Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 49
Filtrar
1.
Microorganisms ; 9(9)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34576892

RESUMO

Treatment of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (O157) diarrhea with antimicrobials might alter the risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). However, full characterization of which antimicrobials might affect risk is lacking, particularly among adults. To inform clinical management, we conducted a case-control study of residents of the FoodNet surveillance areas with O157 diarrhea during a 4-year period to assess antimicrobial class-specific associations with HUS among persons with O157 diarrhea. We collected data from medical records and patient interviews. We measured associations between treatment with agents in specific antimicrobial classes during the first week of diarrhea and development of HUS, adjusting for age and illness severity. We enrolled 1308 patients; 102 (7.8%) developed confirmed HUS. Antimicrobial treatment varied by age: <5 years (12.6%), 5-14 (11.5%), 15-39 (45.4%), ≥40 (53.4%). Persons treated with a ß-lactam had higher odds of developing HUS (OR 2.80, CI 1.14-6.89). None of the few persons treated with a macrolide developed HUS, but the protective association was not statistically significant. Exposure to "any antimicrobial" was not associated with increased odds of HUS. Our findings confirm the risk of ß-lactams among children with O157 diarrhea and extends it to adults. We observed a high frequency of inappropriate antimicrobial treatment among adults. Our data suggest that antimicrobial classes differ in the magnitude of risk for persons with O157 diarrhea.

2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(38): 1332-1336, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555002

RESUMO

Foodborne illnesses are a substantial and largely preventable public health problem; before 2020 the incidence of most infections transmitted commonly through food had not declined for many years. To evaluate progress toward prevention of foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food reported by 10 U.S. sites.* FoodNet is a collaboration among CDC, 10 state health departments, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS), and the Food and Drug Administration. This report summarizes preliminary 2020 data and describes changes in incidence with those during 2017-2019. During 2020, observed incidences of infections caused by enteric pathogens decreased 26% compared with 2017-2019; infections associated with international travel decreased markedly. The extent to which these reductions reflect actual decreases in illness or decreases in case detection is unknown. On March 13, 2020, the United States declared a national emergency in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. After the declaration, state and local officials implemented stay-at-home orders, restaurant closures, school and child care center closures, and other public health interventions to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Federal travel restrictions were declared (1). These widespread interventions as well as other changes to daily life and hygiene behaviors, including increased handwashing, have likely changed exposures to foodborne pathogens. Other factors, such as changes in health care delivery, health care-seeking behaviors, and laboratory testing practices, might have decreased the detection of enteric infections. As the pandemic continues, surveillance of illness combined with data from other sources might help to elucidate the factors that led to the large changes in 2020; this understanding could lead to improved strategies to prevent illness. To reduce the incidence of these infections concerted efforts are needed, from farm to processing plant to restaurants and homes. Consumers can reduce their risk of foodborne illness by following safe food-handling and preparation recommendations.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Conduta Expectante , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
Pediatrics ; 148(5)2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385349

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the demographics, clinical characteristics, and hospital course among persons <21 years of age with a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated death. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series of suspected SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths in the United States in persons <21 years of age during February 12 to July 31, 2020. All states and territories were invited to participate. We abstracted demographic and clinical data, including laboratory and treatment details, from medical records. RESULTS: We included 112 SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths from 25 participating jurisdictions. The median age was 17 years (IQR 8.5-19 years). Most decedents were male (71, 63%), 31 (28%) were Black (non-Hispanic) persons, and 52 (46%) were Hispanic persons. Ninety-six decedents (86%) had at least 1 underlying condition; obesity (42%), asthma (29%), and developmental disorders (22%) were most commonly documented. Among 69 hospitalized decedents, common complications included mechanical ventilation (75%) and acute respiratory failure (82%). The sixteen (14%) decedents who met multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) criteria were similar in age, sex, and race and/or ethnicity to decedents without MIS-C; 11 of 16 (69%) had at least 1 underlying condition. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths among persons <21 years of age occurred predominantly among Black (non-Hispanic) and Hispanic persons, male patients, and older adolescents. The most commonly reported underlying conditions were obesity, asthma, and developmental disorders. Decedents with coronavirus disease 2019 were more likely than those with MIS-C to have underlying medical conditions.

4.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(10): 1318-1321, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375701

RESUMO

Facility-wide testing performed at 4 outpatient hemodialysis facilities in the absence of an outbreak or escalating community incidence did not identify new SARS-CoV-2 infections and illustrated key logistical considerations essential to successful implementation of SARS-CoV-2 screening. Facilities could consider prioritizing facility-wide SARS-CoV-2 testing during suspicion of an outbreak in the facility or escalating community spread without robust infection control strategies in place. Being prepared to address operational considerations will enhance implementation of facility-wide testing in the outpatient dialysis setting.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Falência Renal Crônica , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Diálise Renal/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2116420, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110391

RESUMO

Importance: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is associated with recent or current SARS-CoV-2 infection. Information on MIS-C incidence is limited. Objective: To estimate population-based MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 person-months and to estimate MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections in persons younger than 21 years. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used enhanced surveillance data to identify persons with MIS-C during April to June 2020, in 7 jurisdictions reporting to both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention national surveillance and to Overcoming COVID-19, a multicenter MIS-C study. Denominators for population-based estimates were derived from census estimates; denominators for incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections were estimated by applying published age- and month-specific multipliers accounting for underdetection of reported COVID-19 case counts. Jurisdictions included Connecticut, Georgia, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York (excluding New York City), and Pennsylvania. Data analyses were conducted from August to December 2020. Exposures: Race/ethnicity, sex, and age group (ie, ≤5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-20 years). Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall and stratum-specific adjusted estimated MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 person-months and per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections. Results: In the 7 jurisdictions examined, 248 persons with MIS-C were reported (median [interquartile range] age, 8 [4-13] years; 133 [53.6%] male; 96 persons [38.7%] were Hispanic or Latino; 75 persons [30.2%] were Black). The incidence of MIS-C per 1 000 000 person-months was 5.1 (95% CI, 4.5-5.8) persons. Compared with White persons, incidence per 1 000 000 person-months was higher among Black persons (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR], 9.26 [95% CI, 6.15-13.93]), Hispanic or Latino persons (aIRR, 8.92 [95% CI, 6.00-13.26]), and Asian or Pacific Islander (aIRR, 2.94 [95% CI, 1.49-5.82]) persons. MIS-C incidence per 1 000 000 SARS-CoV-2 infections was 316 (95% CI, 278-357) persons and was higher among Black (aIRR, 5.62 [95% CI, 3.68-8.60]), Hispanic or Latino (aIRR, 4.26 [95% CI, 2.85-6.38]), and Asian or Pacific Islander persons (aIRR, 2.88 [95% CI, 1.42-5.83]) compared with White persons. For both analyses, incidence was highest among children aged 5 years or younger (4.9 [95% CI, 3.7-6.6] children per 1 000 000 person-months) and children aged 6 to 10 years (6.3 [95% CI, 4.8-8.3] children per 1 000 000 person-months). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, MIS-C was a rare complication associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Estimates for population-based incidence and incidence among persons with infection were higher among Black, Hispanic or Latino, and Asian or Pacific Islander persons. Further study is needed to understand variability by race/ethnicity and age group.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
JAMA Pediatr ; 175(8): 837-845, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821923

RESUMO

Importance: Multiple inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) occurs in association with the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and geographic and temporal distribution of the largest cohort of patients with MIS-C in the United States to date. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on clinical and laboratory data collected from patients with MIS-C. The analysis included patients with illness onset from March 2020 to January 2021 and met MIS-C case definition. Main Outcomes and Measures: Geographic and temporal distribution of MIS-C was compared with that of COVID-19 nationally, by region, and level of urbanicity by county. Clinical and laboratory findings and changes over time were described by age group and by presence or absence of preceding COVID-19. Results: A total of 1733 patients with MIS-C were identified; 994 (57.6%) were male and 1117 (71.3%) were Hispanic or non-Hispanic Black. Gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, and conjunctival hyperemia were reported by 53% (n = 931) to 67% (n = 1153) of patients. A total of 937 patients (54%) had hypotension or shock, and 1009 (58.2%) were admitted for intensive care. Cardiac dysfunction was reported in 484 patients (31.0%), pericardial effusion in 365 (23.4%), myocarditis in 300 (17.3%), and coronary artery dilatation or aneurysms in 258 (16.5%). Patients aged 0 to 4 years had the lowest proportion of severe manifestations, although 171 patients (38.4%) had hypotension or shock and 197 (44.3%) were admitted for intensive care. Patients aged 18 to 20 years had the highest proportions with myocarditis (17 [30.9%]), pneumonia (20 [36.4%]), acute respiratory distress syndrome (10 [18.2%]), and polymerase chain reaction positivity (39 [70.9%]). These older adolescents also had the highest proportion reporting preceding COVID-19-like illness (63%). Nationally, the first 2 MIS-C peaks followed the COVID-19 peaks by 2 to 5 weeks. The cumulative MIS-C incidence per 100 000 persons younger than 21 years was 2.1 and varied from 0.2 to 6.3 by state. Twenty-four patients (1.4%) died. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of a large cohort of patients with MIS-C, 2 peaks that followed COVID-19 peaks by 2 to 5 weeks were identified. The geographic and temporal association of MIS-C with the COVID-19 pandemic suggested that MIS-C resulted from delayed immunologic responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical manifestations varied by age and by presence or absence of preceding COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1164-1168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754981
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4141-e4151, 2021 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can cause severe illness and death. Predictors of poor outcome collected on hospital admission may inform clinical and public health decisions. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort investigation of 297 adults admitted to 8 academic and community hospitals in Georgia, United States, during March 2020. Using standardized medical record abstraction, we collected data on predictors including admission demographics, underlying medical conditions, outpatient antihypertensive medications, recorded symptoms, vital signs, radiographic findings, and laboratory values. We used random forest models to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for predictors of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and death. RESULTS: Compared with age <45 years, ages 65-74 years and ≥75 years were predictors of IMV (aORs, 3.12 [95% CI, 1.47-6.60] and 2.79 [95% CI, 1.23-6.33], respectively) and the strongest predictors for death (aORs, 12.92 [95% CI, 3.26-51.25] and 18.06 [95% CI, 4.43-73.63], respectively). Comorbidities associated with death (aORs, 2.4-3.8; P < .05) included end-stage renal disease, coronary artery disease, and neurologic disorders, but not pulmonary disease, immunocompromise, or hypertension. Prehospital use vs nonuse of angiotensin receptor blockers (aOR, 2.02 [95% CI, 1.03-3.96]) and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (aOR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.03-3.55]) were associated with death. CONCLUSIONS: After adjustment for patient and clinical characteristics, older age was the strongest predictor of death, exceeding comorbidities, abnormal vital signs, and laboratory test abnormalities. That coronary artery disease, but not chronic lung disease, was associated with death among hospitalized patients warrants further investigation, as do associations between certain antihypertensive medications and death.

9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(37): 1324-1329, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941417

RESUMO

Since February 12, 2020, approximately 6.5 million cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and 190,000 SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths have been reported in the United States (1,2). Symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection are milder in children compared with adults (3). Persons aged <21 years constitute 26% of the U.S. population (4), and this report describes characteristics of U.S. persons in that population who died in association with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as reported by public health jurisdictions. Among 121 SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths reported to CDC among persons aged <21 years in the United States during February 12-July 31, 2020, 63% occurred in males, 10% of decedents were aged <1 year, 20% were aged 1-9 years, 70% were aged 10-20 years, 45% were Hispanic persons, 29% were non-Hispanic Black (Black) persons, and 4% were non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons. Among these 121 decedents, 91 (75%) had an underlying medical condition,* 79 (65%) died after admission to a hospital, and 39 (32%) died at home or in the emergency department (ED).† These data show that nearly three quarters of SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths among infants, children, adolescents, and young adults have occurred in persons aged 10-20 years, with a disproportionate percentage among young adults aged 18-20 years and among Hispanics, Blacks, AI/ANs, and persons with underlying medical conditions. Careful monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 infections, deaths, and other severe outcomes among persons aged <21 years remains particularly important as schools reopen in the United States. Ongoing evaluation of effectiveness of prevention and control strategies will also be important to inform public health guidance for schools and parents and other caregivers.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adolescente , COVID-19 , Causas de Morte/tendências , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(25): 790-794, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584797

RESUMO

The first reported U.S. case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was detected in January 2020 (1). As of June 15, 2020, approximately 2 million cases and 115,000 COVID-19-associated deaths have been reported in the United States.* Reports of U.S. patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection (the virus that causes COVID-19) describe high proportions of older, male, and black persons (2-4). Similarly, when comparing hospitalized patients with catchment area populations or nonhospitalized COVID-19 patients, high proportions have underlying conditions, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, or chronic respiratory disease (3,4). For this report, data were abstracted from the medical records of 220 hospitalized and 311 nonhospitalized patients aged ≥18 years with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from six acute care hospitals and associated outpatient clinics in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify patient characteristics associated with hospitalization. The following characteristics were independently associated with hospitalization: age ≥65 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.4), black race (aOR = 3.2), having diabetes mellitus (aOR = 3.1), lack of insurance (aOR = 2.8), male sex (aOR = 2.4), smoking (aOR = 2.3), and obesity (aOR = 1.9). Infection with SARS-CoV-2 can lead to severe outcomes, including death, and measures to protect persons from infection, such as staying at home, social distancing (5), and awareness and management of underlying conditions should be emphasized for those at highest risk for hospitalization with COVID-19. Measures that prevent the spread of infection to others, such as wearing cloth face coverings (6), should be used whenever possible to protect groups at high risk. Potential barriers to the ability to adhere to these measures need to be addressed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19 , Cidades/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(17): 509-514, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352955

RESUMO

To evaluate progress toward prevention of enteric illnesses, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors the incidence of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food at 10 U.S. sites.* This report summarizes preliminary 2019 data and describes changes in incidence compared with that during 2016-2018. The incidence of enteric infections caused by these eight pathogens reported by FoodNet sites in 2019 continued to increase or remained unchanged, indicating progress in controlling major foodborne pathogens in the United States has stalled. Campylobacter and Salmonella caused the largest proportion of illnesses; trends in incidence varied by Salmonella serotype. Widespread adoption of whole genome sequencing (WGS) of bacteria has improved the ability to identify outbreaks, emerging strains, and sources of pathogens. To maximize the potential of WGS to link illnesses to particular sources, testing of isolates by clinical and public health laboratories is needed. Reductions in Salmonella serotype Typhimurium suggest that targeted interventions (e.g., vaccinating chickens and other food animals) might decrease human infections. Reducing contamination during food production, processing, and preparation will require more widespread implementation of known prevention measures and of new strategies that target particular pathogens and serotypes.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(18): 545-550, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379729

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first detected in the United States during January 2020 (1). Since then, >980,000 cases have been reported in the United States, including >55,000 associated deaths as of April 28, 2020 (2). Detailed data on demographic characteristics, underlying medical conditions, and clinical outcomes for persons hospitalized with COVID-19 are needed to inform prevention strategies and community-specific intervention messages. For this report, CDC, the Georgia Department of Public Health, and eight Georgia hospitals (seven in metropolitan Atlanta and one in southern Georgia) summarized medical record-abstracted data for hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed* COVID-19 who were admitted during March 2020. Among 305 hospitalized patients with COVID-19, 61.6% were aged <65 years, 50.5% were female, and 83.2% with known race/ethnicity were non-Hispanic black (black). Over a quarter of patients (26.2%) did not have conditions thought to put them at higher risk for severe disease, including being aged ≥65 years. The proportion of hospitalized patients who were black was higher than expected based on overall hospital admissions. In an adjusted time-to-event analysis, black patients were not more likely than were nonblack patients to receive invasive mechanical ventilation† (IMV) or to die during hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-1.13). Given the overrepresentation of black patients within this hospitalized cohort, it is important for public health officials to ensure that prevention activities prioritize communities and racial/ethnic groups most affected by COVID-19. Clinicians and public officials should be aware that all adults, regardless of underlying conditions or age, are at risk for serious illness from COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Georgia/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(1): 122-124, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855540

RESUMO

Shigella commonly causes gastroenteritis but rarely spreads to the blood. During 2002-2012, we identified 11,262 Shigella infections through population-based active surveillance in Georgia; 72 (0.64%) were isolated from blood. Bacteremia was associated with age >18 years, black race, and S. flexneri. More than half of patients with bacteremia were HIV-infected.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia , Shigella , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Shigella flexneri
14.
Pediatr Transplant ; 24(1): e13649, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885132

RESUMO

We report a cluster of pediatric cryptosporidiosis infections among solid organ transplant recipients at a summer camp in Georgia, USA. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate the risk factors for infection. A total of 118 campers attended the camp during July 23-28, 2017. The overall attack rate among campers during the outbreak was 11% (13/118). Sanger-based amplicon sequencing of stool specimens from 7 (80%) campers identified Cryptosporidium hominis as the suspected etiologic agent. All infected campers were heart or kidney transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. The median reported symptom duration was 12 days (range 6-18 days) and 9 (69.2%) were hospitalized for at least one night (median length of stay 5 days, range 2-16 days). There were no deaths or acute rejection events attributed to infection. The results of the epidemiologic and environmental investigation suggest a recreational pool as the presumed source, although there was no direct evidence to support this. Many long-term interventions were implemented, and there have been no further outbreaks at the camp in the following two years. This outbreak demonstrates that cryptosporidiosis may be associated with notable burden in pediatric transplant recipients, and illustrates the challenges associated with source identification and containment.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Coração , Transplante de Rim , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Piscinas , Microbiologia da Água , Adolescente , Criança , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
15.
JAMA ; 322(24): 2399-2410, 2019 12 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860046

RESUMO

Importance: Invasive nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) infection among adults is typically associated with bacteremic pneumonia. Nontypeable H influenzae is genetically diverse and clusters of infection are uncommon. Objective: To evaluate an increase in invasive NTHi infection from 2017-2018 among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based surveillance study with a cohort substudy and descriptive epidemiological analysis identified adults aged 18 years or older with invasive NTHi infection (isolation of NTHi from a normally sterile site) between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2018 (final date of follow-up). Exposures: Time period, HIV status, and genetic relatedness (ie, cluster status) of available NTHi isolates. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was incidence of invasive NTHi infection (from 2008-2016 and 2017-2018) among persons with HIV and compared with NTHi infection from 2008-2018 among those without HIV. The secondary outcomes were assessed among those aged 18 to 55 years with invasive NTHi infection and included epidemiological, clinical, and geographic comparisons by cluster status. Results: Among 553 adults with invasive NTHi infection (median age, 66 years [Q1-Q3, 48-78 years]; 52% male; and 38% black), 60 cases occurred among persons with HIV. Incidence of invasive NTHi infection from 2017-2018 among persons with HIV (41.7 cases per 100 000) was significantly greater than from 2008-2016 among those with HIV (9.6 per 100 000; P < .001) and from 2008-2018 among those without HIV (1.1 per 100 000; P < .001). Among adults aged 18 to 55 years with invasive NTHi infections from 2017-2018 (n = 179), persons with HIV (n = 31) were significantly more likely than those from 2008-2018 without HIV (n = 124) to be male (94% vs 49%, respectively; P < .001), black (100% vs 53%; P < .001), and have septic arthritis (35% vs 1%; P < .001). Persons with HIV who had invasive NTHi infection from 2017-2018 (n = 31) were more likely than persons with HIV who had invasive NTHi infection from 2008-2016 (n = 24) to have septic arthritis (35% vs 4%, respectively; P = .01). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of 174 of 179 NTHi isolates from 18- to 55-year-olds identified 2 genetically distinct clonal groups: cluster 1 (C1; n = 24) and cluster 2 (C2; n = 23). Whole-genome sequencing confirmed 2 clonal lineages of NTHi infection and revealed all C1 isolates (but none of the C2 isolates) carried IS1016 (an insertion sequence associated with H influenzae capsule genes). Persons with HIV were significantly more likely to have C1 or C2 invasive NTHi infection from 2017-2018 (28/31 [90%]) compared with from 2008-2016 among persons with HIV (10/24 [42%]; P < .001) and compared with from 2008-2018 among those without HIV (9/119 [8%]; P < .001). Among persons with C1 or C2 invasive NTHi infection who had HIV (n = 38) (median age, 34.5 years; 100% male; 100% black; 82% men who have sex with men), 32 (84%) lived in 2 urban counties and an area of significant spatial aggregation was identified compared with those without C1 or C2 invasive NTHi infection. Conclusions and Relevance: Among persons with HIV in Atlanta, the incidence of invasive nontypeable H influenzae infection increased significantly from 2017-2018 compared with 2008-2016. Two unique but genetically related clonal strains were identified and were associated with septic arthritis among black men who have sex with men and who lived in geographic proximity.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por Haemophilus/epidemiologia , Haemophilus influenzae/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Artrite Infecciosa/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Georgia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Haemophilus/complicações , Infecções por Haemophilus/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Vigilância da População , Sorotipagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217632, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145765

RESUMO

Detection of clusters of Legionnaires' disease, a leading waterborne cause of pneumonia, is challenging. Clusters vary in size and scope, are associated with a diverse range of aerosol-producing devices, including exposures such as whirlpool spas and hotel water systems typically associated with travel, and can occur without an easily identified exposure source. Recently, jurisdictions have begun to use SaTScan spatio-temporal analysis software prospectively as part of routine cluster surveillance. We used data collected by the Active Bacterial Core surveillance platform to assess the ability of SaTScan to detect Legionnaires' disease clusters. We found that SaTScan analysis using traditional surveillance data and geocoded residential addresses was unable to detect many common Legionnaires' disease cluster types, such as those associated with travel or a prolonged time between cases. Additionally, signals from an analysis designed to simulate a real-time search for clusters did not align with clusters identified by traditional surveillance methods or a retrospective SaTScan analysis. A geospatial analysis platform better tailored to the unique characteristics of Legionnaires' disease epidemiology would improve cluster detection and decrease time to public health action.


Assuntos
Legionella pneumophila/isolamento & purificação , Doença dos Legionários/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/enzimologia , Vigilância da População , Análise por Conglomerados , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Legionella pneumophila/patogenicidade , Doença dos Legionários/microbiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Software , Microbiologia da Água
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(16): 369-373, 2019 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022166

RESUMO

Foodborne diseases represent a major health problem in the United States. The Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) of CDC's Emerging Infections Program monitors cases of laboratory-diagnosed infection caused by eight pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites.* This report summarizes preliminary 2018 data and changes since 2015. During 2018, FoodNet identified 25,606 infections, 5,893 hospitalizations, and 120 deaths. The incidence of most infections is increasing, including those caused by Campylobacter and Salmonella, which might be partially attributable to the increased use of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs). The incidence of Cyclospora infections increased markedly compared with 2015-2017, in part related to large outbreaks associated with produce (1). More targeted prevention measures are needed on produce farms, food animal farms, and in meat and poultry processing establishments to make food safer and decrease human illness.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parasitologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(32): 894-897, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114000

RESUMO

Several countries in Europe and Australia are reporting an increasing incidence of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W (NmW) as a consequence of the rapid expansion of a single NmW clone belonging to clonal complex 11 (1-5). Because this clone is reported to be associated with more severe disease, unusual clinical presentations, and a high case fatality ratio (CFR), it is considered a hypervirulent strain (1,6). In the United States, NmW accounts for approximately 5% of meningococcal disease reported each year, and this proportion has remained stable for several years (7). However, localized increases in NmW have been reported, most notably in Florida during 2008-2009 (8). In Georgia, NmW accounted for only 3% of meningococcal disease cases reported during 2006-2013; however, between January 2014 and December 2016, 42% of all reported cases were NmW. Surveillance data from Georgia were analyzed to describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of NmW cases, and whole-genome sequencing of NmW isolates was performed for comparison with NmW strains circulating in the United States and worldwide. These data indicate that the U.S. NmW strains might have evolved from the same ancestor as the hypervirulent strain that is circulating globally. Genetic analysis demonstrates that these strains are closely related, which would suggest that genetic variation led to the rise of different strains from the same ancestor. Given the recent global expansion of this potentially hypervirulent NmW lineage, clinicians and public health officials need to remain vigilant in obtaining isolates to monitor changes in circulating strains.


Assuntos
Infecções Meningocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Meningocócicas/microbiologia , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo W-135/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Georgia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neisseria meningitidis/genética , Neisseria meningitidis/isolamento & purificação , Neisseria meningitidis Sorogrupo W-135/genética , Sorogrupo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 67(11): 324-328, 2018 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29565841

RESUMO

Despite ongoing food safety measures in the United States, foodborne illness continues to be a substantial health burden. The 10 U.S. sites of the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet)* monitor cases of laboratory-diagnosed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food. This report summarizes preliminary 2017 data and describes changes in incidence since 2006. In 2017, FoodNet reported 24,484 infections, 5,677 hospitalizations, and 122 deaths. Compared with 2014-2016, the 2017 incidence of infections with Campylobacter, Listeria, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Yersinia, Vibrio, and Cyclospora increased. The increased incidences of pathogens for which testing was previously limited might have resulted from the increased use and sensitivity of culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), which can improve incidence estimates (1). Compared with 2006-2008, the 2017 incidence of infections with Salmonella serotypes Typhimurium and Heidelberg decreased, and the incidence of serotypes Javiana, Infantis, and Thompson increased. New regulatory requirements that include enhanced testing of poultry products for Salmonella† might have contributed to the decreases. The incidence of STEC O157 infections during 2017 also decreased compared with 2006-2008, which parallels reductions in isolations from ground beef.§ The declines in two Salmonella serotypes and STEC O157 infections provide supportive evidence that targeted control measures are effective. The marked increases in infections caused by some Salmonella serotypes provide an opportunity to investigate food and nonfood sources of infection and to design specific interventions.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/parasitologia , Humanos , Incidência , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 6(3): e116-e122, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28903524

RESUMO

Background: Mycobacterium abscessus is an uncommon cause of invasive odontogenic infection. Methods: M abscessus-associated odontogenic infections occurred in a group of children after they each underwent a pulpotomy. A probable case-child was defined as a child with facial or neck swelling and biopsy-confirmed granulomatous inflammation after a pulpotomy between October 1, 2013, and September 30, 2015. M abscessus was isolated by culture in confirmed case-children. Clinical presentation, management, and outcomes were determined by medical record abstraction. Results: Among 24 children, 14 (58%) were confirmed case-children. Their median age was 7.3 years (interquartile range, 5.8-8.2 years), and the median time from pulpotomy to symptom onset was 74 days (range, 14-262 days). Clinical diagnoses included cervical lymphadenitis (24 [100%] of 24), mandibular or maxillary osteomyelitis (11 [48%] of 23), and pulmonary nodules (7 [37%] of 19). Each child had ≥1 hospitalization and a median of 2 surgeries (range, 1-6). Of the 24 children, 12 (50%) had surgery alone and 11 (46%) received intravenous (IV) antibiotics. Nineteen of the 24 (79%) children experienced complications, including vascular access malfunction (7 [64%] of 11), high-frequency hearing loss (5 [56%] of 9), permanent tooth loss (11 [48%] of 23), facial nerve palsy (7 [29%] of 24), urticarial rash (3 [25%] of 12), elevated liver enzyme levels (1 [20%] of 5), acute kidney injury (2 [18%] of 11), incision dehiscence/fibrosis (3 [13%] of 24), and neutropenia (1 [9%] of 11). Conclusions: M abscessus infection was associated with significant medical morbidity and treatment complications. Unique manifestations included extranodal mandibular or maxillary osteomyelitis and pulmonary nodules. Challenges in the identification of case-children resulted from an extended incubation period and various clinical manifestations. Clinicians should consider the association between M abscessus infection and pulpotomy in children who present with subacute cervical lymphadenitis. The use of treated/sterile water during pulpotomy might prevent further outbreaks.


Assuntos
Clínicas Odontológicas , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/epidemiologia , Odontopediatria , Injúria Renal Aguda , Administração Intravenosa , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Doenças do Nervo Facial , Feminino , Fibrose , Georgia/epidemiologia , Perda Auditiva , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Morbidade , Nódulos Pulmonares Múltiplos , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/patologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/cirurgia , Mycobacterium abscessus/efeitos dos fármacos , Mycobacterium abscessus/isolamento & purificação , Mycobacterium abscessus/patogenicidade , Pescoço/diagnóstico por imagem , Neutropenia , Osteomielite/epidemiologia , Pulpotomia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Perda de Dente , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA