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1.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 69(4): 277-285, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35094489

RESUMO

Antimicrobial drug use in companion animal medicine, the subsequent development of antimicrobial resistance and the potential hazard of animals transmitting resistant bacteria to humans are of increasing concern. Antimicrobial prescription patterns among companion animal veterinarians in the United States are understudied, and the association between antimicrobial drug use guideline awareness and antimicrobial drug prescription practices is unknown. Information on antimicrobial recommendations for five hypothetical clinical scenarios, including canine pyoderma, acute canine diarrhoea, feline lower urinary tract illness, canine dental procedures and feline upper respiratory illness, was gathered using an anonymous, online cross-sectional survey. A logistic regression approach was used to assess the association between self-reported awareness of antimicrobial drug use guidelines and prescribing recommendations for the five hypothetical scenarios. Responses (n = 2,410) indicated antimicrobial drugs were commonly recommended for the five hypothetical clinical scenarios. After controlling for key demographic characteristics, prescribers who reported an awareness of existing antimicrobial drug use guidelines were significantly less likely to recommend antimicrobial drugs for the scenarios describing feline lower urinary symptoms, feline upper respiratory illness and canine acute diarrhoea. Results from hypothetical clinical scenarios point to the possibility for widespread unsupported prescribing of antimicrobial drugs in companion animal medicine. Additionally, results provide evidence of an association between awareness of antimicrobial drug use guidelines and lower prescribing levels for certain hypothetical disease presentations.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/veterinária , Prescrições de Medicamentos/veterinária , Humanos , Animais de Estimação , Estados Unidos
2.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 257(1): 87-96, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess production animal medicine veterinarians' prescription practices and identify factors influencing their use of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) and their perceptions of and attitudes toward antimicrobial resistance (AMR). SAMPLE: 157 production animal veterinarians in the United States. PROCEDURES: An online cross-sectional survey and digital diary were used to gather information regarding perceptions on AMD use and AMR and on treatment recommendations for production setting-specific disease scenarios. Results were compared across respondents grouped by their selected production setting scenarios and reported years as veterinarians. RESULTS: The most commonly selected production setting disease scenarios were dairy cattle (96/157 [61.1%]), backgrounding cattle (32/157 [20.4%]), and feedlot cattle (20/157 [12.7%]). Because few respondents selected swine (5/157 [3.2%]) or poultry (4/157 [2.5%]) scenarios, those responses were excluded from statistical analysis of AMD prescription practices. Most remaining respondents (147/148 [99.3%]) reported that they would recommend AMD treatment for an individual ill animal; however, responses differed for respondents grouped by their selected production setting scenarios and reported years as veterinarians when asked about AMD treatment of an exposed group or high-risk disease-free group. Most respondents reported that government regulations influenced their AMD prescribing, that owner and producer compliance was a veterinary-related factor that contributed to AMR, and that environmental modifications to prevent disease could be effective to mitigate AMR. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results of the present study helped fill important knowledge gaps pertaining to prescription practices and influencing factors for AMD use in production animal medicine and provided baseline information for future assessments. This information could be used to inform future interventions and training tools to mitigate the public health threat of AMR.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Médicos Veterinários , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Atitude , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Percepção , Prescrições , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suínos
3.
Diabetes Care ; 43(1): 247-249, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in cannabis users compared with nonusers in the T1D Exchange clinic registry (T1DX). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The association between cannabis use by total substance score for cannabis (TSC) and DKA in the past 12 months was examined using a logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounders among adults in the T1DX. RESULTS: Of 932 adults with type 1 diabetes, 61 had a TSC >4, which classified them as moderate cannabis users. Adjusting for sex, age at study visit, and HbA1c, cannabis use was associated with a twofold increase in risk for DKA among adults with type 1 diabetes (odds ratio 2.5 [95% CI 1.0-5.9]). CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis use was associated with an increased risk for DKA among adults in the T1DX. Providers should inform their patients of the potential risk of DKA with cannabis use.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Cetoacidose Diabética/epidemiologia , Abuso de Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Cetoacidose Diabética/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Maconha/complicações , Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
4.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(34): 4929-4932, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968865

RESUMO

Perovskite oxides are promising materials as oxygen carriers in chemical looping applications. We analyze in situ X-ray diffraction data on the perovskite phases La1-xSrxCoO3-δ for x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 under chemical looping conditions. We report and discuss their structural evolution, cycling stability, and suitability as oxygen storage materials.

6.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 52(68): 10369-72, 2016 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27478888

RESUMO

The selection of highly efficient oxygen carriers (OCs) is a key step necessary for the practical development of chemical looping combustion (CLC). In this study, a series of ABO3 perovskites, where A = La, Ba, Sr, Ca and B = Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, are synthesized and tested in a fixed bed reactor for reactivity and stability as OCs with CH4 as the fuel. We find that the electronegativity of the transition metal on the B-site (λB), is a convenient descriptor for oxygen storage capacity (OSC) of our perovskite samples. By plotting OSC for total methane oxidation against λB, we observe an inverted volcano plot relationship. These results could provide useful guidelines for perovskite OC design and their other energy related applications.

7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 51(61): 12201-4, 2015 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26136224

RESUMO

Sr2FeMoO6 has been extensively studied for application in spintronic devices. Through the topochemical de-intercalation of oxygen anions with metal hydride reduction, we demonstrate that the high temperature cubic phase is stabilized, at room temperature, whilst leaving the magnetic ordering intact. Synchrotron X-ray and neutron powder diffraction were used to characterize the structure and stoichiometry of the reduced oxide.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 44(23): 10608-13, 2015 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25859922

RESUMO

Despite the high prominence of the perovskites BiFeO(3) and KNbO(3) the solid solution between the two has received little attention. We report a detailed neutron and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy study which demonstrates an R3c→P4mm→Amm2 series of structural phase transitions similar to that exhibited by the PbZrO(3)-PbTiO(3) solid solution.

9.
Am J Vet Res ; 73(1): 91-7, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22204293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To measure the relationship between gross lesions in swine carcasses observed at a processing plant and Salmonella contamination and to determine whether nonexpert assessments of lesion status would correspond with swine pathologists' judgments. ANIMALS: Carcasses of 202 conventionally raised and 156 antimicrobial-free pigs in a Midwestern US processing plant examined from December 2005 to January 2006. PROCEDURES: 4 replicates were conducted. For each, freshly eviscerated carcasses were identified as having or lacking visceral adhesions by a nonexpert evaluator and digital carcass photographs were obtained. Swab specimens were obtained from carcasses before the final rinse stage of processing, and bacterial culture for Salmonella spp and Enterococcus spp was performed. Subsequently, carcass photographs were numerically scored for lesion severity by 3 veterinary pathologists. Results were used to test the ability of lesion detection to predict bacterial contamination of carcasses and the agreement between judgments of the inexperienced and experienced assessors. RESULTS: The probability of Salmonella contamination in carcasses with lesions identified at the abattoir was 90% higher than that in carcasses lacking lesions, after controlling for replicate identity and antimicrobial use. The receiver operating characteristic curve and Cohen κ indicated close agreement between lesion detection at the abattoir and by the 3 pathologists. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings indicated the presence of lesions could be used to predict Salmonella contamination of swine carcasses and that a nonexpert processing-line assessment of lesions could be used to discriminate between healthy and chronically ill swine before their entry into the human food supply.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/veterinária , Carne/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/patologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Suínos/patologia , Matadouros/normas , Animais , Infecções Assintomáticas , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana/veterinária , Enterococcus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/patologia , Funções Verossimilhança , Modelos Logísticos , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Curva ROC , Análise de Regressão , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia
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