worldwide. Various nutritional strategies have been suggested, such as altering dietary concentrations of some nutrients. Thus, we evaluated feeding different amino acid (AA) densities on live performance, Pectoralis (P.) muscles, and expression of selected AA transporters, water channels, and stress-related transcripts in a fast-growing broiler strain. Ross 308 chicks (n = 576) were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments (24 reps, 6 chicks per rep), differing in AA density (110, 100, 90, and 80% of a breeder's AA specifications). During 24 to 36 days of age, half of the birds were kept at a thermoneutral (TN) temperature of 20°C, whereas the other half were subjected to HS at 32° C for 8 h daily, making the treatment design a 4 × 2. The results revealed no interaction between housing temperature and AA density on growth performance or P. muscles weights. Feeding 80% AAs depressed BWG, FCR, and P. muscles at 36 d (P < 0.001). There was an interaction (P < 0.001) between AA density and temperature on the expression of all examined genes. Reducing the AA density beyond 100% upregulated the expression of AA transporter (CAT1, B0AT, b0,+AT, SNAT1, LAT1), HSP70, HSP90, glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and AQP3 in the TN birds' jejunum. Whereas in the HS birds, inconsistent expressions were observed in the jejunum, of which CAT1, B0AT, and LAT1 were markedly downregulated as AA density was reduced. In P. major of TN birds, reducing AA density resulted in upregulating the expression of all AA transporters, HSP70, GR, and AQP1, while downregulating HSP90 and AQP9. In contrast, AA reduction markedly downregulated CAT1, B0AT, and LAT1 in the P. major of HS birds. These findings indicate that the dietary AA level alters the expression of various genes involved in AA uptake, protein folding, and water transport. The magnitude of alteration is also dependent on the housing temperature. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of adequate AA nutrition for fast-growing chickens under HS.


Assuntos
Aquaporinas , Galinhas , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Aminoácidos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Temperatura Alta , Nutrientes , Temperatura
11.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 647192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33816590

RESUMO

Fattening performance, Carcass characteristics, chemical composition, and meat quality were evaluated in three sheep breeds: Awassi, Harri, and Najdi. Forty-five lambs of similar weight and age were raised for 90 days under similar conditions. The Harri and Najdi breeds had higher dressing-out percentages than Awassi sheep. The Awassi and Harri breeds had thicker backfat than the Najdi breed. No significant difference was found in moisture, protein, and intramuscular fat among the breeds. However, the Harri breed had a higher ash content than the Awassi and Najdi breeds. The Najdi breed had higher ultimate pH and lower cooking loss than the Awassi and Harri breeds. Awassi and Harri sheep had a higher myofibril fragmentation index, longer sarcomere length, and lower hardness and chewiness than Najdi sheep. Subjectively, no significant differences were detected between the breeds, except for flavor intensity while the Awassi sheep were rated in between and not significantly different. In conclusion, breed affected carcass characteristics, meat composition, and the quality of sheep. The dressing yield was higher in Harri and Najdi than Awassi sheep. Awassi sheep showed superior meat quality characteristics followed by Harri sheep. However, Najdi sheep had the best cooking loss percentage and flavor intensity score.

12.
Zygote ; 29(5): 383-392, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731239

RESUMO

Oocyte cryopreservation has become an important component of assisted reproductive technology with increasing implication in female fertility preservation and animal reproduction. However, the possible adverse effects of oocyte cryopreservation on epigenetic status of the resulting embryos is still an open question. This study evaluated the effects of MII-oocyte vitrification on gene transcripts linked to epigenetic reprogramming in association with the developmental competence and epigenetic status of the resulting embryos at 2-cell and blastocyst stages in dromedary camel. The cleavage rate of vitrified oocytes following intracytoplasmic sperm injection was significantly increased compared with the control (98.2 ± 2 vs. 72.7 ± 4.1%, respectively), possibly due to the higher susceptibility of vitrified oocytes to spontaneous activation. Nonetheless, the competence of cleaved embryos derived from vitrified oocytes for development to the blastocyst and hatched blastocyst was significantly reduced compared with the control (7.7 ± 1.2 and 11.1 ± 11.1 compared with 28.1 ± 2.6 and 52.4 ± 9.9%, respectively). The relative transcript abundances of epigenetic reprogramming genes DNMT1, DNMT3B, HDAC1, and SUV39H1 were all significantly reduced in vitrified oocytes relative to the control. Evaluation of the epigenetic marks showed significant reductions in the levels of DNA methylation (6.1 ± 0.3 vs. 9.9 ± 0.5, respectively) and H3K9 acetylation (7.8 ± 0.2 vs. 10.7 ± 0.3, respectively) in 2-cell embryos in the vitrification group relative to the control. Development to the blastocyst stage partially adjusted the effects that oocyte vitrification had on the epigenetic status of embryos (DNA methylation: 4.9 ± 0.4 vs. 6.2 ± 0.6; H3K9 acetylation: 5.8 ± 0.3 vs. 8 ± 0.9, respectively). To conclude, oocyte vitrification may interfere with the critical stages of epigenetic reprogramming during preimplantation embryo development.


Assuntos
Injeções de Esperma Intracitoplásmicas , Vitrificação , Acetilação , Animais , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Camelus , Criopreservação , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Histonas/metabolismo , Oócitos/metabolismo , Gravidez
13.
Poult Sci ; 99(12): 6946-6953, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248610

RESUMO

This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary addition of probiotics (Protexin) and prebiotics (active MOS, mannan oligosaccharides) on growth performance, carcasses, and antibody titer in broilers. A total number of 360-day-old Ross broiler chicks were randomly divided into 9 groups in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. Nine broiler starter (0-21 d) and finisher (21-35 d) diets were formulated by using 3 levels of probiotics (0, 1, and 2 g/kg of feed) and 3 levels of MOS (0, 1, and 1.5 g/kg of feed) and were randomly allotted to 9 groups. Feed intake was not affected by interaction of treatments during all phases (P > 0.05). Feed intake was improved due to the main effect of probiotic (P = 0.0001) or MOS (P = 0.005). No interaction (P > 0.05) was observed for weight gain in the starter, finisher, and overall phases. While, during the starter and finisher phases, weight gain was increased by probiotics (P = 0.028 or 0.04, respectively). Dietary supplementation of MOS improved weight gain (P = 0.01) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P = 0.03) during the overall period, but during starter and finisher periods, weight gain and FCR were not affected by prebiotics. Apart from dressing percentage, no interaction or individual effect of probiotics and prebiotics was observed for carcass, breast, thigh, heart, liver, and gizzard weight. Antibody titer for infectious bursal disease (IBD) was improved (P = 0.026) by the interaction effect between probiotics and prebiotics, when compared with the control group. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND) was not affected by probiotics or prebiotics or their interactions (P > 0.05). It could be concluded that supplementation of prebiotics or probiotics can improve the growth performance of broilers. It may also be helpful in improving the antibody titer against IBD in broilers fed antibiotic-free diets.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Composição Corporal , Galinhas , Imunidade , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória
14.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1988-1994, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241481

RESUMO

The effect of a low-ME diet with a multienzyme (Kemzyme Plus, Kemin, Des Moines, IA) blend on performance, meat quality, and carcass traits was evaluated in Hubbard broiler chicks. A total of 120 Hubbard broiler chicks were allocated to the following 4 experimental groups and every group was separated into 6 replicates, with 5 birds per replicate: control (3,180 kcal/kg of ME), control + 0.50 g/kg diet of enzyme (Cont-Enz), low-ME diet (3,080 kcal/kg), and low-ME + 0.50 g/kg diet of enzyme (low-ME-Enz). The trail lasted for 16 D (32 to 48 D of age). No significant differences in growth parameters or carcass traits were observed among treatments. However, liver weight increased with the low-ME-Enz diet (P = 0.038). The low-ME diet recorded the highest weight for the bursa (P = 0.043) and thymus (P = 0.019). Dietary treatments had significant impacts on the length of duodenum, ileum, and cecum, as well as the weight of duodenum. The length of duodenum, ileum, and cecum increased with enzyme supplementation. The myofibril fragmentation index was lower with the Cont-Enz, low-ME, and low-ME-Enz diets than with the control diet (P = 0.043). The shear force increased with the low-ME-Enz diet (P = 0.022) than the control diet. Dietary treatments influenced breast meat yellowness (P = 0.019), whereas the low-ME diet had the lowest yellowness at the slaughtering age. The dietary treatments affected the breast meat pH (P = 0.001), with the control diet having the highest pH value after 24 hours. Thus, there was no effect of low-ME or enzyme supplementation to the control or low-ME diet on growth performance or carcass yield. However, feeding a low-ME diet or Cont-Enz preparation influenced organ and small intestine weights and meat characteristics.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Carne/análise , Complexos Multienzimáticos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Complexos Multienzimáticos/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória
15.
Poult Sci ; 98(12): 6586-6592, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393587

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effect of using breeder parents (434-days-old) and broiler chickens (37 D of age) from Ross 308 on meat quality parameters and carcass characteristics; sex and muscle type were also estimated. Carcass assessment involved hot carcass weight, carcass yield, and cuts (breast, legs, wings, back, and shoulder). A total of 120 birds were divided into 2 groups (60 birds from each stock), each stock contain equal number of sexes (30 males and 30 females), and further divided into 6 replicates, so that there were 5 birds in each replicate. The birds were fed ad libitum. A sample of 30 birds (male, n = 15 and female, n = 15) from each group was slaughtered for assessing carcass and physical characteristics. Sensory analysis was carried out on each group after boiling or roasting the bird. Live weight, carcass weight and yield, breast weight, legs, wings, and back weights and yield were higher (P < 0.001) for breeder parents when compared to broilers, with the exception of breast percentage. Moreover, better carcass characteristics were observed in males than in females. Parent stock had better water-holding capacity and myofibrillar fragmentation whereas broilers had more tender meat than breeders. Moreover, cooking loss and other sensory characters were not significant between the two groups; however, females had more tender pectoral muscles and more myofibrillar fragmentation than males. We concluded that parent breeders had better carcass characteristics than broiler chickens. The broiler chickens of Ross 308 and female birds had better meat quality than parent breeders.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Carne/análise , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Masculino , Arábia Saudita
16.
Poult Sci ; 98(1): 105-111, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690611

RESUMO

Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), a bacterium causing respiratory tract infection, has led to a significant problem in the intensive poultry production in Egypt. Polymerase chain reaction-amplified 784-bp specific ORT DNA fragments were found in 7 ORT isolates from lungs, air sacs, and tracheas of commercial broilers or layers in Egypt in 2015. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the live variant IBV 4/91 with ORT infection. A total of 120 14-d-old broiler chickens (Cobb 500) were equally divided into 4 groups for experimental infection in a complete randomized design. Group 1 was infected with ORT strain and live infectious bronchitis vaccine (IBV 4/91) simultaneously; group 2 was infected with the bacterial strain alone; group 3 was vaccinated only with IBV 4/91, and group 4 was the non-vaccinated and non-infected control group. The respiratory signs, post-mortem lesions (tracheitis and pneumonia) and histopathological findings of lungs, trachea, and air sacs in the experimentally infected broiler chickens appeared to be more prominent in the chickens of group 1 than group 2. With respect to body weight, weight gain, feed conversion rate, and Ornithobacterium re-isolation, there was a difference (P ≤ 0.05) among the chickens of group 1 and the other groups. This reveals that the use of live infectious bronchitic vaccines, which is a common practice in the local Egyptian field of production, may concomitantly increase the pathogenicity of ORT in broiler chickens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/veterinária , Ornithobacterium/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Egito , Infecções por Flavobacteriaceae/patologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Atenuadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos
17.
Poult Sci ; 98(2): 777-784, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299459

RESUMO

The effect of storage period on hatching and post-hatching performance of two quail breeds (brown Japanese quail (BJQ) and French white quail (FWQ)) was investigated using 940 eggs from each breed. Eggs were divided into four equal groups (235 eggs each), in each group. A total number of 210 eggs were used for incubation (with three replicates, 70 eggs each) and additional 25 eggs served as samples for egg quality parameters, each group was kept for special storage period. The first group was incubated on the same day of collection (zero day storage). Whereas the second, third, and fourth groups were stored for 4, 7, and 10 d, respectively. Increasing the storage period more than 4 d significantly decreased the relative albumen weight, yolk index, total hatchability, and fertile eggs but significantly increased the relative yolk/albumen ratio, absolute and relative egg weight loss. Moreover, FWQ eggs exhibited higher (P < 0.05) hatchability compared to BJQ eggs after 10 d of storage and yielded heavier chicks (P < 0.05) after all storage periods. The economic analysis indicated that the storage costs for FWQ eggs were significantly greater than those of BJQ at a 0 d of storage (2.42 vs. 4.81 US cent (¢); P < 0.05). Furthermore, the total costs for BJQ eggs were significantly lower than the total costs for FWQ eggs (3.0 vs. 7.0 ¢; P < 0.05). With respect to profitability, the total return represented by selling the chicks was calculated at 5.43 ¢ for BJQ and 9.01 ¢ for FWQ. The net return estimated for FWQ was significantly greater than that of BJQ (3.0 vs. 2.0 ¢; P < 0.05). However, the hatchability loss for FWQ was significantly greater than that of BJQ over different storage periods.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Coturnix/fisiologia , Óvulo/fisiologia , Reprodução , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Animais , Coturnix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Poult Sci ; 98(5): 2000-2007, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561723

RESUMO

Newcastle disease is still causing huge economic losses and devastating outbreaks in poultry flocks despite implementation of extensive vaccination programs. Five commercial broiler chicken groups were established as G1 (non-vaccinated, non-challenged group) and G2 (non-vaccinated, challenged group), and 3 vaccinated challenged groups as G3 (vaccinated with heterologous inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) genotype II (NDV II) vaccine), G4 (vaccinated with homologous inactivated NDV genotype VII (NDV VII) vaccine), and G5 (vaccinated with bivalent (heterologous inactivated NDV II plus H5) vaccine) were used. Challenge test was done using a velogenic NDV genotype VII (vNDV VII) at 28-d olds. Respiratory signs, greenish diarrhea, and obvious post-mortem lesions of vNDV VII appeared in all the challenged birds whether vaccinated or not. In addition, the mortality rate decreased from 93.3% in G2 to 46.7%, 53.3%, and 66.7% in G4, G5, and G3, respectively. Overall, 2 wk postchallenge; body weight loss (%) had increased mainly in G2, with some improvement in chickens in G4 followed by G5 and chickens of G3 showed the least improvement. At 28 d (day of challenge), the highest hemagglutination inhibition values were 4.3 and 5.4 log2 in chickens in G4 and G5, respectively, which increased in all groups after the challenge. Cytokine (IL-6 and IFN-γ) levels were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the vaccinated groups than that in the non-vaccinated group, especially in G5. Viral shedding in the trachea was higher than that in the cloacal swabs in all vaccinated and non-vaccinated challenged groups with peak shedding on the 6th day post challenge for both swabs, and the lowest viral shedding titers were observed in chickens in G5. Therefore, the use of homologous genotype NDV with inactivated vaccine conferred a higher clinical protection in terms of body weight loss and mortality against vNDV VII challenge in broiler chickens; however, the heterologous vaccine used in G5 induced the highest cell-mediated immune response and hemagglutination inhibition titers with the lowest viral shedding titer.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doença de Newcastle/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Genótipo , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/administração & dosagem
19.
Poult Sci ; 97(9): 3126-3137, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29846703

RESUMO

The present study investigated the toxic impacts of lead (LD) on the productive and reproductive performances of Japanese quails and the role of Yucca schidigera extract (YSE) in reducing these impacts. A total of 360 mature Japanese quails (at 2 months of age) were used and the experiment was lasted for 8 wk. The birds were divided into 6 equal groups as follows: control (basal diet), basal diet + 100 mg LD/kg diet, basal diet + YSE (100 mg/kg diet), basal diet + YSE (200 mg/kg diet), basal diet + LD (100 mg/kg diet) + YSE (100 mg/kg diet), and basal diet + LD (100 mg/kg diet) + YSE (200 mg/kg diet). LD resulted in a significant decrease in feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and egg production of birds compared with the control group. Supplementation of YSE (100 or 200) to LD containing diet could significantly improve the quail performance parameters to be comparable with the control values. Fertility and hatchability % were decreased by LD, whereas YSE at both levels (100 or 200) separately or in combination with LD showed fertility and hatchability percentages comparable to that of control. Triglycerides, cholesterol, and LDL contents in LD plus YSE100 or LD plus YSE200 groups were significantly decreased than LD alone group. LD significantly decreased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the serum with no effect on reduced glutathione content. Co-exposure to YSE100 or YSE200 with LD significantly increased the catalase activity and numerically increased the superoxide dismutase activity than LD alone. YSE100 or YSE200 decreased malondialdehyde contents than LD alone group. LD plus YSE100 or YSE200 groups exhibited significant improvements in the level of immunoglobulins. Co-exposure to YSE with LD significantly decreased the LD residues in egg than the LD group. The obtained results showed that YSE exhibited a potential modulatory role against the LD-induced inhibitory effects on the productive and reproductive performances of Japanese quails and YSE at 200 mg/kg diet was more effective than 100 mg/kg diet in reversing the LD-induced alterations.


Assuntos
Coturnix/fisiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Yucca/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Coturnix/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Distribuição Aleatória , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Poult Sci ; 97(5): 1588-1594, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29462361

RESUMO

In an attempt to alleviate the deleterious effects of high summer temperatures, the present study investigated the effects of wet feed and cold water on the growth performance, carcass and meat quality, leg problems, physiological responses, and blood parameters of growing Muscovy ducklings. A total of 180 4-week-old ducklings was randomly divided into 6 experimental groups in a 3 × 2 factorial design that included 3 feed systems (AD: ad libitum dry; DW: diurnal wet; and AW: ad libitum wet) and 2 systems of water (TW: tap water; and CW: cold water). Access to wet feed and cold water affected the growth performance, dressed carcass, gizzard, meat quality (tenderness, juiciness, and susceptibility), tonic immobility, body temperature, and blood parameters [albumin: globulin (A: G) ratio and levels of glucose, alanine transferase (ALT), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdehyde (MDA)] of the ducklings but had no significant effect on plumage condition, shank length, keel bone length, leg problems, or breast blisters. The body weight (BW) of the DW group was 1.97 and 3.12% greater than that of the AD and AW groups, respectively, and the BWG of the DW group was 6.91 and 10.72% greater than that of the AD and AW groups, respectively. Therefore, providing access to wet feed and cold water is highly recommended when raising Muscovy ducks in open houses under high-temperature conditions.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Membro Posterior/fisiologia , Carne/análise , Água/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Patos/sangue , Patos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Patos/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
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