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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 82: 1-6, 2022. mapas, ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-33384

RESUMO

Tapeworms of zoonotic importance have been described as a leading public health problem. Current research was aim to assess the prevalence of tapeworms among 5-12years school children residing in district Lower Dir, Pakistan from January 2019-December 2019. The wet mount preparation in saline/iodine/methods were used for stool examination. Data was analyzed using appropriate descriptive, static methods. Of the 400 children studied 71.7% were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. Single infection of cestode species was found in 69 individuals with 17.2% prevalence and multiple parasitic infections were identified in 19.7% (n=79/400) individuals. The multiple infection were comprised as 10% (n=40) double, 6.75% (n=27) triple and 3% (n=12) quadruple. A total of 9 species of helminths and one species of protozoan infection. Among the helminths Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent 33.1% (n=95), Taenia saginata 22.6% (n=65), hookworm 19.8% (n=57), Hymenolepis nana 18.8% (n=54), Enterobius vermicularis and Hymenolepis diminuta 1.39% (n=4each), Trichuris trichura 1.04% (n=3), Toxocara spp 0.69% (n=2) and Schistosoma japonicum 0.34% (n=1) were reported. One protozoan species was Cryptosporidium spp 0.69% (n=2) in current study. In case of A.lumbricoides, hookworm, E.vermicularis, T.trichura, T.saginata, H.nana and H.diminuta the male children of below 8 years of age were highly infected. Other infections are reported in the same prevalence with slight difference if any. We conclude that there is a need for mass scale campaigns to create awareness regarding health and hygiene in children and the need for development of effective poverty control programs because deworming alone is not adequate to control parasitic infections.(AU)


As tênias de importância zoonótica têm sido descritas como um dos principais problemas de saúde pública. A pesquisa atual teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de tênias entre crianças em idade escolar de 5 a 12 anos que residem no distrito de Lower Dir, Paquistão, de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2019. Os métodos de preparação para montagem úmida em solução salina/iodo foram usados para exame de fezes. Os dados foram analisados usando métodos descritivos e estáticos apropriados. Das 400 crianças estudadas, 71,7% estavam infectadas com uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. Infecção única de espécies de cestóides foi encontrada em 69 indivíduos com prevalência de 17,2% e infecções parasitárias múltiplas foram identificadas em 19,7% (n = 79/400) indivíduos. As infecções múltiplas foram compostas por 10% (n = 40) dupla, 6,75% (n = 27) tripla e 3% (n = 12) quádrupla. Um total de 9 espécies de helmintos e uma espécie de infecção por protozoários. Entre os helmintos, Ascaris lumbricoides foi o mais prevalente 33,1% (n = 95), Taenia saginata 22,6% (n = 65), ancilóstomo 19,8% (n = 57), Hymenolepis nana 18,8% (n = 54), Enterobius vermicularis e Hymenolepis diminuta 1,39% (n = 4cada), Trichuris trichura 1,04% (n = 3), Toxocara spp 0,69% (n = 2) e Schistosoma japonicum 0,34% (n = 1). Uma espécie de protozoário foi Cryptosporidium spp 0,69% (n = 2) no estudo atual. No caso de A. lumbricoides, ancilostomíase, E. vermicularis, T. trichura, T. saginata, H. nana e H. diminuta, as crianças do sexo masculino com menos de 8 anos de idade estavam altamente infectadas. Outras infecções são relatadas na mesma prevalência, com ligeira diferença, se houver. Concluímos que há uma necessidade de campanhas em massa para criar consciência sobre saúde e higiene em crianças e a necessidade de desenvolvimento de programas eficazes de controle da pobreza, porque a desparasitação por si só não é adequada para controlar infecções parasitárias.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/diagnóstico
2.
Biomed Res Int ; 2017: 1076923, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159174

RESUMO

Association of fatness with chronic metabolic diseases is a well-established fact, and a high prevalence of risk factors for these disorders has increasingly been reported in the third world. In order to incorporate any preventive strategies for such risk factors into clinical practice, decision-makers require objective evidence about the associated burden of disease. A cross-sectional study of 1321 adults from one of the districts of Balochistan, among the most economically challenged areas of Pakistan, was carried out for the measures of fatness and self-reported comorbidities. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were measured and demographic information and self-reported comorbidities were documented. The prevalence of obesity was 4.8% (95% CI: [3.8, 6.1]) and 21.7% (95% CI: [19.5, 24.0]), as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) international and Asia/Asia-Pacific BMI cut-offs, respectively. The proportion exhibiting comorbidity increased with increasing levels of fatness in a dose-response relationship (p value < .001). An interaction of weight status with gender was observed to produce a significantly (p = .033) higher comorbidity among overweight women (odds ratio (OR) = 6.1 [1.2, 31.7]) compared with overweight men (OR = 1.1 [0.48, 2.75], p = .762).


Assuntos
Comorbidade , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Doenças Metabólicas/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/patologia , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/patologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Circunferência da Cintura , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem
3.
Eur Psychiatry ; 30(8): 950-8, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26647871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated differences in cognitive performance between middle-aged adults with and without a lifetime history of mood disorder features, adjusting for a range of potential confounders. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the UK Biobank cohort. Adults aged 40-69 (n=143,828) were assessed using measures of reasoning, reaction time and memory. Self-reported data on lifetime features of major depression and bipolar disorder were used to construct groups for comparison against controls. Regression models examined the association between mood disorder classification and cognitive performance, adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle and clinical confounders. RESULTS: Inverse associations between lifetime history of bipolar or severe recurrent depression features and cognitive performance were attenuated or reversed after adjusting for confounders, including psychotropic medication use and current depressive symptoms. Participants with a lifetime history of single episode or moderate recurrent depression features outperformed controls to a small (but statistically significant) degree, independent of adjustment for confounders. There was a significant interaction between use of psychotropic medication and lifetime mood disorder features, with reduced cognitive performance observed in participants taking psychotropic medication. CONCLUSIONS: In this general population sample of adults in middle age, lifetime features of recurrent depression or bipolar disorder were only associated with cognitive impairment within unadjusted analyses. These findings underscore the importance of adjusting for potential confounders when investigating mood disorder-related cognitive function.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Cognição , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Humor/psicologia , Prevalência
4.
Psychol Med ; 44(10): 2231-40, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24274839

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evidence is conflicting as to whether body mass index (BMI) is associated with mental health and, if so, to what extent it varies by sex and age. We studied mental health across the full spectrum of BMI among the general population, and conducted subgroup analyses by sex and age. METHOD: We undertook a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Scottish adult population. The Scottish Health Survey provided data on mental health, measured by the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ), BMI, demographic and life-style information. Good mental health was defined as a GHQ score <4, and poor mental health as a GHQ score ⩾4. Logistic regression models were applied. RESULTS: Of the 37 272 participants, 5739 (15.4%) had poor mental health. Overall, overweight participants had better mental health than the normal-weight group [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-0.99, p = 0.049], and individuals who were underweight, class II or class III obese had poorer mental health (class III obese group: adjusted OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.05-1.51, p = 0.013). There were significant interactions of BMI with sex (p = 0.013) and with age (p < 0.001). Being overweight was associated with significantly better mental health in middle-aged men only. In contrast, being underweight at all ages or obese at a young age was associated with significantly poorer mental health in women only. CONCLUSIONS: The adverse associations between adiposity and mental health are specific to women. Underweight women and young women who are obese have poorer mental health. In contrast, middle-aged overweight men have better mental health.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Magreza/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Escócia/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
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