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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 101(6): 5444-5448, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573800

RESUMO

The goal of dipping the umbilical cord after birth in calves is to promote healing of the umbilical stump, prevent infection, and encourage the umbilical tissue to detach from the body. Treatment applied to the umbilical area is an important management step for preventing morbidity and mortality in calves. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 4 umbilical dips on the healing rate, incidence of infection, and age at umbilical cord detachment using newborn Holstein heifer calves (n = 73). Calves were alternately assigned by birth order to 4 treatment groups: 7% iodine, a dry dip formulated using an antibacterial peptide (nisin) mixed with talc (3.105 g of nisin per 100 g of talcum powder on a weight per weight basis), liquid nisin (64 µg/mL), and 4% chlorhexidine mixed with alcohol in a 50:50 solution. Umbilical cords were dipped 30 min after birth. Before initial dipping, umbilical cord diameter (as an indicator of the rate of cord drying and healing rate) was determined using a digital caliper. The caliper measurements were repeated at 24 ± 1, 48 ± 1, and 72 ± 1 h (±standard deviation) of age and were continued daily until the umbilical cord healed and detached from the animal's body. Diagnosed umbilical infections were documented by veterinary staff based on a combination of clinical symptoms (redness, swelling, purulent discharge, painful response (flinch or kicking) to palpation of the umbilical stump) in addition to a lack of appetite and fever. Data were analyzed using MIXED model procedures with fixed effect of umbilical treatment. No treatment differences were noted between dips on the umbilical cord drying rate or days for umbilical cord to detach. Treatment effects were observed on incidence of umbilical infection (incidence of infection for calves across all treatments was 9.0%).


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Cordão Umbilical/efeitos dos fármacos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Bovinos , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Incidência , Cordão Umbilical/microbiologia , Umbigo
2.
J Dairy Sci ; 100(10): 8438-8442, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28755946

RESUMO

Previous data have demonstrated that refractometers can be used to estimate serum IgG, and that a cut-point of 7.8% Brix should be used to identify failure of passive transfer (FPT) in 1-d-old Holstein calves. The objective of the present study was to validate the use of refractometry to estimate serum IgG concentrations and evaluate FPT in Jersey calves. Blood samples (n = 97) were obtained from 1- to 3-d-old Jersey calves and centrifuged at 3,300 × g for 20 min at 25°C. Serum was analyzed for % Brix, total protein (TP), and refractive index (nD) using a Sper Scientific Digital Refractometer (model #300036, Sper Scientific, Scottsdale, AZ) within 12 h of sampling. Samples were then frozen and later analyzed in the laboratory for IgG by radial immunodiffusion. The mean serum IgG concentration for all calves was 23.7 mg/mL (SD = 12.5), with a range of 2.3 to 65.5 mg/mL. Mean serum % Brix was 8.9 (SD = 1.1; range 6.5 to 12.0). Serum % Brix was moderately correlated with IgG concentration (r = 0.77). Total protein and IgG were moderately correlated (r = 0.790). Regression was used to determine cut-points for approximately 10, 12, and 14 mg of IgG/mL and to determine the sensitivity and specificity of refractometry to identify FPT (serum IgG <10 mg/mL at 24 h of life). Brix cut-points analyzed were 7.1, 7.3, and 7.6%; TP cut-points were 4.6, 5.0, and 5.5 g/dL; and nD cut-points were 1.34332, 1.34271, and 1.3448, respectively, for 10, 12, and 14 mg of IgG/mL. The 7.3% Brix and 4.6 g/dL TP cut-points resulted in the greatest percentage of samples being correctly classified. These data suggest that digital refractometry is an acceptable and rapid method to estimate immunoglobulin G in Jersey calf serum.


Assuntos
Imunidade Coletiva , Imunização Passiva/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Refratometria/veterinária , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bovinos , Colostro , Congelamento , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Imunodifusão/métodos , Imunodifusão/veterinária , Refratometria/instrumentação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
J Dairy Sci ; 98(8): 5726-8, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26026760

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 4 antiseptic compounds on the healing rate and incidence of infection of umbilical cords in newborn calves (n=60). Late gestation Jersey cows were monitored at a commercial farm (Sioux Jersey, Salix, IA) and newborn purebred (n=30) and crossbred (n=30) calves were obtained within 30min after birth. Calves were alternately assigned by birth order to 4 treatment groups: 7% tincture of iodine, 0.1% chlorine created using a novel chlorine disinfectant technology, chlorohexidine gluconate 4.0% wt/vol, and 10% trisodium citrate. Prior to dipping (within 30min of birth), diameter of the umbilical cords (as an indicator of cord drying and healing) were determined using digital calipers. In addition, as an indicator of umbilical infections, surface temperature of the umbilical stump (along with a reference point at the midpoint of the sternum) was determined using a dual-laser infrared thermometer. These measurements were all repeated at 24±1 h of age. All data were analyzed using mixed model methods. All models included fixed effects of breed (Jersey or Jersey cross), sex (bull or heifer), and treatment. Fixed effect interactions were not included in the statistical model due to the relatively small sample size. No treatment differences were noted for healing rate of umbilical cords. Initially, mean umbilical cord diameter was 22.84±3.89mm and cords healed to a mean diameter of 7.64±4.12mm at 24 h of age. No umbilical infections were noted for calves on any treatment during the course of this study. Mean surface temperature of the umbilical stump was 33.1±2.2°C at birth (1.5±1.6°C higher than the sternal reference temperature), and at 24±1 h of age the mean temperature of the umbilical stump was 33.0±4.3°C (0.5±1.8°C lower than the sternal reference temperature). These data suggest that these antiseptic compounds are equally effective for preventing infections and permitting healing of the umbilical cord when used within 30min of birth.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Cordão Umbilical/efeitos dos fármacos , Cordão Umbilical/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/etiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Clorexidina/administração & dosagem , Citratos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Masculino
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 98(1): 595-601, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25465569

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to (1) validate a method using refractometry to rapidly and accurately determine immunoglobulin (IgG) concentration in Jersey colostrum, (2) determine whether there should be different refractive index (nD) and %Brix cut points for Jersey colostrum, and (3) evaluate the effect of multiple freeze-thaw (FT) cycles on radial immunodiffusion (RID) and a digital refractometer to determine IgG concentration in Jersey colostrum. Samples (n=58; 3L) of colostrum were collected from a dairy in northwestern Iowa. Samples were analyzed within 2h of collection for IgG concentration by RID, %Brix, and nD by refractometer and an estimate of IgG by colostrometer. Samples were frozen, placed on dry ice, and transported to the laboratory at Iowa State University (Ames). Samples arrived frozen and were placed in a -20°C manual-defrost freezer until further analysis. On d 7 (1FT), d 14 (2FT), and 1yr (3FT) all samples were thawed, analyzed for IgG by RID, %Brix, nD by refractometer, and IgG estimate by colostrometer, and frozen until reanalysis at the next time point. Fresh colostrum had a mean (±SD) IgG concentration of 72.91 (±33.53) mg/mL, 21.24% (±4.43) Brix, and nD 1.3669 (±0.0074). Multiple FT cycles did affect IgG as determined by RID and colostrometer reading. The IgG concentrations were greater in fresh and 1FT samples as compared with 2FT and 3FT samples (72.91, 75.38, 67.20, and 67.31mg of IgG/mL, respectively). The colostrometer reading was lower in 1FT samples compared with fresh and 2FT samples. Multiple FT cycles had no effect on nD or %Brix reading. In fresh samples, IgG concentration was moderately correlated with nD (r=0.79), %Brix (r=0.79), and colostrometer reading (r=0.79). Diagnostic test characteristics using the recommended cut point of 1.35966 nD resulted in similar sensitivities for 1FT and 2 FT samples (94.87 and 94.74%, respectively). Cut points of 18 and 19% Brix resulted in the greatest sensitivities (92.31 and 84.62%) and specificity (94.74 and 94.74%, respectively). The 18% Brix cut point resulted in 94.83% of the samples being correctly classified based on IgG concentration. These data support the use of digital refractometer to accurately and rapidly determine IgG concentration in fresh Jersey colostrum. Additionally, these data suggest that IgG concentration determined by RID is affected by multiple FT cycles, whereas estimates obtained by refractometer are not affected by multiple FT cycles.


Assuntos
Bovinos/metabolismo , Colostro/química , Congelamento , Imunodifusão/veterinária , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Refratometria/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Refratometria/instrumentação
5.
J Dairy Sci ; 97(6): 3715-27, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24704235

RESUMO

To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-α-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 wk in a 2 × 2 factorial, randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received moderate growth (MG) or low growth (LG) all-milk dietary treatments, formulated to support daily gains of 0.5 or 0.25 kg/d, respectively, per the dietary energy recommendation for milk-fed calves according to the National Research Council's Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. Calves in both groups were either injected i.m. with Vital E-A+D (injectable solution of vitamins E, A, and D) on d 1 and supplemented with Emcelle Tocopherol (micellized vitamin E) via milk daily (MG-S and LG-S), or were not supplemented (MG-C and LG-C) during the study period. Total weight gain of MG calves was greater than that of LG calves and tended to be greater in MG-S calves than in MG-C calves. Calves receiving vitamin supplementation demonstrated greater concentrations of plasma α-tocopherol, retinol, and 25-(OH)-vitamin D than did control calves, whereas MG calves demonstrated a lower concentration of plasma α-tocopherol than did LG calves. The apparent increased utilization of α-tocopherol by MG calves was accompanied by a rise in serum haptoglobin, a positive acute-phase protein and indicator of inflammation, especially in MG-C calves. Serum amyloid A, also a positive acute-phase protein, was not different among groups, but was elevated from baseline in all groups during wk 1 through 3. Plasma IgG1 concentrations were higher in MG-S and LG-S calves than in their nonsupplemented dietary counterparts, whereas plasma IgG2, IgA, and IgM concentrations were not different among groups. In summary, dietary supplementation of d-α-tocopherol improved plasma α-tocopherol status and tended to increase growth in calves fed for 0.5 kg of average daily gain. Vitamin supplementation ameliorated the rise of serum haptoglobin associated with acute inflammation in MG calves, and may have improved passive transfer of maternal antibody. These results indicate a role for α-tocopherol in prevention of proinflammatory state associated with greater dietary energy and onset of infectious disease.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Ingestão de Energia , Haptoglobinas/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , alfa-Tocoferol/administração & dosagem
6.
J Anim Sci ; 92(7): 3073-81, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24778335

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to quantify pain sensitivity differences using mechanical nociception threshold (MNT) and thermal nociception threshold (TNT) tests when sows were in painful and nonpainful transient lameness phases. A total of 24 mixed parity crossbred sows (220.15 ± 21.23 kg) were utilized for the MNT test, and a total of 12 sows (211.41 ± 20.21 kg) were utilized for the TNT test. On induction day (D0), all sows were anesthetized and injected with Amphotericin B (10mg/mL) in the distal interphalangeal joint space in both claws of one randomly selected hind limb to induce transient lameness. Three days were compared: (1) D-1 (sound phase, defined as 1 d before induction), (2) D+1 (most lame phase, defined as 1 d after induction), and (3) D+6 (resolution phase, defined as 6 d after induction). After completion of the first round, sows were given a 7-d rest period and then the procedures were repeated with lameness induced in the contralateral hind limb. During the MNT test, pressure was applied perpendicularly to 3 landmarks in a randomized sequence for each sow: 1) middle of cannon on the hind limb (cannon), 2) 1 cm above the coronary band on the medial hind claw (medial claw), and 3) 1 cm above the coronary band on the lateral hind claw (lateral claw). During the TNT test, a radiant heat stimulus was directed 1 cm above the coronary band. The data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with sow as the experimental unit. Differences were analyzed between sound and lame limbs on each day. For the MNT test, pressure tolerated by the lame limb decreased for every landmark (P < 0.05) when comparing D-1 and D+1. The sound limb tolerated more pressure on D+1 and D+6 than on baseline D-1 (P < 0.05). Thermal stimulation tolerated by the sound limb did not change over the 3 d (P > 0.05). However, the sows tolerated less heat stimulation on their lame limb on D+1 compared to D-1 levels (P < 0.05). Both MNT and TNT tests indicated greater pain sensitivity thresholds when sows were acutely lame.


Assuntos
Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Medição da Dor/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Animais , Feminino , Membro Posterior , Temperatura Alta , Nociceptividade , Medição da Dor/métodos , Paridade , Suínos
7.
J Dairy Sci ; 87(8): 2554-62, 2004 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15328279

RESUMO

The effect of form of starter grain (coarse vs. ground) and inclusion of various levels of hay on body weight gain and rumen development was evaluated. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of form of diet and forage inclusion on intake, growth, feed efficiency, and weaning age in dairy calves. Diets consisted of commercial coarse starter (C), ground starter (G), coarse starter with 7.5% bromegrass hay of consistent particle size (8 to 19 mm) (H1), and coarse starter with 15% hay (H2). In experiment 1, intake was held constant across treatments until weaning, when feed was offered ad libitum. Calves receiving H1 and H2 were heavier and had greater body weight gain and greater feed efficiency than calves receiving C. There were no differences in intake. Total volatile fatty acid concentrations were higher, and the proportion of acetate was lower for calves fed G vs. C. In experiment 2, calves (n = 56) were offered diets on an ad libitum basis and weaned according to intake. There were no differences in body weight gain, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and age at weaning with respect to treatment. Starter and total dry matter intake tended to be greater in calves fed H1 and H2 vs. C. The addition of controlled particle size hay to diets of young calves appears to favorably alter rumen environment, resulting in increased intake and improved feed efficiency. Forage of a consistent particle size can be successfully utilized in starter rations of young calves.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta , Rúmen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido 3-Hidroxibutírico/sangue , Envelhecimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Colostro , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Nível de Saúde , Masculino , Substitutos do Leite/administração & dosagem , Tamanho da Partícula , Poaceae , Rúmen/química , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
8.
J Anim Sci ; 82(6): 1663-8, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15216992

RESUMO

Soybean hulls have been successfully fed to ruminant animals as an economical substitute for hay. This feedstuff is a source of highly digestible fiber that does not contain starch. The purpose of this trial was to evaluate soybean hulls as a replacement fiber in horse diets. Four cecally cannulated Quarter Horse geldings, aged 6 to 10 yr and averaging 502 kg, were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Diets consisted of alfalfa/bromegrass hay (14.4% CP, 58.1% NDF, 39.1% ADF; DM basis) with the replacement of either 0, 25, 50, or 75% (as-fed basis) unpelleted soybean hulls (13.1% CP, 60.6% NDF, 43.7% ADF; DM basis). Diets were offered at 1.8% of BW (DM) daily and body weights were measured weekly. Cecal samples (90 min after feeding) and total fecal collections (3 d) were taken at the end of each treatment period. Fecal collection bags were emptied every 6 h and 10% of the total amount was frozen for later analysis. Total cecal VFA production increased linearly (P = 0.02) from 70 mM to 109 mM as proportions of soybean hulls in diets increased. Proportions of propionate increased linearly (P < 0.01) with means of 15.7, 18.0, 16.6, and 21.9 mol/100 mol total VFA for the 0, 25, 50, and 75% soybean hulls diets respectively. Proportions of butyrate decreased linearly (P < 0.01) from 5.3 to 3.9 mol/100 mol total VFA. The acetate:propionate ratio decreased linearly (P = 0.02) and cubically (P = 0.03) with means of 4.9, 4.2, 4.9, and 3.3. Apparent digestibility of DM (P = 0.95), OM (P = 0.70), NDF (P = 0.34), ADF (P = 0.31), cellulose (P = 0.93), and hemicellulose (P = 0.25) did not differ among treatments. Apparent digestibility of N decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as concentrations of soybean hulls increased in the diet, and this response was associated with increased cecal fermentation and microbial biomass production. Cecal pH decreased linearly (P = 0.01) from 7.00 to 6.45 as the level of soybean hulls increased, but there was no change (P = 0.68 for the linear effect) for cecal ammonia (mean concentration of 3.85 mM). Soybean hulls stimulate cecal fermentation and are a suitable replacement for hay in equine diets.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Ceco/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Cavalos/metabolismo , Soja , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Digestão , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/biossíntese , Fezes/química , Fermentação , Cavalos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória
9.
J Dairy Sci ; 87(1): 106-11, 2004 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14765816

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to characterize absorption of colostrum replacer (CR) or supplement (CS) containing fractions of bovine plasma. Immunoglobulin concentrate (IGC) was prepared from bovine blood to a final purity of approximately 90% IgG. Blood was also processed to produce a fraction containing elevated concentrations of IGF-I and TGF-beta (GF). Both IGC and GF were spray-dried and blended with other ingredients to produce CR (30% IgG) or CS (15% IgG) containing 0 or 5% GF. Holstein bull calves were assigned to one of five treatments: 1) Pooled colostrum (MC)--1.9 L of pooled colostrum at 1 and 8 h of age to provide over 150 g of IgG; 2) Low supplement (LC)--1.9 L of CS at 1 and 8 h of age to provide 150 g of IgG; 3) Low supplement + GF (LG)--1.9 L of a CS with GF at 1 and 8 h of age to provide 150 g of IgG; 4) High supplement (HC)--1.9 L of CR at 1 h of age to provide 150 g of IgG and 1.9 L of a commercial milk replacer (MR) at 8 h of age; and 5) High supplement + GF (HG)--1.9 L of a CR with GF at 1 h of age to provide 150 g of IgG and 1.9 L of MR at 8 h of age. Apparent efficiency of IgG absorption was higher for calves fed HC and HG compared with those fed LC and LG and was lower for calves fed LG and HG compared with those fed LC and HC. IgG concentrations at 24 h were highest in calves fed MC compared with other calves and were higher in calves fed HC and HG compared to LC and LG. Calves fed LG and HG had lower IgG concentrations at 24 h of age compared with those fed LC and HC. These results indicate that 150 g of IgG provided in one dose soon after birth is superior to 150 g of IgG fed in two doses 7 h apart. Also, addition of a plasma fraction containing elevated concentrations of IGF-I and TGF-beta decreased IgG absorption in the neonatal calf.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Bovinos/fisiologia , Colostro/química , Colostro/fisiologia , Dieta , Substâncias de Crescimento/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/análise , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/administração & dosagem , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/sangue , Xilose/farmacocinética
10.
J Dairy Sci ; 85(5): 1249-54, 2002 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12086062

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of a supplemental bovine serum protein blend fed to calves challenged with virulent coronavirus. Twelve Holstein bull calves (approximately 3 wk of age) were allocated by initial body weight to Control (n = 5) and treated (n = 7) groups. On d 0, all calves were orally challenged with 1 x 10(7) plaque-forming units of virulent coronavirus isolate. Infection was allowed to progress for 24 h before treatment was started. On d 1, treated calves began receiving 160 g of dry bovine serum powder (16 g IgG) mixed into milk replacer powder (67 g) at both an a.m. and p.m. feeding. Control calves received only milk replacer powder (227 g) at both feedings. Response to coronavirus challenge and dietary treatment was monitored prior to a.m. and p.m. feeding by the collection of multiple clinical measures. Fecal consistency was decreased by coronavirus challenge but was not affected by dietary treatment. Mean daily rectal temperature and heart rate were not affected by dietary treatment. Average packed cell volume was higher in treated calves than in control (35.0 and 27.0%). Coronavirus challenge resulted in an immediate increase in respiration rate, decreasing by d 7. Control calves tended to have a greater average respiration rate compared with treated (28.7 vs. 26.8 breaths/min). Treated calves had a higher average feed intake than control (0.57 vs. 0.44 kg/d). These data suggest that bovine-serum supplemented milk replacer may decrease the severity of disease in young calves exposed to coronavirus.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Dieta , Fezes , Frequência Cardíaca , Hematócrito , Masculino , Leite , Respiração
11.
Theriogenology ; 55(7): 1447-55, 2001 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11354705

RESUMO

Advanced reproductive technologies, incuding IVF and interspecies embryo transfer, are becoming increasingly important for the preservation of endangered species. Previous attempts at interspecies transfers between Bos gaurus and Bos taurus have yielded compromised offspring. The goal of this investigation was to characterize the effects of interspecies transfer of IVF-derived embryos on subsequent neonatal outcome. To achieve this goal, fresh Bos gaurus IVF-derived embryos were transferred into Holstein (Bos taurus) recipients. Four fetuses were carried to term. Calf weight, temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate were recorded after birth. Blood samples also were obtained for determination of blood glucose, pH, packed cell volume (PCV), total hemoglobin (tHB), PO2, and PCO2. After parturition, milk production and health status of the recipients were recorded. Two calves were alive at birth, and two calves were stillborn. One of the calves that was born alive died within minutes after birth, while the other lived until approximately 26 h of age. Blood samples obtained from the calf that lived for 26 h showed it to be extremely acidotic and hypoglycemic; this calf also had marked difficulty thermoregulating. At necropsy, all calves showed evidence of in utero gasping and hypoxia, suggestive of premature placental separation. None of the recipient cows showed typical signs of impending parturition. After parturition, lactogenesis in all recipient cows was markedly decreased. On gross examination, placentae resulting from the interspecies transfers had fewer cotyledons that were also much larger in size compared to cotyledons from normal gaur placentae. Calves in this study had abnormalities consistent with those noted from previous interspecies transfers and with IVF and nuclear transfer (cloned) calves. Due to the design of this study, it is not possible to differentiate between problems resulting from the IVF process and those resulting from potential interspecies incompatibilities. However, interspecies transfers of in vitro-produced gaur embryos into Bos taurus are strongly discouraged.


Assuntos
Bovinos/embriologia , Transferência Embrionária/veterinária , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Especificidade da Espécie , Acidose/veterinária , Animais , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Feminino , Morte Fetal/veterinária , Hipóxia Fetal/patologia , Hipóxia Fetal/veterinária , Hipoglicemia/veterinária , Lactação , Masculino , Placenta/patologia , Gravidez
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 80(9): 2162-6, 1997 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9313160

RESUMO

Three Na compounds were tested to determine which was best able to treat metabolic acidosis in dairy cows. Metabolic acidosis was induced in test cows by feeding a diet that was high in anions for 7 d before the administration of treatment on d 8. The orally administered treatments were equivalent amounts of Na in the form of NaCl (208.6 g), NaHCO3 (300 g), or Na propionate (343 g). The initiation of oral treatment was designated as time 0, and blood samples were taken 15 min before treatment, immediately before treatment, and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300, and 360 min after treatment. Before treatment, all cows were in a state of metabolic acidosis as was evidenced by low blood pH, low HCO3 concentrations, and high plasma Cl concentrations. After treatment, blood pH and HCO3 were markedly higher for cows receiving NaHCO3 and Na propionate but not for cows receiving NaCl. We concluded that orally administered NaHCO3 and Na propionate were equally effective in correcting the acid-base balance of blood, as was predicted by the strong ion difference theory of acid-base physiology. Sodium propionate may be considered a more effective treatment of metabolic acidosis in diseases such as ketosis because the added propionate can serve as a source of glucose for the cow.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Doenças dos Bovinos/tratamento farmacológico , Propionatos/uso terapêutico , Bicarbonato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Cloreto de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Bicarbonatos/sangue , Sangue , Bovinos , Cloretos/sangue , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Propionatos/administração & dosagem , Bicarbonato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Cloreto de Sódio/administração & dosagem
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 79(12): 2182-8, 1996 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9029356

RESUMO

The effect of metabolic alkalosis and acidosis on insulin response to glucose tolerance tests was determined for cows fed a high cation diet to induce a state of metabolic acidosis. The anion diet to induce a state of metabolic acidosis. The glucose tolerance test (500 mg of glucose/kg of BW infused i.v. over 10 min) caused a rapid increase in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Plasma glucose concentrations were highest, and plasma insulin concentrations were lowest, during metabolic acidosis. These results suggest that insulin secretion is impaired during metabolic acidosis, which may reduce tissue uptake of glucose. Correction of metabolic acidosis by oral administration of sodium bicarbonate prior to glucose tolerance testing increased blood pH and bicarbonate concentrations and partially restored insulin response to the glucose tolerance test. Interestingly, sodium bicarbonate also caused an elevation in plasma cortisol concentrations. We concluded that glucose utilization is altered in cows with metabolic acidosis. The correction of acidosis associated with diseases such as diarrhea and ketosis may improve the therapeutic benefit of glucose infusions used to treat these diseases.


Assuntos
Acidose/veterinária , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Insulina/sangue , Acidose/sangue , Acidose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bicarbonatos/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Bovinos , Feminino , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Bicarbonato de Sódio/uso terapêutico
16.
J Dairy Sci ; 74(7): 2342-6, 1991 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1894822

RESUMO

Data from previous experiments in our laboratory indicated that estrous cycles following synchronization with two injections of prostaglandin F2 alpha often averaged more than 21 d. To investigate whether this could be an effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha, 54 mature heifers and nonlactating Holstein cows were used in a crossover experiment in which estrous cycles either occurred spontaneously or followed two injections of prostaglandin F2 alpha at a 14-d interval (induced estrus). One estrous cycle of each type was recorded for each animal. Blood samples were collected twice weekly for analysis of progesterone. Cattle were observed twice daily for estrus with the aid of tail chalking and an androgenized cow. Estrous cycles following induced estrus were longer than those following spontaneous estrus (24.2 vs. 22.7 d). Ninety-two percent of the cycles following spontaneous estrus were 17 to 25 d in duration compared with 71% of the cycles following induced estrus. If the first prostaglandin F2 alpha was given when progesterone was greater than 1 ng/ml, the estrous cycle following treatment was longer than if the first prostaglandin F2 alpha was given when progesterone was less than 1 ng/ml (26.0 vs. 22.6 d). This experiment demonstrates that two injections of prostaglandin F2 alpha increase the incidence of estrous cycles greater than 25 d. Stage of the estrous cycle at time of the first injection of prostaglandin F2 alpha may contribute to this effect.


Assuntos
Bovinos/fisiologia , Dinoprosta/farmacologia , Sincronização do Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dinoprosta/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Progesterona/sangue
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 277: 797-804, 1990.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-1965766

RESUMO

While there is an extensive bank of literature on hypoxia and anoxia in the neonate, the primary focus of previous research has been pulmonary responses to acute hypoxia. Furthermore, no research on the metabolic effects of chronic hypoxia in the immediate newborn period has been published to our knowledge. Given the dynamic state of the newborn in the first hours of life, the relevance of previous observations to the results of the present study is questionable. Previous studies on calves subjected to periods of acute hypoxia have reported decreased PO2, decreased PCO2 and increased pH (Reeves and Leathers, 1964). Thus, it is clear that newborn calves respond differently to chronic hypoxia than they do to acute hypoxia. Much of this difference is due to the biphasic ventilatory response previously discussed. Past reports of acid-base changes in newborn calves utilized venous blood (Moore, 1969; Schlerka et al., 1979; Eigenmann et al., 1981; Maurer-Schweitzer et al., 1977) and are therefore subject to criticism given the variability inherent in venous blood values. Waizenhoffer and Mulling (1978) compared arterial and venous blood gases, but only drew a limited number of arterial samples at 12 and 24 hours. These values were comparable to 12- and 24-hour values in the present experiment. In conclusion, the metabolic effects of a 24-hour hypoxic episode in the newborn calf are relatively mild, consisting primarily of the development of a primary metabolic acidosis due in large part to accumulation of lactate. A relatively large base deficit was incurred concurrently. Most values returned to normal following return of PO2 to normal levels at 24 hours.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)


Assuntos
Hipóxia/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Bicarbonatos/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dióxido de Carbono/sangue , Bovinos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Intestino Delgado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Lactatos/sangue , Ácido Láctico , Oxigênio/sangue
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