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1.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; : e0011822, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416692

RESUMO

In the United States, reports of Salmonella enterica carrying mcr-1 remain rare in humans, but when observed, the infection is often associated with travel. Here, we report 14 mcr-1-positive Salmonella enterica isolates from patients in the United States that reported travel to the Dominican Republic within the 12 months before illness.

2.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 69(3): 167-174, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35048538

RESUMO

In December 2018, PulseNet, the national laboratory network for enteric disease surveillance, identified an increase in Salmonella Typhimurium isolates with an uncommon pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern which was previously isolated from hedgehogs. CDC, state, and local health partners interviewed patients with a questionnaire that focused on hedgehog exposures, conducted traceback of patients' hedgehog purchases, and collected hedgehog faecal pellets and environmental samples. Isolates in this outbreak were analysed using core-genome multi-locus sequence typing (cgMLST) and compared to sequence data from historic clinical isolates from a 2011-2013 outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium illnesses linked to pet hedgehogs. Fifty-four illnesses in 23 states were identified between October 2018 and September 2019. Patients ranged from <1 to 95 years, and 65% were female. Eight patients were hospitalized. Eighty-one per cent (29/36) of patients interviewed reported contact with a hedgehog before becoming ill; of these, 21 (72%) reported owning a hedgehog. Analysis of 53 clinical, 11 hedgehog, and two hedgehog bedding isolates from this outbreak, seven hedgehog isolates obtained prior to this outbreak, and two clinical isolates from the 2011-2013 outbreak fell into three distinct groupings (37 isolates in Clade 1 [0-10 alleles], 28 isolates in Clade 2 [0-7 alleles], and eight isolates in Clade 3 [0-12 alleles]) and were collectively related within 0-31 alleles by cgMLST. Purchase information available from 20 patients showed hedgehogs were purchased from multiple breeders across nine states, a pet store, and through an online social media website; a single source of hedgehogs was not identified. This outbreak highlights the ability of genetic sequencing analysis to link historic and ongoing Salmonella illness outbreaks and demonstrates the strain of Salmonella linked to hedgehogs might continue to be a health risk to hedgehog owners unless measures are taken to prevent transmission.


Assuntos
Ouriços-Cacheiros , Salmonelose Animal , Animais , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/veterinária , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 19(3): 199-208, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989634

RESUMO

In August 2016, the Wisconsin Department of Health Services notified the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg infections in people who reported contact with dairy calves. Federal and state partners investigated this to identify the source and scope of the outbreak and to prevent further illnesses. Cases were defined as human Salmonella Heidelberg infection caused by a strain that had one of seven pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns or was related by whole genome sequencing (WGS), with illness onset from January 1, 2015, through July 2, 2018. Patient exposure and calf purchase information was collected and analyzed; calves were traced back from the point of purchase. Isolates obtained from animal and environmental samples collected on-farm were supplied by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and compared with patient isolates using PFGE and WGS. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by standardized broth microdilution was performed. Sixty-eight patients from 17 states were identified. Forty (63%) of 64 patients noted cattle contact before illness. Thirteen (33%) of 40 patients with exposure to calves reported that calves were sick or had died. Seven individuals purchased calves from a single Wisconsin livestock market. One hundred forty cattle from 14 states were infected with the outbreak strain. WGS indicated that human, cattle, and environmental isolates from the livestock market were genetically closely related. Most isolates (88%) had resistance or reduced susceptibility to antibiotics of ≥5 antibiotic classes. This resistance profile included first-line antibiotic treatments for patients with severe salmonellosis, including ampicillin, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin. In this outbreak, MDR Salmonella Heidelberg likely spread from sick calves to humans, emphasizing the importance of illness surveillance in animal populations to prevent future spillover of this zoonotic disease.


Assuntos
Salmonella enterica , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Salmonella , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(12): ofab572, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34917695

RESUMO

Cases of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) typhoid fever have been reported in the United States among patients who did not travel internationally. Clinicians should consider if and where the patient traveled when selecting empiric treatment for typhoid fever. XDR typhoid fever should be treated with a carbapenem, azithromycin, or both.

5.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 390, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasmids are mobile genetic elements, key in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance, virulence determinants and other adaptive traits in bacteria. Obtaining a robust method for plasmid classification is necessary to better understand the genetics and epidemiology of many pathogens. Until now, plasmid classification systems focused on specific traits, which limited their precision and universality. The definition of plasmid taxonomic units (PTUs), based on average nucleotide identity metrics, allows the generation of a universal plasmid classification scheme, applicable to all bacterial taxa. Here we present COPLA, a software able to assign plasmids to known and novel PTUs, based on their genomic sequence. RESULTS: We implemented an automated pipeline able to assign a given plasmid DNA sequence to its cognate PTU, and assessed its performance using a sample of 1000 unclassified plasmids. Overall, 41% of the samples could be assigned to a previously defined PTU, a number that reached 63% in well-known taxa such as the Enterobacterales order. The remaining plasmids represent novel PTUs, indicating that a large fraction of plasmid backbones is still uncharacterized. CONCLUSIONS: COPLA is a bioinformatic tool for universal, species-independent, plasmid classification. Offered both as an automatable pipeline and an open web service, COPLA will help bacterial geneticists and clinical microbiologists to quickly classify plasmids.


Assuntos
Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genômica , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Plasmídeos/genética , Fatores de Virulência
6.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(3)2021 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807748

RESUMO

Salmonella Infantis, a common contaminant of poultry products, is known to harbor mobile genetic elements that confer multi-drug resistance (MDR) and have been detected in many continents. Here, we report four MDR S. Infantis strains recovered from poultry house environments in Santa Cruz Island of the Galapagos showing extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) resistance and reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) revealed the presence of the ESBL-conferring blaCTX-M-65 gene in an IncFIB-like plasmid in three S. Infantis isolates. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and single nucleotide variant/polymorphism (SNP) SNVPhyl analysis showed that the S. Infantis isolates belong to sequence type ST32, likely share a common ancestor, and are closely related (1-3 SNP difference) to blaCTX-M-65-containing clinical and veterinary S. Infantis isolates from the United States and Latin America. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of SNPs following core-genome alignment (i.e., ParSNP) inferred close relatedness between the S. Infantis isolates from Galapagos and the United States. Prophage typing confirmed the close relationship among the Galapagos S. Infantis and was useful in distinguishing them from the United States isolates. This is the first report of MDR blaCTX-M-65-containing S. Infantis in the Galapagos Islands and highlights the need for increased monitoring and surveillance programs to determine prevalence, sources, and reservoirs of MDR pathogens.

7.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(12)2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352984

RESUMO

Salmonella Infantis carrying extended spectrum ß-lactamase blaCTX-M-65 on a pESI-like megaplasmid has recently emerged in United States poultry. In order to determine the carriage rate and gene content variability of this plasmid in U.S. Salmonella Infantis, whole genome sequences of Salmonella isolates from humans and animals in the U.S. and internationally containing the pESI-like plasmid were analyzed. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) identified 654 product sampling isolates containing pESI-like plasmids through hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) verification testing in 2017 and 2018. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identified 55 isolates with pESI-like plasmids in 2016-2018 through the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System. Approximately 49% of pESI-like plasmids from FSIS verification isolates and 71% from CDC NARMS contained blaCTX-M-65. Pan-plasmid genome analysis was also performed. All plasmids contained traN and more than 95% contained 172 other conserved genes; 61% contained blaCTX-M-65. In a hierarchical clustering analysis, some plasmids from U.S. animal sources clustered together and some plasmids from South America clustered together, possibly indicating multiple plasmid lineages. However, most plasmids contained similar genes regardless of origin. Carriage of the pESI-like plasmid in U.S. appears to be limited to Salmonella Infantis and carriage rates increased from 2017 to 2018.


Assuntos
Genes Bacterianos , Plasmídeos/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Portador Sadio , Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Carne/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Salmonella/enzimologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/microbiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Perus/microbiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , beta-Lactamases/genética
8.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(10)2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719029

RESUMO

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of enteric bacterial illness in the United States. Traditional molecular subtyping methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and 7-gene multilocus sequence typing (MLST), provided limited resolution to adequately identify C. jejuni outbreaks and separate out sporadic isolates during outbreak investigations. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has emerged as a powerful tool for C. jejuni outbreak detection. In this investigation, 45 human and 11 puppy isolates obtained during a 2016-2018 outbreak linked to pet store puppies were sequenced. Core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) and high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (hqSNP) analysis of the sequence data separated the isolates into the same two clades containing minor within-clade differences; however, cgMLST analysis does not require selection of an appropriate reference genome, making the method preferable to hqSNP analysis for Campylobacter surveillance and cluster detection. The isolates were classified as sequence type 2109 (ST2109)-a rarely seen MLST sequence type. PFGE was performed on 38 human and 10 puppy isolates; PFGE patterns did not reliably predict clustering by cgMLST analysis. Genetic detection of antimicrobial resistance determinants predicted that all outbreak-associated isolates would be resistant to six drug classes. Traditional antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) confirmed a high correlation between genotypic and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance determinations. WGS analysis linked C. jejuni isolates in humans and pet store puppies even when canine exposure information was unknown, aiding the epidemiological investigation during the outbreak. WGS data were also used to quickly identify the highly drug-resistant profile of these outbreak-associated C. jejuni isolates.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter , Campylobacter jejuni , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Cães , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Genótipo , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(20): 618-622, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437343

RESUMO

Ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (Typhi), the bacterium that causes typhoid fever, is a growing public health threat. Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhi is resistant to ceftriaxone and other antibiotics used for treatment, including ampicillin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (1). In March 2018, CDC began enhanced surveillance for ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi in response to an ongoing outbreak of XDR typhoid fever in Pakistan. CDC had previously reported the first five cases of XDR Typhi in the United States among patients who had spent time in Pakistan (2). These illnesses represented the first cases of ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi documented in the United States (3). This report provides an update on U.S. cases of XDR typhoid fever linked to Pakistan and describes a new, unrelated cluster of ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi infections linked to Iraq. Travelers to areas with endemic Typhi should receive typhoid vaccination before traveling and adhere to safe food and water precautions (4). Treatment of patients with typhoid fever should be guided by antimicrobial susceptibility testing whenever possible (5), and clinicians should consider travel history when selecting empiric therapy.


Assuntos
Ceftriaxona/farmacologia , Surtos de Doenças , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Salmonella typhi/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Febre Tifoide/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ceftriaxona/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Iraque/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(5): 1030-1033, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310060

RESUMO

A multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Anatum strain reported in Taiwan was isolated in the United States from patients and from seafood imported from Asia. Isolates harbored 11 resistance determinants, including quinolone and inducible cephalosporin resistance genes. Most patients had traveled to Asia. These findings underscore the need for global One Health resistance surveillance.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Salmonella enterica , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Ásia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Salmonella/genética , Salmonella enterica/genética , Alimentos Marinhos , Sorogrupo , Taiwan , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
mSphere ; 5(2)2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295868

RESUMO

Two separate human outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serotype Reading occurred between 2017 and 2019 in the United States and Canada, and both outbreaks were linked to the consumption of raw turkey products. In this study, a comprehensive genomic investigation was conducted to reconstruct the evolutionary history of S. Reading from turkeys and to determine the genomic context of outbreaks involving this infrequently isolated Salmonella serotype. A total of 988 isolates of U.S. origin were examined using whole-genome-based approaches, including current and historical isolates from humans, meat, and live food animals. Broadly, isolates clustered into three major clades, with one apparently highly adapted turkey clade. Within the turkey clade, isolates clustered into three subclades, including an "emergent" clade that contained only isolates dated 2016 or later, with many of the isolates from these outbreaks. Genomic differences were identified between emergent and other turkey subclades, suggesting that the apparent success of currently circulating subclades is, in part, attributable to plasmid acquisitions conferring antimicrobial resistance, gain of phage-like sequences with cargo virulence factors, and mutations in systems that may be involved in beta-glucuronidase activity and resistance towards colicins. U.S. and Canadian outbreak isolates were found interspersed throughout the emergent subclade and the other circulating subclade. The emergence of a novel S Reading turkey subclade, coinciding temporally with expansion in commercial turkey production and with U.S. and Canadian human outbreaks, indicates that emergent strains with higher potential for niche success were likely vertically transferred and rapidly disseminated from a common source.IMPORTANCE Increasingly, outbreak investigations involving foodborne pathogens are difficult due to the interconnectedness of food animal production and distribution, and homogeneous nature of industry integration, necessitating high-resolution genomic investigations to determine their basis. Fortunately, surveillance and whole-genome sequencing, combined with the public availability of these data, enable comprehensive queries to determine underlying causes of such outbreaks. Utilizing this pipeline, it was determined that a novel clone of Salmonella Reading has emerged that coincided with increased abundance in raw turkey products and two outbreaks of human illness in North America. The rapid dissemination of this highly adapted and conserved clone indicates that it was likely obtained from a common source and rapidly disseminated across turkey production. Key genomic changes may have contributed to its apparent continued success in commercial turkeys and ability to cause illness in humans.


Assuntos
Salmonelose Animal/transmissão , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Perus/microbiologia , Animais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Indústria Alimentícia , Genoma Bacteriano , Humanos , Filogenia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/classificação , Sorogrupo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Microbiol Resour Announc ; 9(13)2020 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217683

RESUMO

A large outbreak of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi infections is ongoing in Pakistan, predominantly in Sindh Province. Here, we report the sequencing and characterization of five XDR Salmonella Typhi isolates from the Punjab province of Pakistan that are closely related to the outbreak strain and carry the same IncY plasmid.

13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2075: 3-20, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584151

RESUMO

Plasmids are important in carrying antibiotic resistance and other genes between bacterial cells, and a number of methods can be employed to characterize plasmids from clinical isolates. Single colonies typically obtained as part of hospital workflow can undergo S1 nuclease treatment to linearize plasmids followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to enable determination of the number and sizes of plasmids present. Hybridization of S1/PFGE gels can be used to associate replicon types and passenger genes, such as those conferring antibiotic resistance, with a particular plasmid band. Individual plasmids, obtained by conjugation or transformation, can be compared by gel electrophoresis following restriction digestion of plasmid DNA prepared by alkaline lysis methods, including using specialized kits.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Plasmídeos/genética , Plasmídeos/isolamento & purificação , Conjugação Genética , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado/métodos , Humanos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Transformação Genética
14.
Water Res ; 167: 115081, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574348

RESUMO

To reveal the occurrence and mechanisms for dispersal of antibiotic resistance (AbR) among the microbial assemblages inhabiting impacted coastal environments, we performed a weekly, two-year duration time-series study at two urban beaches between 2014 and 2016. We combined quantitative PCR and multiplex PCR/reverse line blot techniques to track patterns in the occurrence of 31 AbR genes, including genes that confer resistance to antibiotics that are critically important antimicrobials for human medicine. Patterns in the abundance of these genes were linked to specific microbial groups and environmental parameters by coupling qPCR and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data with network analysis. Up to 100-fold increases in the abundance of several AbR genes, including genes conferring resistance to quinolones, trimethoprim, sulfonamides, tetracycline, vancomycin and carbapenems, occurred following storm-water and modelled wet-weather sewer overflow events. The abundance of AbR genes strongly and significantly correlated with several potentially pathogenic bacterial OTUs regularly associated with wastewater infrastructure, such as Arcobacter, Acinetobacter, Aeromonas and Cloacibacterium. These high-resolution observations provide clear links between storm-water discharge and sewer overflow events and the occurrence of AbR in the coastal microbial assemblages inhabiting urban beaches, highlighting a direct mechanism for potentially significant AbR exposure risks to humans.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Águas Residuárias , Antibacterianos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Tetraciclina
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527028

RESUMO

Enterobacteriaceae, quinolone resistance is largely attributed to mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE, and plasmid-italiciated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (e.g., qnr genes, aac(6')-Ib-cr, or qepA).….

16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(33): 713-717, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437141

RESUMO

In September 2018, CDC identified Salmonella enterica serotype Newport (Newport) infections that were multidrug resistant (MDR), with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin, a recommended oral treatment agent. Until 2017, decreased susceptibility to azithromycin had occurred in fewer than 0.5% of Salmonella isolates from U.S. residents. This report summarizes the investigation of a multistate MDR Salmonella outbreak conducted by CDC, state and local health departments, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service. During June 2018-March 2019, 255 cases of infection with the outbreak strain were identified in 32 states; 43% of patients (89 of 206 with information on travel) reported recent travel to Mexico. Infections were linked to consumption of soft cheese obtained in Mexico and beef obtained in the United States. Consumers should avoid eating soft cheese that could be made from unpasteurized milk, regardless of the source of the cheese. When preparing beef, a food thermometer should be used to ensure that appropriate cooking temperatures are reached. When antibiotic treatment is needed for a patient, clinicians should choose antibiotics based on susceptibility testing wherever possible.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/farmacologia , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Queijo/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(1): 38-41, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202900

RESUMO

Background: Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is a synthetic antibiotic combination recommended for the treatment of complicated non-typhoidal Salmonella infections in humans. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole is mediated by the acquisition of mobile genes, requiring both a dfr gene (trimethoprim resistance) and a sul gene (sulfamethoxazole resistance) for a clinical resistance phenotype (MIC ≥4/76 mg/L). In 2017, the CDC investigated a multistate outbreak caused by a Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg strain with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance, in which sul genes but no known dfr genes were detected. Objectives: To characterize and describe the molecular mechanism of trimethoprim resistance in a Salmonella Heidelberg outbreak isolate. Methods: Illumina sequencing data for one outbreak isolate revealed a 588 bp ORF encoding a putative dfr gene. This gene was cloned into Escherichia coli and resistance to trimethoprim was measured by broth dilution and Etest. Phylogenetic analysis of previously reported dfrA genes was performed using MEGA. Long-read sequencing was conducted to determine the context of the novel dfr gene. Results and conclusions: The novel dfr gene, named dfrA34, conferred trimethoprim resistance (MIC ≥32 mg/L) when cloned into E. coli. Based on predicted amino acid sequences, dfrA34 shares less than 50% identity with other known dfrA genes. The dfrA34 gene is located in a class 1 integron in a multiresistance region of an IncC plasmid, adjacent to a sul gene, thus conferring clinical trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance. Additionally, dfrA34 is associated with ISCR1, enabling easy transmission between other plasmids and bacterial strains.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Genes Bacterianos , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Resistência a Trimetoprima , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Expressão Gênica , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Salmonella enterica/genética , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30393782

RESUMO

We report here Illumina-corrected PacBio whole-genome sequences of an Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 strain (2017C-4109), an E. coli serotype O[undetermined]:H2 strain (2017C-4173W12), and a Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis strain (2017K-0021), all of which carried the mcr-1 resistance gene on an IncI2 or IncX4 plasmid. We also determined that pMCR-1-CTSe is identical to a previously published plasmid, pMCR-1-CT.

20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 54(8): 2172-4, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27194693

RESUMO

Strain typing of Treponema pallidum, using the three-target enhanced classification scheme, was performed with 191 samples obtained between 2004 and 2011 in Sydney, Australia. The most common strain type was 14d/g (92/191 samples [48%]). Two new TP0548 gene types were detected (m and n). Strain type was associated with macrolide resistance and possible acquisition outside Australia.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Genótipo , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Tipagem Molecular , Sífilis/microbiologia , Treponema pallidum/classificação , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Treponema pallidum/efeitos dos fármacos , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
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