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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e261446, 2024. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1384086

RESUMO

Asiatic black bear has long been in conflict with human beings crop raiding is a major cause of this conflict frequently noted in South Asia. Crops raided by black bears affected by temporal, spatial and anthropogenic attributes. Insight in this conflict and its mitigation is vital for the conservation of this threatened species. Present study aimed to evaluate crop raiding by black bears in the mountainous region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Field surveys were carried out to observe spatial and temporal crop raiding features between 2015-2020 and data gathered using designed questionnaires randomly tailored in villages nearby the forests. Results revealed that maize was the sole crop raided by black bears. A total of 28-acre area was raided by black bear in the fall season (Aug-November) resulting in a damage of 51 metric tons, whole raiding was carried out at night. Each respondent received crop damage on 0.09 acre with a loss of 0.17 metric ton yield. Crop quantity and area were significantly correlated to each other. District Neelum shared 49% of the total crop loss, while 47% of the maize was raided at the altitudinal range of 2100-2500 m. crop raiding was highly significantly () dependent upon distance to the forest. Linear regression revealed that maize quantity was determined by area, time and the total field area. Farmers faced 3.8 million PKRs loss due to crop damage by black bears. Despite the huge loss, the majority (23%) of the respondents did not respond to the query on mitigation measures indicating a poor adaptation of preventive measures. Preferred strategy to avoid crop damage was making noise (27.8%) when bears attacked their crops. A start of compensation scheme to the farmers is recommended that will have turned their negative attitude into a positive one toward the wildlife and black bear particularly. Study provides a new insight in human-bear conflict, particularly in spatial and temporal context of crop raiding in AJ&K.


O urso-negro-asiático está há muito tempo em conflito com os seres humanos. A invasão de plantações é uma das principais causas desse conflito frequentemente observado no sul da Ásia: cultivos invadidos por ursos-negros afetados por atributos temporais, espaciais e antropogênicos. A compreensão desse conflito, assim como sua mitigação, é vital para a conservação dessa espécie ameaçada. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a invasão de culturas por ursos-negros na região montanhosa de Azad Jammu e Caxemira. Pesquisas de campo foram realizadas para observar características espaciais e temporais de invasão de culturas, entre 2015 e 2020, e dados coletados usando questionários desenhados e adaptados aleatoriamente em aldeias próximas às florestas. Os resultados revelaram que o milho foi a única cultura atacada por ursos-negros. Uma área total de 28 acres foi invadida pelo urso-preto na temporada de outono (agosto-novembro), resultando em um dano de 51 toneladas ­ todo o ataque foi realizado à noite. Cada respondente recebeu danos na colheita em 0,09 acre, com uma perda de 0,17 tonelada de rendimento. A quantidade e a área da colheita foram significativamente correlacionadas entre si. O distrito de Neelum compartilhou 49% da perda total da colheita, enquanto 47% do milho foram invadidos na faixa altitudinal de 2100-2500 m. A invasão de culturas foi altamente significativa (χ2 = 1174,64;df = 308; p < 0,01), dependente da distância até a floresta. A regressão linear revelou que a quantidade de milho foi determinada por área, tempo e área total do campo. Os agricultores enfrentaram uma perda de 3,8 milhões de PKRs devido a danos nas colheitas causados ​​por ursos-negros. Apesar do grande prejuízo, a maioria (23%) dos respondentes não respondeu ao questionamento sobre as medidas de mitigação, indicando má adaptação das medidas preventivas. A estratégia preferida para evitar danos às plantações foi fazer barulho (27,8%) quando os ursos atacaram suas plantações. Recomenda-se o início de um esquema de compensação para os agricultores, que transformará sua atitude negativa em positiva em relação à vida selvagem e ao urso-negro em particular. O estudo fornece uma nova visão do conflito entre humanos e ursos, particularmente no contexto espacial e temporal de invasões de colheitas em AJ&K.


Assuntos
Animais , Ursidae , Cultivos Agrícolas , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Animais Selvagens , Paquistão
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e258128, 2024. tab, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1374657

RESUMO

In the western mountainous region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan at the Shangla district, we found Physalis ixocarpa for the first time, not yet reported from Pakistan. Physalis ixocarpa was unidentified and has no ethnobotanical record in the flora of Pakistan. It is a member of family Solanaceae and having a close relation with Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum. The stem is prostrate with a dichotomous pattern of branches having leaves flower and fruits. Leaves are smooth, ovate and the margins of leaf blade dentation are poorly developed. The average length and width of the leaves are 6.50 and 3.61 cm respectively. P. ixocarpa grows to the length of 4-5 feet and an annual herb. The flowers of the plants are yellow in color and having purple color spots on the petals which are star-shaped. The round berry fruits are surrounded by persistent calyx and purple in color. The fruits are the 3-6cm in diameter. The plants are found in the different localities of district Shangla especially in Bar and Koz Kana. The life cycle of reporting plant is started in May and completed in November.


Na região montanhosa ocidental de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão, no distrito de Shangla, encontramos Physalis ixocarpa pela primeira vez, ainda não relatada nesse país. A P. ixocarpa não foi identificada e não possui registro etnobotânico na flora do Paquistão. É membro da família Solanaceae e tem estreita relação com Solanum tuberosum e Lycopersicon esculentum. O caule é rastejante com um padrão dicotômico de ramos com folhas, flores e frutos. As folhas são lisas e ovais e as margens da dentição da lâmina foliar são pouco desenvolvidas. O comprimento e a largura médios das folhas são de 6,50 e 3,61 cm, respectivamente. A P. ixocarpa cresce aproximadamente 120-150 cm de comprimento e é uma planta anual. As flores das plantas são de cor amarela com manchas roxas nas pétalas em forma de estrela. Os frutos redondos da baga são rodeados por cálice persistente e de cor roxa. Os frutos têm 3-6 cm de diâmetro. As plantas são encontradas em diferentes localidades do distrito de Shangla, especialmente em Bar e Koz Kana. O ciclo de vida da planta reportado é iniciado em maio e concluído em novembro.


Assuntos
Registros , Flora , Etnobotânica , Physalis , Paquistão
3.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e261446, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830131

RESUMO

Asiatic black bear has long been in conflict with human beings crop raiding is a major cause of this conflict frequently noted in South Asia. Crops raided by black bears affected by temporal, spatial and anthropogenic attributes. Insight in this conflict and its mitigation is vital for the conservation of this threatened species. Present study aimed to evaluate crop raiding by black bears in the mountainous region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Field surveys were carried out to observe spatial and temporal crop raiding features between 2015-2020 and data gathered using designed questionnaires randomly tailored in villages nearby the forests. Results revealed that maize was the sole crop raided by black bears. A total of 28-acre area was raided by black bear in the fall season (Aug-November) resulting in a damage of 51 metric tons, whole raiding was carried out at night. Each respondent received crop damage on 0.09 acre with a loss of 0.17 metric ton yield. Crop quantity and area were significantly correlated to each other. District Neelum shared 49% of the total crop loss, while 47% of the maize was raided at the altitudinal range of 2100-2500 m. crop raiding was highly significantly ( χ 2 = 1174.64 ; d f = 308 ;   p < 0.01 ) dependent upon distance to the forest. Linear regression revealed that maize quantity was determined by area, time and the total field area. Farmers faced 3.8 million PKRs loss due to crop damage by black bears. Despite the huge loss, the majority (23%) of the respondents did not respond to the query on mitigation measures indicating a poor adaptation of preventive measures. Preferred strategy to avoid crop damage was making noise (27.8%) when bears attacked their crops. A start of compensation scheme to the farmers is recommended that will have turned their negative attitude into a positive one toward the wildlife and black bear particularly. Study provides a new insight in human-bear conflict, particularly in spatial and temporal context of crop raiding in AJ&K.


Assuntos
Ursidae , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas , Florestas , Humanos , Paquistão
4.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e258128, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35649038

RESUMO

In the western mountainous region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan at the Shangla district, we found Physalis ixocarpa for the first time, not yet reported from Pakistan. Physalis ixocarpa was unidentified and has no ethnobotanical record in the flora of Pakistan. It is a member of family Solanaceae and having a close relation with Solanum tuberosum and Lycopersicon esculentum. The stem is prostrate with a dichotomous pattern of branches having leaves flower and fruits. Leaves are smooth, ovate and the margins of leaf blade dentation are poorly developed. The average length and width of the leaves are 6.50 and 3.61 cm respectively. P. ixocarpa grows to the length of 4-5 feet and an annual herb. The flowers of the plants are yellow in color and having purple color spots on the petals which are star-shaped. The round berry fruits are surrounded by persistent calyx and purple in color. The fruits are the 3-6cm in diameter. The plants are found in the different localities of district Shangla especially in Bar and Koz Kana. The life cycle of reporting plant is started in May and completed in November.


Assuntos
Physalis , Etnobotânica , Paquistão , Folhas de Planta , Plantas
5.
Mymensingh Med J ; 31(1): 180-185, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999700

RESUMO

Rapid spread of multidrug resistant microorganisms is a matter of great concern throughout the glove including Bangladesh. The objective was to identify the causative organisms for urinary tract infection (UTI) and their sensitivity patterns to antibiotics. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on patients admitted with UTI (n=60) at a tertiary level hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh from March 2019 to September 2019. Data were collected through clinical record reviews. Data of all these 60 cases were analyzed for socio-demographic characteristics. Of the 60 patients, culture and sensitivity report was available for 42 patients. Therefore, data were further analyzed for these 42 cases. Median age of patients was 35 years and 80% were female. The main organisms isolated from urine culture of UTI patients were E. coli (64%), Klebsiella (12%) and Enterococci species (10%). Susceptibility to antibiotics was analyzed only for E. coli (n=27) since the number of isolates of other organisms were small. E. coli was found to be resistant to most of the first- and second-line antibiotics, such as Amoxicillin (100%), Amoxyclav (72%), Co-trimoxazole (89%), Nalidixic acid (78%), Ceftazidim (94%), Ceftriaxone (73%), Cefuroxime (100%), Ciprofloxacin (59%), Cephotaxime (80%), Cefixime (100%) and Moxifloxacin (100%). E. coli was the predominant organism responsible for UTI and was resistant to most of the first- and second-line antibiotics. Immediate action is needed to develop empirical guideline for empirical management of UTI and establish surveillance system for monitoring.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Infecções Urinárias , Adulto , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/epidemiologia
6.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(2): 392-398, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506095

RESUMO

Suicide is one of the important cause of death worldwide. The precise effect of childhood adversities as risk factors for the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour are not well understood. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in the department of Psychiatry, Cumilla Medical College, Cumilla, Bangladesh. All cases were selected from patients attending at Cumilla Medical College hospital and Private Hospitals in Cumilla City from April 2017 to September 2018. We found out the association between childhood adversities and suicidal behaviour over the life course and delineated the types of suicidal behavior. Total 120 cases were included in the study. Respondents provided socio-demographic and diagnostic information, childhood adversities as well as an account of suicide-related thoughts and behaviours. A participation rate was 77.5% female. Of 120 suicidal behavior participants physical abuse was 2.5%, sexual abuse was 16.67%, parental death was 5%, parental divorce was 2.5%, other parental loss was 4.17%, family violence was 5%, physical illness was 1.67%, financial adversity was 3.33% and composite adversity was 59.16%. Among childhood adversities participants suicidal ideation was 70%, suicidal plans was 15.83%, suicidal attempts was 45%, ideators only proceeded to plans was 22.5%, ideation to attempt was 63.33%, planned attempts was 10.83% and impulsive attempts was 52.5%. Among suicidal behavior participant's psychiatric disorders were 65%. Where neurotic disorders were 17%, psychotic disorders were 13%, personality disorders were 44% and others disorder was 26%. Most of the suicidal behavior patients were female 77.5% and age group of 18-24 years. Childhood sexual abuse emerged as a particularly robust risk factor for suicide attempts in younger participants. Childhood physical and sexual abuse emerged as risk factors for the emergence and persistence of suicidal behaviour, especially in adolescence. Two or more childhood adversities were associated with a three fold higher risk of lifetime suicide attempts. Childhood adversities are main risk factors for the onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour. The risks being are the greatest in childhood, adolescence and early adult. A longitudinal follow-up study is required to give a more reliable in Bangladesh.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Mymensingh Med J ; 27(4): 798-804, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30487497

RESUMO

We conducted a study to evaluate the reliability of the medial hemi-soleus muscle flap for wound coverage of infected open fracture of distal third of tibia. Wound coverage of exposed lower third tibia and ankle region remains a difficult task. Muscle flaps are preferred for infected wounds especially where there are exposed bone, joint and/or tendons. Soleus muscle is a good option for local reconstruction. Soleus being the prime ankle plantar flexor and stabilizer of the ankle in ambulation cannot be sacrificed without significant morbidity. Soleus is a bipennate muscle with independent blood supply of each half. Using one half retains its important function, increases arc of rotation, and makes it easy to orientate for coverage of defect of any shape thus obviating the need for use of whole Soleus muscle flap. So, medial hemisoleus muscle flap is a superior option than the whole Soleus. This post-intervention prospective study which was descriptive in nature was conducted at department of Orthopedics, Community Based Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from January 2012 to December 2012. Ten patients with distal third tibial defects were included in the study. Data was obtained by history taking, observation, clinical examination, supported by routine laboratory and radiological investigations. Before intervention they underwent to careful vascular study of the affected limb through Doppler ultrasonography. All the patients were provided soft tissue coverage with distally based medial hemi-soleus muscle flaps with split thickness skin graft on it. All the flaps survived with primary healing of the wound. Among the participants there were 7 male and 3 female with average age 44.60 years, SD 13.73 years. Eight patients were injured by road traffic accident and 2 patients had history of alleged assault. The wound size defects in primary site ranged from 4cm to 9cm in length and 3cm to 6.5cm in breadth. All the wounds in the primary site were infected. The fractures in the primary site were open fractures involving distal third of tibia. In the secondary site the injuries were fracture upper third tibia in the other lower limb 2, fracture femur on other lower limb 1, dislocation shoulder joint on the same side upper limb 1. The follow up period ranged from 8-16 weeks (average 12 weeks). The outcome was successful. All flaps survived without complication. Hemisoleus muscle flap is a valuable local option for soft tissue coverage of distal third of leg. It does not sacrifice the whole soleus muscle. Due to its longer arc of rotation, this flap can cover the defect of different size and shape in distal third of leg.


Assuntos
Fraturas Expostas/complicações , Músculo Esquelético/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos , Fraturas da Tíbia/complicações , Técnicas de Fechamento de Ferimentos , Infecção dos Ferimentos , Adulto , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento , Infecção dos Ferimentos/etiologia , Infecção dos Ferimentos/cirurgia
8.
Mymensingh Med J ; 26(3): 551-557, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28919609

RESUMO

Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare. Mental disorders, those beginning in childhood or adolescence may increase the risk of early drop out from education. The latter has been shown to have adverse life-course consequences on individuals such as greater demand on social welfare entitlements. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out at the department of Psychiatry, Comilla Medical College, Comilla, Bangladesh. All cases were selected from patients attending at Comilla Medical College Hospital and Private Mental Health Facilities in Comilla City from March 2015 to February 2016. We found out the psychiatric disorders and socio-demographic status of patients with educational drop out over the early life course. A total of 50 dropout patients aged 10 to 30 years who fullfiled the enrolment criteria included in the study. Sociodemographic questionnaires, diagnostic information (DSM-5 and ICD-10) as well as an account of a various level of education were used as research instruments. The Frequency tables, summary tables and appropriate graphs were prepared to describe the population characteristics and study finding. The most of the psychiatric morbidity presents in male (62%) and age group of 18-24 years (54%). In this study, anxiety disorders was 8%, behaviour/ impulse control disorders was 8%, mood disorders was 16%, substance use disorders was 24%, schizophrenia spectrum disorders was 12% and composite psychiatric disorders was 32%. Among drop out patient's non- completion of primary education was 14%, non-completion of secondary education was 20%, non- completion of higher secondary education was 24%, not entry to tertiary education was 12% and non-completion of tertiary education was 30%. Among behaviour/impulse control disorders non-completion of primary education was 6%, substance use disorders non-completion of higher secondary education was 10%, mood disorder both non-completion of higher secondary education and non-completion of tertiary education were 6%. Among composite psychiatric disorders non-completion of secondary education, non-completion of higher secondary education and non-completion of tertiary education were 8%, 6% and 12% respectively. Onset of mental disorders and subsequent drop out from education was found in this study. Further multi-centered prospective and population-based studies should be designed to find out the exact situation.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Transtornos Mentais , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Mymensingh Med J ; 25(4): 674-680, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27941729

RESUMO

Over 500,000 new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed each year in the world, resulting in 250000 deaths. Prevalence of HPV-related cervical carcinoma in Bangladesh is highest among SAARC countries. In Bangladesh very few studies have been published on establishing the correlation between histological and cytological findings on cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed to find out the correlation between histological & cytological findings of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions. In the present study, cervical smears were collected from the selected patients attending the colposcopy clinic of BSMMU from July 2011 to April 2013. Biopsy was done on colposcopically positive cases and histopathological reports were obtained. Thus 99 histologically proven cases of cervical cancer and precancerous lesion were selected. Pap smear was carried out on these 99 samples after histopathological examination. Among the 60 CIN-1 cases in histology, 18(30%) cases were diagnosed positive by Pap smear; out of 20 histologically diagnosed cases of CIN-II, only 12(60%) cases were correctly diagnosed by cytology. But in case of invasive squamous cell carcinoma 18 out of 19 were correctly diagnosed by Pap smear reaching a concordance rate of 94.74%. Overall the relation reached statistical significance (p<0.05). Larger community based studies are required in this respect to find a consistent correlation between hr-HPV load and cervical cancer and precancerous lesions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo do Útero , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Teste de Papanicolaou , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Esfregaço Vaginal
10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 25(1): 27-30, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26931245

RESUMO

Zinc plays a vital role in the immune status. Its deficiency affects host defense by reducing the number of circulating T cells and phagocytosis activity of other cells which ultimately impair cell mediated immunity. The cell-mediated immunity plays a major role in the causation of pulmonary tuberculosis. The present study was carried out to estimate serum zinc level in newly detected multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in adult population. In this study total fifty (50) MDR-TB patients were enrolled conveniently from the in-patients departments of National Institute of Diseases of the Chest Hospital (NIDCH), Bangladesh. Serum zinc was estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method from early morning fasting blood sample. Serum zinc level was assessed according to normal cut-off value 70-120 µgm/dl and 76% studied population were found lower than this value. The mean±SD serum zinc level was observed 60.40±8.91 µgm/dl. No associations were found between serum zinc level with age (p=0.11) and with sex (p=0.085) of the study population respectively. The low level of serum zinc in MDR-TB patients suggested impaired immune status of our study population.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Mymensingh Med J ; 23(4): 774-80, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25481600

RESUMO

Dengue is the fastest emerging arboviral infection and became a major public health concern in tropical and subtropical countries. Dengue infections can result in a wide spectrum of disease severities ranging between dengue fever (DF) to the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). This study was performed to find out the varied presentations and laboratory findings to put forward an overview about dengue syndrome in Bangladesh, in order to create better awareness and diagnostic skills among the health care providers. This hospital based observational study was conducted in the department of Medicine, Square Hospitals Ltd. during January, 2008 to December, 2010. A total of 262 adult subjects of both sexes having dengue syndrome were included in this study. Dengue syndrome was common in younger age group and the majority (72%) was below 45 years of age. All the patients had fever and the majority had malaise (96%), severe headache (72%) and musculoskeletal pain (65%). Skin rash (47%) was the commonest hemorrhagic manifestation while tourniquet test (49%) and low pulse pressure (37%) were the commonest clinical signs. All had thrombocytopenia (100%) and the majority had leukopenia (84%) and elevated liver transaminase (ALT-74%, AST-88%). Most of the subjects developed anti dengue antibody (IgM-92%, IgG -72%). All subjects survived.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Arbovírus/imunologia , Dengue Grave , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Exantema/etiologia , Feminino , Cefaleia/etiologia , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Masculino , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Contagem de Plaquetas/métodos , Dengue Grave/sangue , Dengue Grave/diagnóstico , Dengue Grave/epidemiologia , Dengue Grave/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Transaminases/sangue
12.
Placenta ; 35(11): 932-6, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25149386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia (preE), is characterized by abnormal placental invasion and function. Marinobufagenin (MBG), a cardiotonic steroid (CTS), inhibits cytotrophoblast (CTB) cell functions that are critical for normal placental development. This study tests the hypothesis that CTSs induce anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative effects in CTB cells. METHODS: Human extravillous CTB cells of the line Sw-71, derived from first trimester chorionic villus tissue, were incubated with 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 nM of each of three CTSs (MBG, cinobufatalin (CINO) and ouabain (OUB)) for 48 h. Thereafter, levels of pro-angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165), placental growth factor (PlGF)) and anti-angiogenic (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), soluble endoglin (sEng)) factors were measured in culture media using ELISA kits. Expression of three receptors (VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1), angiogenic angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1) and anti-angiogenic angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2)) were assayed using immunoblotting (western blots) in cell lysates. RESULTS: sFlt-1 and sEng secretion were increased while VEGF165 and PIGF were decreased in the culture media of CTB cells treated with 1 nM or more of each CTSs (p < 0.01 for each). The AT2 receptor expression was up-regulated (p < 0.05) in CTB cells treated with 1 nM or more of MBG and CINO and with 100 nM OUB, while AT1 and VEGFR1 expressions decreased (p < 0.05) with 1 nM or more of MBG and 10 nM or more of CINO and OUB. CONCLUSIONS: CTSs influence extravillous CTB cells to induce an anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative profile.


Assuntos
Glicosídeos Cardíacos/farmacologia , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Trofoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Ouabaína/farmacologia , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Receptor Tipo 2 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
13.
Drug Res (Stuttg) ; 64(7): 353-7, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24227475

RESUMO

Serum lipid levels are greatly controlled by genetic and environmental factors. When investigating the relationship between lipid disturbances and hypertension it is necessary to use local data on blood lipid profile in each region. Unfortunately, there is no literature reporting the lipid profile in hypertensive patients in coastal region of Bangladesh. The present study was conducted as a case-control study with 100 hypertensive patients as cases and equal number of normotensive individuals as controls. Socio-demographic, anthropometric and clinical data of both patients and controls were collected. Serum lipid parameters were analyzed biochemically. Independent sample t-test, Chi-Square test and Pearson's correlation test were done for the statistical analysis using the statistical software package SPSS. Our study found that serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), LDL, VLDL, TC/HDL, LDL/HDL were significantly higher (p<0.05) whereas the level of HDL cholesterol was significantly lower in hypertensive patients as compared to control subjects (p<0.05). Pearson's correlation analysis reveals that HDL cholesterol was inversely correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both patient and control groups. But serum TC, TG, LDL and HDL cholesterol were directly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both groups. This study explored that hypertensive patients have higher level of TC, TG, LDL and VLDL cholesterol but lower level of HDL cholesterol than the normotensive subjects. Routine investigation of lipid profile in hypertensive patients may help to prevent further aggravation and risks of coronary artery diseases.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Adulto , Bangladesh , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Triglicerídeos/sangue
14.
Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull ; 39(3): 99-103, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26118155

RESUMO

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy is currently the preferred first line treatment for simple & complex renal calculi. The technique also being used increasingly for smaller stones that have failed ESWL. Aim of the study is to share our experience in PCNL in course of time. This study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2012, 131 patient's with 142 renal units of 5-75 yrs of age, PCNL were performed in NIKDU, BSMMU & JBFH. Stone were classified into simple (isolated renal pelvis or isolated calyceal stones) or complex (partial or complete staghorn stones, renal pelvic stone with accompanying calyceal stones). The stone size was 1.5-5cm approximately. We asses our initial puncture technique, need for multi-tract, supra 12th rib access, stone free rate, operative duration, postoperative complication, number of transfusion and hospital stay. Operative durations were 60 min -180 minutes. Puncture technique improved in course of time. 14 patients need multi-puncture and tract, all are supra 12th access. Out of 142 renal units 120 (83%) were stone free after first procedure, another 22 need and auxiliary procedure, (5 2nd look PCNL, 6 URS, 11 ESWL) to become stone free result in a 95% stone free rate. Complications occurred in 17 procedures which dealt accordingly. This study revealed PCNL is an effective, versatile safe and cosmetically acceptable procedure for all age groups in simple and complex renal stone.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrostomia Percutânea/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Bangladesh , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Cálculos Renais/complicações , Cálculos Renais/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
15.
Mymensingh Med J ; 20(3): 441-5, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21804509

RESUMO

This intervention study was conducted to determine the efficacy of Levofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated enteric fever. Among 100 patients, who were purposively selected for the study had presented sign and symptoms of enteric fever with blood culture positive salmonella in laboratory findings during the admission in the department of Medicine, Uttara Adhunik Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka. Patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups. One group was treated with oral levofloxacin 750mg once daily (OD) and another was injected with Levofloxacin 500mg once daily for 7 days. All the patients were examined twice daily to observe the clinical cure or failure of levofloxacin. Study was conducted from January 2008 to December 2008. Statistical analysis was performed by using statistical software SPSS version 12. Among the 100 patients in the study, majority of them 46(92%) were aged between 15 to 25 years, the next group was between 25 to 35 years 26(52%) and only three patients were aged above 65 years. Significant number of the patients were male (67), and the rest of them were female. The patients were clinically examined specially for anaemia, jaundice, caecal gurgling, hepatosplenomegaly in both the groups and the relevant investigations were performed. It was found that 46 patients in group A, who took oral levofloxacin, were cured after seven days, whereas 48 patients in group B were fully cured by taking injectable levofloxacin by seven days. In this study, levofloxacin was found to be the most effective drug in both oral and injectable form in one-week treatment of uncomplicated typhoid.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Levofloxacino , Ofloxacino/uso terapêutico , Febre Tifoide/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Nephrol ; 32(4): 332-9, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20720407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pre-eclampsia is a disorder that results in significant feto-maternal complications with yet no definitive pharmacologic intervention. One postulated etiologic mechanism is an imbalance between circulating pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors. We investigated these factors sequentially throughout pregnancy (19-21 days) in our rat model of pre-eclampsia, which involves the imposition of excessive volume expansion. METHODS: We evaluated the status of the pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors at the following time points: 3-5, 7-10 and 17-20 days of gestation. RESULTS: We have previously determined that the urinary excretion of the circulating bufodienolide, marinobufagenin, is elevated at the 3- to 5-day time period, prior to the advent of hypertension and proteinuria. At 3-5 days of pregnancy, there was no evidence of angiogenic imbalance in the normal pregnant (NP) and 'pre-eclamptic' (PDS) rats. At the 7- to 10-day time point, plasma PlGF was greater in the NP rats than in the PDS group (p < 0.05). The plasma sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in the PDS animals was greater than that in the NP rats (p < 0.05). The placental sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio were greater in the PDS rats than in NP rats (p < 0.05). These changes were also present at the 17- to 20-day time point in both plasma and placenta. The administration of resibufogenin, an antagonist of marinobufagenin, early in pregnancy, prevented angiogenic imbalance. CONCLUSION: We conclude that angiogenic imbalance plays a role in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia in this rat model. Furthermore, the earliest event in the pathogenetic sequence appears to be the secretion and elaboration of marinobufagenin.


Assuntos
Proteínas Angiogênicas/sangue , Bufanolídeos/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Análise de Variância , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea , Bufanolídeos/administração & dosagem , Bufanolídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Creatinina , Endoglina , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hematócrito , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/sangue , Modelos Animais , Fator de Crescimento Placentário , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez , Proteínas da Gravidez/sangue , Proteinúria , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/sangue , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/sangue
17.
Biochim Biophys Acta ; 1802(12): 1246-53, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20167272

RESUMO

The bufodienolides are cardiac glycosides which have the ability to inhibit the enzyme, Na(+)/K(+) ATPase (sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase). They are cardiac inotropes, cause vasoconstriction (and, potentially, hypertension) and are natriuretic. Evidence has accrued over time which supports the view that they are mechanistically involved in volume expansion-mediated hypertension. In this communication, the authors summarize data which support the view that the bufodienolides and, in particular, marinobufagenin (MBG) are involved in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. In a rat model of the syndrome, MBG causes hypertension, proteinuria, intrauterine growth restriction and increased weight gain. All of these phenotypic characteristics are prevented by an antagonist to MBG, resibufogenin (RBG). The "preeclamptic" animals also develop a vascular leak syndrome, resulting in hemoconcentration. Abnormalities in the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) system play a role in the mechanism by which MBG produces the abnormalities in the pregnant rat. Studies to discover the relevance of these findings to human preeclampsia are currently underway in several laboratories and clinics.


Assuntos
Bufanolídeos/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/metabolismo , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Quinases de Proteína Quinase Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Proteinúria/metabolismo , Proteinúria/fisiopatologia , Ratos
18.
Placenta ; 29(3): 266-73, 2008 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18279954

RESUMO

Marinobufagenin (MBG) is an endogenous mammalian cardiotonic steroid that is involved in the inhibition of the sodium pump Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Increased plasma levels of MBG have been reported in patients with volume expansion-mediated hypertension and preeclampsia. We have recently demonstrated that MBG impairs both the proliferation and growth factor-induced migration of human first trimester cytotrophoblast (CTB) cells, crucial for proper placental development. However, the intracellular signaling mechanisms regulating the MBG-induced impairment of CTB differentiation, migration and invasion are unknown. The human extravillous CTB cell line SGHPL-4 was utilized for this study. The phosphorylation of MAP kinase protein ERK1/2 was evaluated by Cellular Activation of Signaling ELISA (CASE) in control CTB cells and those treated with MBG. MBG at concentrations of 10 and 100nM inhibited CTB cell proliferation, migration and invasion (60%, 50% and 50%, respectively). MBG also caused a significant decrease in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. In addition, MBG decreased proliferation, migration, and ERK1/2 activity in another motile cell line, CHO cells. Another sodium pump inhibitor, ouabain, similarly decreased proliferation and ERK1/2 activity in CTB and CHO cells. These data suggest that the changes observed in cell function may be mediated by inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. We demonstrate that the MBG-induced impairment of CTB cell proliferation, migration and invasion is associated with decreased ERK1/2 activity which may be mediated by inhibition of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase.


Assuntos
Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Trofoblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células CHO , Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Ouabaína/farmacologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio/antagonistas & inibidores , Trofoblastos/fisiologia
19.
Am J Nephrol ; 28(1): 8-13, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17890853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: There are two major pathophysiologic processes involved in the development of hypertension: (1) expanded extracellular fluid volume and (2) vasoconstriction. We have developed a model of preeclampsia in the rat, in which excessive volume expansion (VE) plays a role. These animals excrete increased amounts of the bufodienolide, marinobufagenin (MBG), even before their hypertension and proteinuria become established. Furthermore, their hypertension is corrected by administration of resibufogenin (RBG), a compound structurally similar to MBG. METHOD: We studied two models of experimental hypertension in the nonpregnant animal, produced either by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt administration or by angiotensin infusion. RESULTS: RBG administered to the DOCA-salt rats lowered blood pressure and reduced proteinuria in the VE animals, but had no affect on the rats infused with angiotensin. Furthermore, although the production of superoxide anion in the aortas of both groups of hypertensive rats was increased over control, RBG reduced these levels to normal in the VE (DOCA-salt) animals only. RBG had no effect in the angiotensin-infused rats. The urinary excretion of angiotensinogen did not rise in VE-mediated hypertension, but did increase in the angiotensin-infused rats. CONCLUSIONS: MBG plays an important role in the causation of hypertension in the VE rats, but not in the vasoconstrictive model. RBG is effective only in VE-mediated hypertension.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Bufanolídeos/farmacologia , Hipertensão Renal/tratamento farmacológico , Proteinúria/tratamento farmacológico , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Angiotensinogênio/urina , Animais , Bufanolídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Creatinina/sangue , Desoxicorticosterona , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hipertensão Renal/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Mineralocorticoides , Proteinúria/induzido quimicamente , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos , Cloreto de Sódio , Superóxidos/metabolismo , Vasoconstritores/farmacologia
20.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 40(6): 486-90, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15892747

RESUMO

AIMS: The goal of this study was to monitor the quantitative and qualitative bacterial flora in the intestine of hybrid tilapia in fresh fish and fish kept in frozen storage conditions for 1 year. METHODS AND RESULTS: Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the bacterial flora associated with the intestine of hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus) in fresh fish and fish kept in frozen storage conditions for 1 year were carried out. In fresh and frozen fish, aerobic plate count (APC) ranged from 1.6 +/- 1.2 x 10(8) to 1.5 +/- 0.9 x 10(5) CFU g(-1) in the intestine of tilapia collected from pond 1, 8.7 +/- 2.3 x 10(7) to 6.5 +/- 3.8 x 10(4) CFU g(-1) in the intestine of tilapia from pond 2, and 1.9 +/- 2.9 x 10(8) to 6.2 +/- 2.8 x 10(4) CFU g(-1) in the intestine of tilapia from pond 3. APC for all the groups of fish decreased c. 2-log cycles after 1 months frozen storage; thereafter, counts slowly declined during frozen storage for 1 year. Altogether, 16 bacterial genera were identified: Gram-negative rods (67%) dominated. Both in fresh and frozen conditions, four bacterial species viz. Shewanella putrefaciens, Corynebacterium urealyticum, Aeromonas hydrophila and Flavobacterium sp. were always present, with a prevalence of 10% in most cases. Shewanella putrefaciens was the most dominant organism (15% of the total isolates) throughout the studied period. During frozen storage some of the bacteria were not recovered, but most of the bacteria survived after prolonged freezing. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the aerobic heterotrophic microflora found in the intestine of fresh and frozen tilapia. The unique aspect of this study concerns the data revealing the micro-organisms, which are viable after prolonged freezing. Contamination of edible portions of fish could originate from gastrointestinal sources. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The present results may enhance knowledge in controlling the storage life of fish, and fish product quality. Bacterial activity is by far the most important factor influencing fish quality, so bacterial numbers can be used as an index of quality. Storage of frozen tilapia without evisceration could be avoided.


Assuntos
Bactérias Aeróbias/isolamento & purificação , Alimentos Congelados/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Tilápia/microbiologia , Animais , Bactérias Aeróbias/classificação , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Bacilos Gram-Positivos Asporogênicos/classificação , Bacilos Gram-Positivos Asporogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Hibridização Genética , Fatores de Tempo
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