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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762572

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762073

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEXEXPRESS | ID: vti-762063

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vectors behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e250865, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285604

RESUMO

Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major toxicants, which affects human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effects of morel mushrooms against Cd-induced reproductive damages in rats. For this purpose, 30 male rats were divided into 6 groups (n=5/group), the first group served as the control group, second group was treated with an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of 1 mg/kg/day of Cd. Third and fourth groups were co-treated with 1 mg/kg/day of Cd (i.p) and 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract (orally) respectively. The final 2 groups received oral gavage of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract alone. After treatment for 17 days, the animals were euthanized, and testes and epididymis were dissected out. One testis and epididymis of each animal were processed for histology, while the other testis and epididymis were used for daily sperm production (DSP) and comet assay. Our results showed that Cd and morel mushrooms have no effect on animal weight, but Cd significantly decreases the DSP count and damages the heritable DNA which is reversed in co-treatment groups. Similarly, the histopathological results of testes and epididymis show that morel mushrooms control the damage to these tissues. Whereas the morel mushroom extract alone could enhance the production of testosterone. These results conclude that morel mushrooms not only control the damage done by Cd, but it could also be used as a protection mechanism for heritable DNA damage.


Resumo O cádmio (Cd) é um dos principais tóxicos, que afeta a saúde humana por meio da exposição ocupacional e ambiental. No presente estudo, avaliamos os efeitos protetores dos cogumelos morel contra os danos reprodutivos induzidos pelo Cd em ratos. Para tanto, 30 ratos machos foram divididos em 6 grupos (n = 5 / grupo); o primeiro grupo serviu de controle, o segundo grupo foi tratado com injeção intraperitoneal (i.p) de 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd. O terceiro e o quarto grupos foram cotratados com 1 mg / kg / dia de Cd (i.p) e 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel (por via oral), respectivamente. Os dois grupos finais receberam gavagem oral de 10 e 20 mg / kg / dia de extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho. Após o tratamento por 17 dias, os animais foram sacrificados e os testículos e o epidídimo foram dissecados. Um testículo e epidídimo de cada animal foram processados ​​para histologia, enquanto o outro testículo e epidídimo foram usados ​​para produção diária de esperma (DSP) e ensaio cometa. Nossos resultados mostraram que os cogumelos Cd e morel não têm efeito sobre o peso do animal, mas o Cd diminui significativamente a contagem de DSP e danifica o DNA hereditário, que é revertido em grupos de cotratamento. Da mesma forma, os resultados histopatológicos dos testículos e do epidídimo mostram que os cogumelos morel controlam os danos a esses tecidos. Considerando que o extrato de cogumelo morel sozinho pode aumentar a produção de testosterona. Esses resultados concluem que os cogumelos morel não apenas controlam os danos causados pelo Cd, mas também podem ser usados ​​como um mecanismo de proteção para danos hereditários ao DNA.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733341

RESUMO

Phellinus baumii is a mushroom utilized as a traditional medicine for a wide range of human ailments, including diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and cancer, in Asia. The purpose of this study was to find out whether Phellinus baumii extract (PBE) could reduce inflammation caused by coal fly ash (CFA) in alveolar macrophages (MH-S). The anti-inflammatory effect of PBE was evaluated by measuring the nitric oxide (NO) concentration after the onset of CFA-stimulated inflammation in MH-S cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to examine inflammatory gene expression. Western blotting and immunofluorescence (IF) studies were used to investigate the inflammatory mechanism in MH-S cells. According to our results, the PBE suppressed CFA-induced NO generation in the MH-S cells dose-dependently. Furthermore, PBE inhibited the proinflammatory mediators and cytokines generated by exposure to CFA, including cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Real-time PCR was also used to determine the inhibiting effect of the PBE on proinflammatory factors such as COX-2, iNOS, IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. Moreover, Western blot was used to assess the effects of the PBE on the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in the CFA-stimulated MH-S cells. The suppressive effect of the PBE on phosphorylated (p)-NF-κB translocation was also investigated using IF analysis. This study showed that the PBE suppressed the CFA-induced inflammation in the MH-S cells by suppressing the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways, which suggests its potential usefulness in reducing lung inflammation.

8.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246904, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706025

RESUMO

Hyperhydricity is a serious physiological disorder and affects In vitro propagation of many plants and as well of Salvia santolinifolia. The donor material to initiate the in vitro culture was the callus taken from the in vitro shoots produced on Murashig and Skoogs (MS) medium at 4.0 mg/l BA. This callus formed numerous hyperhydric shoots on culturing upon the medium of the same composition. The aim was to systematically evaluate the effect of cytokinins (Benzyladnine (BA) and N6-(-2-isopentenyl) adenine (2iP), culture vessels magnitude, medium solidification, source of nitrogen and calcium chloride for the alleviation of hyperhydricity. In the tissue cultures of S. santolinifolia BA and 2iP induced severe hyperhydricity, when other factors i.e. culture vessels magnitude and a suitable concentration of agar, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), potassium nitrate (KNO3) & calcium chloride (CaCl2.2H2O) were not optimized. After 30 days' culture, we observed 83.82% hyperhydric shoots at increased level (1.5 mg/l 2iP) and 81.59% at decreased levels (1.0 mg/l 2iP). On the other hand, hyperhydricity percentage at decreased (0.4%) and at increased (0.8%) levels of agar were 72.37% and 39.08%, respectively. MS medium modification with NH4NO3 (412 mg/l), KNO3 (475 mg/l) and CaCl2.2H2O (880 mg/l) was found the best medium to reduced hyperhydricity (23.6%).


Assuntos
Salvia , Meios de Cultura , Brotos de Planta
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247061, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468524

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of common antibiotics against different microorganisms in apparently healthy cattle in Shandong province and its suburb. A total of 220 nasal swab samples were collected and cultured for bacteriological evaluation. All the bacteria isolates after preliminary identification were subjected to antibiogram studies following disc diffusion method. It was found in the study that E. coli is the most commonly associated isolate (21%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (18%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13%), Salmonella spp. (15%), Shigella spp (12%), and Proteus spp (11%). While the antibiogram studies reveled that highest number of bacterial isolates showed resistance to Ampicillin (95%), followed by Augmentin (91%), Cefuroxime (85%) and Tetracycline (95%) of (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp). In the case of pseudomonas spp. and Salmonella the highest resistance was showed by Ampicillin (90%) followed by Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid (80%), Cefixime (90%), and Erythromycin (80%). In Shigella spp and Salmonella spp highest resistance was showed by Amoxicillin, Ceftazidime, Augmentin (60%), and Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid (50%). It is concluded that in vitro antibiogram studies of bacterial isolates revealed higher resistance for Ampicillin, Augmentin, Cefuroxime, Cefixime, Tetracycline, Erythromycin, and Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid. The high multiple Antibiotics resistance indexes (MARI) observed in all the isolates in this study ranging from 0.6 to 0.9. MARI value of >0.2 is suggests multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria and indicate presence of highly resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Animais , Bovinos , Resistência a Medicamentos , Lactamas , Fenótipo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502415

RESUMO

We investigated whether isoleucilactucin, an active constituent of Ixeridium dentatum, reduces inflammation caused by coal fly ash (CFA) in alveolar macrophages (MH-S). The anti-inflammatory effects of isoleucilactucin were assessed by measuring the concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in MH-S cells exposed to CFA-induced inflammation. We found that isoleucilactucin reduced CFA-induced NO generation dose-dependently in MH-S cells. Moreover, isoleucilactucin suppressed CFA-activated proinflammatory mediators, including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-(IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α). The inhibiting properties of isoleucilactucin on the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (p-NF-κB) were observed. The effects of isoleucilactucin on the NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were also measured in CFA-stimulated MH-S cells. These results indicate that isoleucilactucin suppressed CFA-stimulated inflammation in MH-S cells by inhibiting the NF-κB and MAPK pathways, which suggest it might exert anti-inflammatory properties in the lung.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Asteraceae/química , Cinza de Carvão/toxicidade , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Linhagem Celular , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química
11.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e250865, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378681

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major toxicants, which affects human health through occupational and environmental exposure. In the current study, we evaluated the protective effects of morel mushrooms against Cd-induced reproductive damages in rats. For this purpose, 30 male rats were divided into 6 groups (n=5/group), the first group served as the control group, second group was treated with an intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of 1 mg/kg/day of Cd. Third and fourth groups were co-treated with 1 mg/kg/day of Cd (i.p) and 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract (orally) respectively. The final 2 groups received oral gavage of 10 and 20 mg/kg/day of morel mushroom extract alone. After treatment for 17 days, the animals were euthanized, and testes and epididymis were dissected out. One testis and epididymis of each animal were processed for histology, while the other testis and epididymis were used for daily sperm production (DSP) and comet assay. Our results showed that Cd and morel mushrooms have no effect on animal weight, but Cd significantly decreases the DSP count and damages the heritable DNA which is reversed in co-treatment groups. Similarly, the histopathological results of testes and epididymis show that morel mushrooms control the damage to these tissues. Whereas the morel mushroom extract alone could enhance the production of testosterone. These results conclude that morel mushrooms not only control the damage done by Cd, but it could also be used as a protection mechanism for heritable DNA damage.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Cádmio , Animais , Ascomicetos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Masculino , Ratos , Espermatozoides , Testículo
12.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5538470, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285765

RESUMO

Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-known herbal medicine that has been used for a long time in Korea to treat various diseases. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo protective effects of red ginseng extract (RGE) and red ginseng oil (RGO). Liver injury was produced in BALB/c mice by 400 mg/kg of acetaminophen intraperitoneal injection. The antioxidant effects of RGE and RGO on the free radicals 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) were measured. In addition, the hepatoprotective activities of RGE and RGO on liver markers, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and oxidative stress markers, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in serum and histopathological analysis, were evaluated. The protective effect of RGO on UV-induced phototoxicity was also evaluated in Balb/c 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line. RGE and RGO effectively inhibited the radicals DPPH and ABTS compared with ascorbic acid and trolox, respectively. Moreover, RGE and RGO significantly decreased the liver enzyme (ALT and AST) levels, increased the antioxidant enzyme (SOD and CAT) levels, and decreased the DNA oxidation product (8-OHdG) content in mice serum. RGO also exhibited protective effect against UV irradiation compared with chlorpromazine hydrochloride, a known phototoxic drug, in Balb/c 3T3 cell line. RGE and RGO possess antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties in mice, and RGO exerts nonphototoxic activity in Balb/c 3T3 cells.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194518

RESUMO

Duchesnea indica is known as false strawberry, is found in East Asia, and has numerous biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Duchesnea indica extract (DIE) on coal fly ash- (CFA-) induced inflammation in murine alveolar macrophages (MH-S). Following the induction of inflammation in MH-S cells by CFA, nitric oxide (NO) was measured to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of DIE. Cell viability and inflammatory gene expression were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The inflammatory pathway in MH-S cells was determined via western blotting and immunofluorescence (IF) analysis. Finally, the major components of the DIE were identified and separated through ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Our results showed that the DIE dose-dependently inhibited the CFA-induced NO production in MH-S cells. Moreover, the DIE could suppress the CFA-induced proinflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, the inhibitory effect of the DIE on proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1ß, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), was detected with PCR. Moreover, the effect of the DIE on the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway in CFA-activated MH-S cells was measured via western blotting. Furthermore, the inhibition of the phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB) translocation was analyzed using IF assay. The findings of this study indicated that the DIE potentially inhibited the CFA-induced inflammation by blocking the NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway in MH-S cells and that the DIE might contain favorable anti-inflammatory compounds which may be effective in attenuating lung inflammation.

14.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238735, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037077

RESUMO

Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores , Roedores , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Paquistão , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Manejo de Espécimes , Simbiose
15.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825759

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
16.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787717

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
17.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572505

RESUMO

Nogo-A (Rtn 4A), a member of the reticulon 4 (Rtn4) protein family, is a neurite outgrowth inhibitor protein that is primarily expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). However, previous studies revealed that Nogo-A was upregulated in skeletal muscles of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. Additionally, experiments showed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), was upregulated in gastrocnemius muscle of a murine model of ALS. We therefore hypothesized that Nogo-A might relate to skeletal muscle diseases. According to our knocking down and overexpression results in muscle cell line (C2C12), we have found that upregulation of Nogo-A resulted in upregulation of CHOP, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, while downregulation of Nogo-A led to downregulation of CHOP, IL-6 and TNF-α. Immunofluorescence results showed that Nogo-A and CHOP were expressed by myofibers as well as tissue macrophages. Since resident macrophages share similar functions as bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM), we therefore, isolated macrophages from bone marrow to study the role of Nogo-A in activation of these cells. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BMDM in Nogo-KO mice showed low mRNA expression of CHOP, IL-6 and TNF-α compared to BMDM in wild type (WT) mice. Interestingly, Nogo knockout (KO) BMDM exhibited lower migratory activity and phagocytic ability compared with WT BMDM after LPS treatment. In addition, mice experiments data revealed that upregulation of Nogo-A in notexin- and tunicamycin-treated muscles was associated with upregulation of CHOP, IL-6 and TNF-α in WT group, while in Nogo-KO group resulted in low expression level of CHOP, IL-6 and TNF-α. Furthermore, upregulation of Nogo-A in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) murine model, myopathy and Duchenne muscle dystrophy (DMD) clinical biopsies was associated with upregulation of CHOP, IL-6 and TNF-α. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate Nogo-A as a regulator of inflammation in diseased muscle and bone marrow macrophages and that deletion of Nogo-A alleviates muscle inflammation and it can be utilized as a therapeutic target for improving muscle diseases.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Células Musculares/metabolismo , Proteínas Nogo/metabolismo , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos
18.
Cell Death Discov ; 7(1): 1, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414425

RESUMO

Among the three isoforms encoded by Rtn4, Nogo-A has been intensely investigated as a central nervous system inhibitor. Although Nogo-A expression is increased in muscles of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, its role in muscle homeostasis and regeneration is not well elucidated. In this study, we discovered a significant increase in Nogo-A expression in various muscle-related pathological conditions. Nogo-/- mice displayed dystrophic muscle structure, dysregulated muscle regeneration following injury, and altered gene expression involving lipid storage and muscle cell differentiation. We hypothesized that increased Nogo-A levels might regulate muscle regeneration. Differentiating myoblasts exhibited Nogo-A upregulation and silencing Nogo-A abrogated myoblast differentiation. Nogo-A interacted with filamin-C, suggesting a role for Nogo-A in cytoskeletal arrangement during myogenesis. In conclusion, Nogo-A maintains muscle homeostasis and integrity, and pathologically altered Nogo-A expression mediates muscle regeneration, suggesting Nogo-A as a novel target for the treatment of myopathies in clinical settings.

19.
Vacunas ; 22(2): 106-113, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078061

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The spread of the virus was rapid and currently COVID-19 cases are present worldwide in 213 countries, area or territories. Researchers worldwide are working and sharing their contribution regarding epidemiology, prevention, treatment, clinical and diagnostic patterns of the COVID-19. Current review is another contribution to the current knowledge, presenting the data in organized and systematic format about the current pandemic of COVID-19. The epidemiological information presented in the paper is subject to change as new cases are diagnosed and status of active cases is updated on daily basis.

20.
Hum Exp Toxicol ; 38(12): 1344-1365, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514588

RESUMO

Research in the past has indicated associated long-term and low levels of exposure of bisphenol A (BPA) in early life and neuroendocrine disorders, such as obesity, precocious puberty, diabetes, and hypertension. BPA and its analogs bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol F (BPF), and bisphenol S (BPS) have been reported to have similar or even more toxic effect as compared to BPA. Exposure of rats to BPA and its analogs BPB, BPF, and BPS resulted in decreased sperm production, testosterone secretion, and histological changes in the reproductive tissues of male rats. In the present study, BPA, BPB, BPF, and BPS were administered in drinking water at concentrations of (5, 25, and 50 µg/L) from pregnancy day (PD) 1 to PD 21. Body weight (BW), hormonal concentrations, antioxidant enzymes, and histological changes were determined in the reproductive tissues. BPA and its analogs prenatal exposure to female rats induced significant statistical difference in the antioxidant enzymes, plasma testosterone, and estrogen concentrations in the male offspring when compared with the control. Histological parameters of both testis and epididymis revealed prominent changes in the reproductive tissues. The present study suggests that BPA and its analogs BPB, BPF, and BPS different concentrations led to marked alterations in the development of the male reproductive system.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Troca Materno-Fetal , Fenóis/toxicidade , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Animais , Epididimo/efeitos dos fármacos , Epididimo/patologia , Feminino , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/metabolismo
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