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1.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 14(12): 701-710, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28926300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Foodborne disease data collected during outbreak investigations are used to estimate the percentage of foodborne illnesses attributable to specific food categories. Current food categories do not reflect whether or how the food has been processed and exclude many multiple-ingredient foods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Representatives from three federal agencies worked collaboratively in the Interagency Food Safety Analytics Collaboration (IFSAC) to develop a hierarchical scheme for categorizing foods implicated in outbreaks, which accounts for the type of processing and provides more specific food categories for regulatory purposes. IFSAC also developed standard assumptions for assigning foods to specific food categories, including some multiple-ingredient foods. The number and percentage of outbreaks assignable to each level of the hierarchy were summarized. RESULTS: The IFSAC scheme is a five-level hierarchy for categorizing implicated foods with increasingly specific subcategories at each level, resulting in a total of 234 food categories. Subcategories allow distinguishing features of implicated foods to be reported, such as pasteurized versus unpasteurized fluid milk, shell eggs versus liquid egg products, ready-to-eat versus raw meats, and five different varieties of fruit categories. Twenty-four aggregate food categories contained a sufficient number of outbreaks for source attribution analyses. Among 9791 outbreaks reported from 1998 to 2014 with an identified food vehicle, 4607 (47%) were assignable to food categories using this scheme. Among these, 4218 (92%) were assigned to one of the 24 aggregate food categories, and 840 (18%) were assigned to the most specific category possible. CONCLUSIONS: Updates to the food categorization scheme and new methods for assigning implicated foods to specific food categories can help increase the number of outbreaks attributed to a single food category. The increased specificity of food categories in this scheme may help improve source attribution analyses, eventually leading to improved foodborne illness source attribution estimates and enhanced food safety and regulatory efforts.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Contaminação de Alimentos , Alimentos/classificação , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Laticínios/microbiologia , Ovos/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Carne/microbiologia , Pasteurização
2.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 22(7): 1193-200, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27314510

RESUMO

Outbreak data have been used to estimate the proportion of illnesses attributable to different foods. Applying outbreak-based attribution estimates to nonoutbreak foodborne illnesses requires an assumption of similar exposure pathways for outbreak and sporadic illnesses. This assumption cannot be tested, but other comparisons can assess its veracity. Our study compares demographic, clinical, temporal, and geographic characteristics of outbreak and sporadic illnesses from Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157, Listeria, and Salmonella bacteria ascertained by the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). Differences among FoodNet sites in outbreak and sporadic illnesses might reflect differences in surveillance practices. For Campylobacter, Listeria, and Escherichia coli O157, outbreak and sporadic illnesses are similar for severity, sex, and age. For Salmonella, outbreak and sporadic illnesses are similar for severity and sex. Nevertheless, the percentage of outbreak illnesses in the youngest age category was lower. Therefore, we do not reject the assumption that outbreak and sporadic illnesses are similar.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Campylobacter , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli O157 , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Salmonella , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
J Nucl Med ; 47(10): 1723-7, 2006 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17015910

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The Chernobyl accident resulted in a number of cases of thyroid cancer in females under the age of 20 y. Many of these individuals were treated with surgical removal of the thyroid gland followed by 131I ablation of residual thyroid tissue. Epidemiologic evidence demonstrates that 131I treatment for thyroid cancer or hyperthyroidism in adult women confers negligible risk of breast cancer. However, comparable data for younger women do not exist. Studies of external radiation exposure indicate that, for radiation exposures of as low as 0.2-0.7 Gy, the risk of breast cancer is greater for infant and adolescent female breast tissues than for adult female breast tissues. METHODS: The effective half-time of 131I measured in athyrotic patients was used together with the OLINDA/EXM computer code to estimate doses to breast tissue in 10-y-old, 15-y-old, and young adult females from ablation treatment. RESULTS: The dose to pediatric and young adult female breast tissue associated with a 5.6-GBq (150 mCi) ablation treatment may range from 0.35 to 0.55 Gy, resulting in a lifetime risk of breast cancer ranging from 2-4 cases per 100 such individuals exposed and a lifetime risk of solid tumors ranging from 8 to 17 solid tumors per 100 such individuals exposed. Administration of multiple ablation treatments, as often occurs with metastases, could result in doses ranging from 0.7 to 1 Gy, with corresponding increases in the lifetime cancer risk. CONCLUSION: These estimates suggest the need for additional research and a possible need for surveillance of young Chernobyl thyroid cancer patients who received 131I ablation treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Acidente Nuclear de Chernobyl , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/etiologia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/radioterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Radioisótopos do Iodo/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/epidemiologia , Centrais Elétricas , Liberação Nociva de Radioativos , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Ucrânia , Contagem Corporal Total
4.
Risk Anal ; 25(1): 99-108, 2005 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15787760

RESUMO

A linear population risk model used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) estimates the risk of human cases of campylobacteriosis caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter. Among the cases of campylobacteriosis attributed to domestically produced chicken, the fluoroquinolone resistance is assumed to result from the use of fluoroquinolones in poultry in the United States. Properties of the linear population risk model are contrasted with those of a farm-to-fork model commonly used for microbial risk assessments. The utility of the linear population model for the purpose for which it was used by CVM is discussed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/prevenção & controle , Campylobacter/metabolismo , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Indústria Alimentícia/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Modelos Teóricos , Aves Domésticas , Risco , Medição de Risco
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 11(5): 302-6, 2004.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15506632

RESUMO

GOAL, SCOPE AND BACKGROUND: This paper uses two case studies of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons complex installations to illustrate the integration of expedited site characterization (ESC) and multimedia modeling in the remedial action decision making process. CONCEPTUAL SITE MODELS, MULTIMEDIA MODELS, AND EXPEDITED SITE CHARACTERIZATION: Conceptual site models outline assumptions about contaminates and the spatial/temporal distribution of potential receptors. Multimedia models simulate contaminant transport and fate through multiple environmental media, estimate potential human exposure via specific exposure pathways, and estimate the risk of cancer and non-cancer health outcomes. ESC relies on using monitoring data to quantify the key components of an initial conceptual site model that is modified iteratively using the multimedia model. CASE STUDIES: Two case studies are presented that used the ESC approach: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pantex. LANL released radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds, into canyons surrounding the facility. The Pantex Plant has past waste management operations which included burning chemical wastes in unlined pits, burying wastes in unlined landfills, and discharging plant wastewaters into on-site surface waters. CONCLUSIONS: The case studies indicate that using multimedia models with the ESC approach can inform assessors about what, where, and how much site characterization data needs to be collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with risk assessment. Lowering the degree of uncertainty reduces the time and cost associated with assessing potential risk and increases the confidence that decision makers have in the assessments performed.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Resíduos Perigosos , Modelos Teóricos , Multimídia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Guerra Nuclear , Resíduos Radioativos/efeitos adversos , Tomada de Decisões , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Resíduos Radioativos/análise , Medição de Risco , Gerenciamento de Resíduos
6.
Ecotoxicology ; 12(6): 489-95, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14680329

RESUMO

The first sequencing of a complete organism genome occurred in 1995. Since then there has been an explosion of information, with a new organism being sequenced nearly every week. This rapid development of genomics is providing unparalleled opportunities in toxicology, ecology, and risk assessment. This paper provides an overview of some possible applications of this new information in ecological and human risk assessment.


Assuntos
Ecologia/tendências , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Genômica/tendências , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Toxicologia/tendências
7.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 37(1): 105-32, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12662914

RESUMO

The estimation and characterization of a cancer risk is grounded in the observation of tumors in humans and/or experimental animals. Increasingly, however, other kinds of data (non-tumor data) are finding application in cancer risk assessment. Metabolism and kinetics, adduct formation, genetic damage, mode of action, and biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility, and effects are examples. While these and other parameters have been studied for many important chemicals over the past 30-40 years, their use in risk assessments is more recent, and new insights and opportunities are continuing to unfold. To provide some perspective on this field, the ILSI Risk Science Institute asked a select working group to characterize the pertinent non-tumor data available for 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and vinyl chloride and to comment on the utility of these data in characterizing cancer risks. This paper presents the findings of that working group and concludes with 15 simple principles for the use of non-tumor data in cancer risk assessment.


Assuntos
Benzeno/toxicidade , Butadienos/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Cloreto de Vinil/toxicidade , Animais , Benzeno/metabolismo , Benzeno/farmacocinética , Biomarcadores/análise , Butadienos/metabolismo , Butadienos/farmacocinética , Testes de Carcinogenicidade , Carcinógenos/metabolismo , Carcinógenos/farmacocinética , Adutos de DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Testes de Mutagenicidade , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Medição de Risco/métodos , Cloreto de Vinil/metabolismo , Cloreto de Vinil/farmacocinética
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