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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239991, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278503

RESUMO

Abstract High resistance to antimicrobials is associated with biofilm formation responsible for infectious microbes to withstand severe conditions. Therefore, new alternatives are necessary as biofilm inhibitors to control infections. In this study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of Fagonia indica extracts were evaluated against MDR clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica has antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica had antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against MDR isolates. The maximum inhibitory effects of Fagonia indica chloroform extract on biofilm formation was observed on Staphylococcus aureus (71.84%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (70.83%) after 48 hrs showing that inhibition is also time dependent. Our results about bacterial cell protein leakage indicated that MDR isolates treated with chloroform extract of Fagonia indica showed maximum protein leakage of K. pneumoniae (59.14 µg mL-1) followed by S. aureus (56.7 µg mL-1). Cell attachment assays indicated that chloroform extract resulted in a 43.5-53.5% inhibition of cell adherence to a polystyrene surface. Our results revealed that extracts of Fagonia indica significantly inhibited biofilm formation among MDR clinical isolates, therefore, could be applied as antimicrobial agents and cost effective biofilm inhibitor against these MDR isolates.


Resumo A alta resistência aos antimicrobianos está associada à formação de biofilme responsável por micróbios infecciosos para suportar condições severas. Portanto, novas alternativas são necessárias como inibidores de biofilme para controlar infecções. Neste estudo, as atividades antimicrobiana e antibiofilme dos extratos de Fagonia indica foram avaliadas contra isolados clínicos MDR. O extrato exibiu seu efeito antibiofilme ao alterar a aderência e a desintegração da parede celular bacteriana. Fagonia indica tem efeito antibacteriano com valores de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) variando de 125 a 500 µg mL-1, e valor de concentração bactericida mínima (MBC) de 500-3000 µg mL-1 contra isolados clínicos multirresistentes (MDR). O extrato exibiu seu efeito antibiofilme ao alterar a aderência e a desintegração da parede celular bacteriana. Fagonia indica teve efeito antibacteriano com valores de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) variando de 125 a 500 µg mL-1, e concentração bactericida mínima (MBC) de 500-3000 µg mL-1 contra isolados MDR. Os efeitos inibitórios máximos do extrato de clorofórmio Fagonia indica na formação de biofilme foi observada em Staphylococcus aureus (71,84%), seguido por Klebsiella pneumoniae (70,83%) após 48 horas, mostrando que a inibição também é dependente do tempo. Nossos resultados sobre extravasamento de proteínas de células bacterianas indicaram que isolados MDR tratados com extrato clorofórmico de Fagonia indica apresentaram vazamento máximo de proteínas de K. pneumoniae (59,14 µg mL-1), seguido por S. aureus (56,7 µg mL-1). Ensaios de fixação de células indicaram que o extrato de clorofórmio resultou em uma inibição de 43,5-53,5% da aderência das células a uma superfície de poliestireno. Nossos resultados revelaram que extratos de Fagonia indica inibiram significativamente a formação de biofilme entre isolados clínicos MDR, portanto, poderiam ser aplicados como agentes antimicrobianos e inibidores de biofilme de baixo custo contra esses isolados MDR.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238096, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278519

RESUMO

Abstract Pakistan is the country with mega freshwater fish diversity of native and alien species. In the presence of enormous native fishes varies species of exotic fishes have been introduced into the freshwater bodies of Pakistan which are competing with native freshwater fish fauna and making them deprive of food and habitat as well. Intentional or accidental introductions of animals, plants and pathogens away from their native niche is considered as major leading problem for biodiversity of invaded habitat. Three years study (from January 2017 to December 2019) was conducted in freshwater bodies of Province Punjab, Pakistan. Study was designed to know exotic species impacts on the distribution of native species of fishes. During current survey a total of 68 (indigenous and exotic) fish species belonging to 14 families were recorded from head Qadirabad, head Baloki, Islam headworks and Rasul barrage. Statistical analysis showed that Shannon-Wiener diversity index was the highest (1.41) at both Rasul barrage and Islam headworks but, invasive species were present in very less number in these study sites i.e. Oreochromis mozambicus, O. niloticus, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Carassius auratus, Ctenophryngdon idella, Cyprinus carpio and H. molitrix. The diversity index showed that comparatively low diversity was present in both area head Qadirabad (1.30) and head Baloki (1.4) due to high pressure of invasive species. Direct observation of species and statistical analysis showed that aliens' species produced negative impact on the local fish fauna diversity, evenness, and numbers. It is concluded that many factors are impacts on the diversity of native fishes, but alien (invasive) species also play a major role to reduction of native species, because aliens' species produce competition for native species. So it is urgent need to analysis the aliens and native food web and roosting sites in Pakistan, in future.


Resumo O Paquistão é um país com ampla diversidade de espécies nativas e exóticas de peixes de água doce. Contudo, diversas espécies de peixes exóticos estão sendo introduzidas nos corpos de água doce paquistanês, as quais estão competindo com a fauna nativa de peixes, tornando-os privados de alimento e habitat. A introdução intencional ou acidental de animais, plantas e patógenos fora de seu nicho nativo é considerada o principal problema da biodiversidade do habitat recém-invadido. Assim, foi realizado um estudo de três anos, de janeiro de 2017 a dezembro de 2019, em corpos de água doce na província de Punjab, Paquistão. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida para conhecer os impactos de espécies exóticas na distribuição de espécies nativas de peixes. Durante a pesquisa, foi registrado um total de 68 espécies de peixes (nativas e exóticas), pertencentes a 14 famílias, nas nascentes dos rios Qadirabad, Baloki e Islam e na barragem de Rasul. A análise estatística mostrou que o índice de diversidade de Shannon-Wiener foi mais alto (1,41) na barragem Rasul (RB) e na nascente do rio Islam (IH); e que a maioria das espécies introduzidas estava presente em um número muito menor, isto é, Oreochromis mossambicus, Oreochromis niloticus, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Carassius auratus, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio e Hypophthalmichthy smolitrix nessa área de estudo. Por outro lado, o índice Shannon-Wiener mostrou que a diversidade estava baixa nas nascentes dos rios Qadirabad (1,30) e Baloki (1,4) em razão da alta pressão de espécies invasoras. A observação direta das espécies e a análise estatística indicaram que as espécies invasoras produziram impacto negativo na diversidade, uniformidade e números de peixes da fauna local. Conclui-se que muitos fatores impactam na diversidade de peixes nativos, mas as espécies exóticas (invasoras) também desempenham um papel importante na redução das espécies nativas, em razão da competição existente entre elas. Portanto, é urgente uma análise futura das espécies invasoras e da teia alimentar nativa no Paquistão..

3.
Cureus ; 13(8): e16907, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513480

RESUMO

Objectives To determine the risk factors and complications of transthoracic computed tomography (CT)-guided core needle lung biopsy. Methods This is a retrospective study of 124 patients who underwent CT-guided core lung biopsy in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh. This retrospective study was conducted between January 2016 and January 2020. Patient data were collected using a standardized data form that was entered into an Excel sheet in accordance with the variables. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS, version 24.0 [SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA]) was used to compute for the risk of complications after CT-guided core lung biopsy and perform all statistical comparisons, and the results were reported. Results The overall complication rate due to CT-guided core needle biopsy was 34.7% (43) (P<0.001) of the total sample. Of the total complications, 69.76% (n = 30) had pneumothorax, 20.94% (n = 9) had hemorrhage, 6.98% (n = 3) had both pneumothorax and hemorrhage, and 2.32% (n = 1) had both air embolism and pneumothorax. Of all patients who developed pneumothorax, 20% (n = 6) required chest tube insertion. Patients with secondary chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) had a complication rate of 80% among the whole sample. Lung lesions less than 3 cm had a complication rate of 48.8% (P<0.034). The needle size showed a higher rate of complications between 20 and 18 gauge with 47.4% (n = 9) and 32.4% (n = 34), respectively. Conclusions We conclude that CT-guided lung biopsy is a well-established low-risk procedure that is less invasive. However, it still carries a risk of complications with some risk factors, such as small lung lesion size and secondary COPD.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238096, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133555

RESUMO

Pakistan is the country with mega freshwater fish diversity of native and alien species. In the presence of enormous native fishes varies species of exotic fishes have been introduced into the freshwater bodies of Pakistan which are competing with native freshwater fish fauna and making them deprive of food and habitat as well. Intentional or accidental introductions of animals, plants and pathogens away from their native niche is considered as major leading problem for biodiversity of invaded habitat. Three years study (from January 2017 to December 2019) was conducted in freshwater bodies of Province Punjab, Pakistan. Study was designed to know exotic species impacts on the distribution of native species of fishes. During current survey a total of 68 (indigenous and exotic) fish species belonging to 14 families were recorded from head Qadirabad, head Baloki, Islam headworks and Rasul barrage. Statistical analysis showed that Shannon-Wiener diversity index was the highest (1.41) at both Rasul barrage and Islam headworks but, invasive species were present in very less number in these study sites i.e. Oreochromis mozambicus, O. niloticus, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis, Carassius auratus, Ctenophryngdon idella, Cyprinus carpio and H. molitrix. The diversity index showed that comparatively low diversity was present in both area head Qadirabad (1.30) and head Baloki (1.4) due to high pressure of invasive species. Direct observation of species and statistical analysis showed that aliens' species produced negative impact on the local fish fauna diversity, evenness, and numbers. It is concluded that many factors are impacts on the diversity of native fishes, but alien (invasive) species also play a major role to reduction of native species, because aliens' species produce competition for native species. So it is urgent need to analysis the aliens and native food web and roosting sites in Pakistan, in future.


Assuntos
Carpas , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Peixes , Água Doce , Paquistão
5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e239991, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190801

RESUMO

High resistance to antimicrobials is associated with biofilm formation responsible for infectious microbes to withstand severe conditions. Therefore, new alternatives are necessary as biofilm inhibitors to control infections. In this study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of Fagonia indica extracts were evaluated against MDR clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica has antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates. The extract exhibited its antibiofilm effect by altering adherence and disintegration of bacterial cell wall. Fagonia indica had antibacterial effect as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 125 to 500 µg mL-1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value was 500-3000 µg mL-1 against MDR isolates. The maximum inhibitory effects of Fagonia indica chloroform extract on biofilm formation was observed on Staphylococcus aureus (71.84%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (70.83%) after 48 hrs showing that inhibition is also time dependent. Our results about bacterial cell protein leakage indicated that MDR isolates treated with chloroform extract of Fagonia indica showed maximum protein leakage of K. pneumoniae (59.14 µg mL-1) followed by S. aureus (56.7 µg mL-1). Cell attachment assays indicated that chloroform extract resulted in a 43.5-53.5% inhibition of cell adherence to a polystyrene surface. Our results revealed that extracts of Fagonia indica significantly inhibited biofilm formation among MDR clinical isolates, therefore, could be applied as antimicrobial agents and cost effective biofilm inhibitor against these MDR isolates.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais , Staphylococcus aureus , Bactérias , Biofilmes , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
6.
Clin Endosc ; 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030430

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Peptic ulcer bleeding is the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) enhances tissue repair, and is therefore used in various medical treatments. A combination of mechanical or electrothermal hemostasis has been recommended for upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding treatment. This study evaluated the additive efficacy of PRP in bleeding peptic ulcer hemostasis and recovery. Methods: Eighty patients with peptic ulcer bleeding were initially treated by hemoclipping, and were randomly chosen for either additional PRP (n=40) or additional epinephrine (n=40) injections. Both groups were compared with regard to achieving hemostasis and the frequency of complications. Results: Hemostasis was immediately achieved in both groups. Two patients (5%) in the PRP group and 8 (20%) patients in the epinephrine group experienced rebleeding after 15.9±2.8 and 12.3±3.7 days, respectively. They were managed by PRP injection in addition to proton pump inhibitor infusion. Hemoglobin was substantially increased in the PRP-treated group with full recovery occurring in 60.5% compared to 31.3% of patients in the epinephrine group (p=0.001). There was no recurrent bleeding in the PRP group, but 4/32 (12.5%) patients in the epinephrine group exhibited rebleeding. Conclusions: PRP showed additional benefit in reducing peptic ulcer bleeding with no reported significant complications. Clinical trial (NCT03733171).

7.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(6): 404-411, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955242

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aim to identify any changes in outcome for patients undergoing nonelective surgery at the start of the UK pandemic in our district general hospital. This was a single-centre retrospective cohort review of a UK district general hospital serving a population of over 250,000 people. METHODS: Participants were all patients undergoing a surgical procedure in the acute theatre list between 23 March to 11 May in both 2019 and 2020. Primary outcome was 90-day postoperative mortality. Secondary outcomes include time to surgical intervention and length of inpatient stay. RESULTS: A total of 132 patients (2020) versus 141 (2019) patients were included. Although overall 90-day postoperative mortality was higher in 2020 (9.8%) compared with 2019 (5.7%), this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.196). In 2020, eight patients tested positive for COVID-19 either as an inpatient or within 2 weeks of discharge, of whom five patients died. Time to surgical intervention was significantly faster for NCEPOD (National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death) code 3 patients in 2020 than in 2019 (p=0.027). There were no significant differences in mean length of inpatient stay. CONCLUSIONS: We found that patients were appropriately prioritised using NCEPOD classification, with no statistically significant differences in 90-day postoperative mortality and length of inpatient stay compared with the 2019 period. A study on a larger scale would further elucidate the profile and outcomes of patients requiring acute surgery to generate statistical significance.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Distrito/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 398-405, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153348

RESUMO

Abstract Continuous occurrence of heavy metals is a major cause of environmental pollution due to its toxic effects. At minimum concentrations, these metals are highly reactive and can gather in the food chains and food web, causing major dangers to public health concerns. Soil samples were collected from Paharang drain, Faisalabad. Cadmium tolerant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Cd. The isolated bacterial strain GCFSD01 showed MIC value upto 30 mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Cd was selected for further study. Molecular characterization of bacterial isolate GCFSD01 was performed by 16S rRNA which confirmed it as Bacillus cereus. Optimum growth conditions of bacterial strain were also evaluated. Strain GCFSD01 showed optimum growth at pH 7 and 37 °C temperature. Our result revealed that B. cereus strain GCFSD01 reduced 61.3% Cd after 48 hrs. Multiple metal tolerance and Cd reduction by B. cereus indicate its potential for further use for decontamination of polluted soil.


Resumo A ocorrência contínua de metais pesados é uma das principais causas de poluição ambiental devido aos seus efeitos tóxicos. A contaminação por metais pesados representa um grande risco para todas as formas de vida encontradas no meio ambiente. Em concentrações mínimas, esses metais são altamente reativos e podem se acumular nas cadeias alimentares e na cadeia alimentar, causando grandes perigos às preocupações com a saúde pública. Amostras de solo foram coletadas no esgoto de Paharang, Faisalabad. Bactérias tolerantes ao cádmio foram isoladas da amostra coletada pelo método da placa de ágar. As colônias separadas individuais selecionadas foram avaliadas quanto às suas concentrações inibitórias mínimas contra Cd. A cepa bacteriana isolada GCFSD01 apresentou valores de CIM de 30 mM/L. A colônia bacteriana que apresentou maior resistência contra o Cd foi selecionada para identificação. Após seleção da maior colônia bacteriana resistente ao Cd, coloração de Gram e diferentes testes bioquímicos foram realizados para a caracterização da bactéria isolada. A caracterização molecular do isolado bacteriano GCFSD01 foi realizada por PCR 16S rRNA confirmando a presença de Bacillus cereus. Após a identificação molecular, as condições ótimas de crescimento da cepa bacteriana também foram verificadas. A cepa GCFSD01 apresentou crescimento ótimo em pH 7 e temperatura de 37 °C. Nosso resultado revelou que a cepa de B. cereus GCFSD01 reduziu 61,3% de Cd após 48 horas. A tolerância a múltiplos metais e a redução de Cd por B. cereus indicam seu potencial para uso posterior na descontaminação do solo poluído.

9.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(2): 398-405, Mar.-May 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-762746

RESUMO

Continuous occurrence of heavy metals is a major cause of environmental pollution due to its toxic effects. At minimum concentrations, these metals are highly reactive and can gather in the food chains and food web, causing major dangers to public health concerns. Soil samples were collected from Paharang drain, Faisalabad. Cadmium tolerant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Cd. The isolated bacterial strain GCFSD01 showed MIC value upto 30 mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Cd was selected for further study. Molecular characterization of bacterial isolate GCFSD01 was performed by 16S rRNA which confirmed it as Bacillus cereus. Optimum growth conditions of bacterial strain were also evaluated. Strain GCFSD01 showed optimum growth at pH 7 and 37 °C temperature. Our result revealed that B. cereus strain GCFSD01 reduced 61.3% Cd after 48 hrs. Multiple metal tolerance and Cd reduction by B. cereus indicate its potential for further use for decontamination of polluted soil.(AU)


A ocorrência contínua de metais pesados é uma das principais causas de poluição ambiental devido aos seus efeitos tóxicos. A contaminação por metais pesados representa um grande risco para todas as formas de vida encontradas no meio ambiente. Em concentrações mínimas, esses metais são altamente reativos e podem se acumular nas cadeias alimentares e na cadeia alimentar, causando grandes perigos às preocupações com a saúde pública. Amostras de solo foram coletadas no esgoto de Paharang, Faisalabad. Bactérias tolerantes ao cádmio foram isoladas da amostra coletada pelo método da placa de ágar. As colônias separadas individuais selecionadas foram avaliadas quanto às suas concentrações inibitórias mínimas contra Cd. A cepa bacteriana isolada GCFSD01 apresentou valores de CIM de 30 mM/L. A colônia bacteriana que apresentou maior resistência contra o Cd foi selecionada para identificação. Após seleção da maior colônia bacteriana resistente ao Cd, coloração de Gram e diferentes testes bioquímicos foram realizados para a caracterização da bactéria isolada. A caracterização molecular do isolado bacteriano GCFSD01 foi realizada por PCR 16S rRNA confirmando a presença de Bacillus cereus. Após a identificação molecular, as condições ótimas de crescimento da cepa bacteriana também foram verificadas. A cepa GCFSD01 apresentou crescimento ótimo em pH 7 e temperatura de 37 °C. Nosso resultado revelou que a cepa de B. cereus GCFSD01 reduziu 61,3% de Cd após 48 horas. A tolerância a múltiplos metais e a redução de Cd por B. cereus indicam seu potencial para uso posterior na descontaminação do solo poluído.(AU)


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacillus cereus/isolamento & purificação , Intoxicação por Cádmio , Análise do Solo
10.
Saudi J Anaesth ; 15(1): 1-6, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33824635

RESUMO

Background and Aims: Mechanical ventilation (MV) with high tidal volume (Vt.) may induce or aggravate lung injury in critically ill patients. It might also cause an overwhelming systemic inflammation leading to acute lung injury (ALI), diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and multiple organ failure (MOF) with subsequent high mortality. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of different Vt. on the inflammatory markers of the broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung biopsy in a group of animal model (Beagle dogs). Methods: A two-phased prospective study involving 30 Beagle dogs (15 dogs/phase), each phase divided into three groups (each 5 dogs/group). In the first phase each group received MV with Vt. of 8 (low), 10 (normal, control group), and 12 (high) ml/kg body weight (b.w.) respectively. BAL fluid was obtained at the time of induction of anesthesia immediately following tracheal intubation and one hour later following MV to count the macrophages, neutrophils and lymphocytes. In the second phase of the experiment, in addition to obtaining (BAL) fluid similar to the phase one, mini thoracotomy and lung biopsy obtained from the upper lobe of the right lung at same timings for histopathological examination study. Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test was used for statistical analysis of the data obtained. Results: BAL fluid analysis showed increase in the counts of macrophages and lymphocytes with Vt. of 12 ml/kg b.w. compared to the control group (10 ml/kg b.w.) (P < 0.05). in the second phase, similar findings obtained. The histopathological study of the lung tissue obtained in the second phase of the study from the group that received a high Vt. of 12 ml/kg b.w. showed significant inflammatory changes with presence of neutrophil infiltration and edema in the bronchial wall compared to the control group (10 ml/kg b.w.) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The use of high Vt. in ventilated animal lung model may increase the risk of inflammation and subsequent damage in healthy lungs, these findings may help physicians to avoid using high Vt. in short-term mechanically ventilated patients in the operating room setting.

11.
Pak J Med Sci ; 37(2): 373-378, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33679916

RESUMO

Background and Objective: Worldwide chest trauma is considered one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. There is a lack of sufficient information on the etiology, pattern, and management of these injuries in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, the current study was conducted to determine the spectrum of chest trauma and its associated factors among patients admitted to King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A quantitative observational cross-sectional analysis was performed, data obtained from the medical records of the chest trauma patients which were admitted in the thoracic surgery unit, King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from January 2013 to Jan 2019. The records of all these patients were reviewed and data were collected and analyzed prospectively. Results: A total of 236 patients (male: 87.3%; mean age: 32.4 years) were included in the analyses. The majority of these chest trauma cases (n=205; 86.9%) were caused by road traffic accidents (RTA). Blunt trauma predominated the cases n=225 (95.3%). Ribs fracture had the highest prevalence among the chest injuries with a number of 150 (63.5%) followed by lung contusion 140 (59.3%). Pneumothorax occurred in 131 (55.5%) and hemothorax occurred in 80 (33.8%) with most common indication for emergency thoracotomy. Extra-thoracic injuries involving the head/brain, limbs, and abdominal organs occurred in 189 (80%). 130 (55%) were intubated and ventilated, and almost half of the patients 115 (48.7%) were required a chest tube insertion. Conclusions: Chest trauma is a major health issue particularly in young male adults and road traffic accidents are the leading cause of chest trauma in Saudi Arabia. Early recognition of the patterns, etiology and appropriate management of trauma reduce the incidence of chest trauma related injuries.

12.
Cureus ; 13(2): e13335, 2021 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33747644

RESUMO

Radiology request forms are the basis of communication between referring physicians and radiologists. These are the sole documents on the basis of which a justification to carry out a radiological procedure is carried out. However, across the globe, there is a problem of inadequately filled radiology request forms. Several interventions like standardization and the use of technology have been proposed worldwide to overcome the shortcomings of inadequately filled radiology request forms. We carried out a two-phase audit assessing the impact of a technological intervention on the quality of radiology requests with the results showing marked improvement in key parameters. A subset analysis was also done to highlight the importance of radiology request forms by following the patients' treatment course. The remaining shortcomings highlight the importance of training sessions and refresher courses for junior doctors in order to familiarize them with the importance of adequately filled radiology request forms.

13.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(1): 83-91, Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153327

RESUMO

Abstract Current study assessed the impact of Lantana camara invasion on native plant diversity in Pothohar region of Pakistan. The approach used for study was random samplings and comparisons of diversity indices [number of species (S), abundance (N), species richness (R), evenness (Jꞌ), Shannon diversity index (Hꞌ) and Simpson index of dominance (λ)] with two categorical factors i.e., invaded and non-invaded (control). Control plots harboured by an average of 1.74 more species/10m2. The control category was diverse (Hꞌ=2.56) than invaded category (Hꞌ=1.56). The higher value of species richness in control plots shows heterogeneous nature of communities and vice versa in invaded plots. At multivariate scale, ordination (nMDS) and ANOSIM showed significant magnitude of differences between invaded and control plots at all sites. The decrease in studied diversity indices in invaded over control sites indicated that plant communities become less productive due to Lantana invasion.


Resumo O presente estudo avaliou o impacto da invasão de Lantana camara na diversidade de plantas nativas na região de Pothohar, no Paquistão. A abordagem utilizada para o estudo foram a amostragem aleatória e a comparação de índices de diversidade, como número de espécies (S), abundância (N), riqueza de espécies (R), equitabilidade (Jꞌ), índice de diversidade de Shannon (Hꞌ) e índice de dominância de Simpson (λ), com dois fatores categóricos, ou seja, invadidos e não invadidos (controle). As parcelas não invadidas tinham, em média, 1,74 espécie a mais / 10 m2 que parcelas invadidas. A categoria controle foi mais diversa (Hꞌ = 2,56) do que a categoria invadida (Hꞌ = 1,56). O maior valor da riqueza de espécies em parcelas de controle mostra a natureza heterogênea das comunidades, e vice-versa, em parcelas invadidas. Na escala multivariada, ordenação (nMDS) e ANOSIM mostraram magnitude significativa das diferenças entre as parcelas invadidas e controle em todos os locais. A diminuição nos índices de diversidade estudados em locais invadidos por controle indicou que as comunidades de plantas se tornam menos produtivas por causa da invasão de Lantana.

14.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 81(1): 83-91, Jan.-Feb. 2021. mapas, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-30139

RESUMO

Current study assessed the impact of Lantana camara invasion on native plant diversity in Pothohar region of Pakistan. The approach used for study was random samplings and comparisons of diversity indices [number of species (S), abundance (N), species richness (R), evenness (J), Shannon diversity index (H) and Simpson index of dominance (lambda)] with two categorical factors i.e., invaded and non-invaded (control). Control plots harboured by an average of 1.74 more species/10m2. The control category was diverse (H=2.56) than invaded category (H=1.56). The higher value of species richness in control plots shows heterogeneous nature of communities and vice versa in invaded plots. At multivariate scale, ordination (nMDS) and ANOSIM showed significant magnitude of differences between invaded and control plots at all sites. The decrease in studied diversity indices in invaded over control sites indicated that plant communities become less productive due to Lantana invasion.(AU)


O presente estudo avaliou o impacto da invasão de Lantana camara na diversidade de plantas nativas na região de Pothohar, no Paquistão. A abordagem utilizada para o estudo foram a amostragem aleatória e a comparação de índices de diversidade, como número de espécies (S), abundância (N), riqueza de espécies (R), equitabilidade (J), índice de diversidade de Shannon (H) e índice de dominância de Simpson (lambda), com dois fatores categóricos, ou seja, invadidos e não invadidos (controle). As parcelas não invadidas tinham, em média, 1,74 espécie a mais / 10 m2 que parcelas invadidas. A categoria controle foi mais diversa (H = 2,56) do que a categoria invadida (H = 1,56). O maior valor da riqueza de espécies em parcelas de controle mostra a natureza heterogênea das comunidades, e vice-versa, em parcelas invadidas. Na escala multivariada, ordenação (nMDS) e ANOSIM mostraram magnitude significativa das diferenças entre as parcelas invadidas e controle em todos os locais. A diminuição nos índices de diversidade estudados em locais invadidos por controle indicou que as comunidades de plantas se tornam menos produtivas por causa da invasão de Lantana.(AU)


Assuntos
Lantana , Biodiversidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Paquistão
15.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; Publish Ahead of Print2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33405419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A scarce number of researches discussed the impact of cholecystectomies on the anatomy of common bile duct (CBD) and intern if this will affect the difficulty of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The objective of present study was to assess the impact of complicated cholecystectomy on the complexity and safety of the ERCP procedure. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 100 patients were enrolled after meeting the following inclusion criteria - study group (group A): 50 patients with previous history of complicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy and control group (group B): 50 patients with previous noncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. ERCP was performed and complexity was judged by a number of cannulation attempts, ERCP time, pancreatic cannulation and post-ERCP pancreatitis. RESULTS: The study revealed prolonged ERCP procedure duration in noncomplicated cholecystectomy (24.2 ± 8.5 min) and it was significantly more prolonged in complicated cholecystectomy (39.6 ± 10.7 min; P = 0.03). The trials of cannulation attempts were significantly higher in the study group with complicated cholecystectomy (P = 0.009). Pancreatic duct cannulation was frequently higher in the complicated cholecystectomy group (P = 0.03). Difficult or failed stone extraction was significantly prevalent in the complicated cholecystectomy group and the occurrence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) was significantly higher than the control group. CONCLUSION: ERCP after complicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy is more complex with increased duration liability of complications.

16.
Braz J Biol ; 81(1): 83-91, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236291

RESUMO

Current study assessed the impact of Lantana camara invasion on native plant diversity in Pothohar region of Pakistan. The approach used for study was random samplings and comparisons of diversity indices [number of species (S), abundance (N), species richness (R), evenness (Jꞌ), Shannon diversity index (Hꞌ) and Simpson index of dominance (λ)] with two categorical factors i.e., invaded and non-invaded (control). Control plots harboured by an average of 1.74 more species/10m2. The control category was diverse (Hꞌ=2.56) than invaded category (Hꞌ=1.56). The higher value of species richness in control plots shows heterogeneous nature of communities and vice versa in invaded plots. At multivariate scale, ordination (nMDS) and ANOSIM showed significant magnitude of differences between invaded and control plots at all sites. The decrease in studied diversity indices in invaded over control sites indicated that plant communities become less productive due to Lantana invasion.


Assuntos
Lantana , Paquistão , Plantas
17.
Braz J Biol ; 81(2): 398-405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696847

RESUMO

Continuous occurrence of heavy metals is a major cause of environmental pollution due to its toxic effects. At minimum concentrations, these metals are highly reactive and can gather in the food chains and food web, causing major dangers to public health concerns. Soil samples were collected from Paharang drain, Faisalabad. Cadmium tolerant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Cd. The isolated bacterial strain GCFSD01 showed MIC value upto 30 mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Cd was selected for further study. Molecular characterization of bacterial isolate GCFSD01 was performed by 16S rRNA which confirmed it as Bacillus cereus. Optimum growth conditions of bacterial strain were also evaluated. Strain GCFSD01 showed optimum growth at pH 7 and 37 °C temperature. Our result revealed that B. cereus strain GCFSD01 reduced 61.3% Cd after 48 hrs. Multiple metal tolerance and Cd reduction by B. cereus indicate its potential for further use for decontamination of polluted soil.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Bacillus cereus/genética , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
18.
Glob Change Biol Bioenergy ; 12(9): 706-727, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999688

RESUMO

Pyrolysis char residues from ensiled macroalgae were examined to determine their potential as growth promoters on germinating and transplanted seedlings. Macroalgae was harvested in May, July and August from beach collections, containing predominantly Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea; naturally seeded mussel lines dominated by Saccharina latissima; and lines seeded with cultivated L. digitata. Material was ensiled, pressed to pellets and underwent pyrolysis using a thermo-catalytic reforming (TCR) process, with and without additional steam. The chars generated were then assessed through proximate and ultimate analysis. Seasonal changes had the prevalent impact on char composition, though using mixed beach-harvested material gave a greater variability in elements than when using the offshore collections. Applying the char at 5% (v/v)/2% (w/w) into germination or seedling soils was universally negative for the plants, inhibiting or delaying all parameters assessed with no clear advantage in harvesting date, species or TCR processing methodology. In germinating lettuce seeds, soil containing the pyrolysis chars caused a longer germination time, poorer germination, fewer true leaves to be produced, a lower average plant health score and a lower final biomass yield. For transplanted ryegrass seedlings, there were lower plant survival rates, with surviving plants producing fewer leaves and tillers, lower biomass yields when cut and less regrowth after cutting. As water from the char-contained plant pots inhibited the lettuce char control, one further observation was that run-off water from the pyrolysis char released compounds which detrimentally affected cultivated plant growth. This study clearly shows that pyrolysed macroalgae char does not fit the standard assumption that chars can be used as soil amendments at 2% (w/w) addition levels. As the bioeconomy expands in the future, the end use of residues and wastes from bioprocessing will become a genuine global issue, requiring consideration and demonstration rather than hypothesized use.

19.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 72: 290-293, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563088

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Reconstruction of chest wall defects in children poses a challenge because the use of hard implants will impair chest wall growth. In this report, we demonstrate the reconstruction of a chest wall defect in a pediatric patient with an innovative technique using the latissimus dorsi muscle-thoraco-lumbar fascia composite flap. CASE REPORT: A 5-year old boy presented to the clinic with a congenital anterior right chest wall defect. Reconstruction was done using this composite flap. Drill holes were made in the sternum and remaining ribs at the edges of the chest wall defect. The muscle-fascia composite flap was then sutured over the defect using polypropylene sutures anchored to these drill holes. There were no post-operative complications. At final follow-up 11 years later, the chest wall depression was still present but to a lesser degree when compared to the pre-operative depression. There was no bulging of the lung through the defect. DISCUSSION: The composite flap technique was compared to other options of chest wall reconstruction in children. CONCLUSIONS: Congenital anterior chest wall defects that are not associated with breathing problems may be reconstructed in early childhood with a pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle-thoraco-lumbar fascia composite flap. The flap is rigid enough to prevent bulging of the lung though the defect and hence, it provides an adequate reconstruction. However, the remaining chest wall depression and further chest wall rigidity requires a second operation after puberty.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic liver disease is characterized by complex hemostatic disorders because the liver is the site where most of the coagulation factors and their inhibitors are synthesized. The aim of this study was the evaluation of protein C and antithrombin III in different stages of chronic hepatitis B and C and to determine their possible role as markers of liver cell damage in different clinical stages. METHODS: The study included 60 subjects who were subdivided into 4 groups: (Group I): 15 patients diagnosed as chronic viral hepatitis B or C, (Group II): 15 patients with compensated liver cirrhosis, (Group III): 15 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis, and (Group IV) (control group): 15 healthy individuals. History taking, clinical examination and abdominal ultrasonography were made for all subjects. Investigations were done in the form of liver function tests (ALT, AST, ALP, serum bilirubin, and serum albumin), PT, PTT, CBC. Plasma levels of Antithrombin III & protein C were estimated by automated Stago compact coagulation analyzer. RESULTS: In all patient groups, the mean value of Protein C showed significant decrease when compared to control group, mean value of antithrombin III showed a significant decrease in compensated and decompensated subjects when compared to chronic hepatitis and control groups. Antithrombin III and protein C showed a significant negative correlation with (ALT, AST, PT, PTT, INR). However, this correlation was positive with Albumin. CONCLUSION: Antithrombin III and protein C are natural anticoagulants and can be considered as markers of different stages of chronic liver disease. This is supported further by the comparison between the levels of these parameters and clinical stages of liver disease. Protein C is more sensitive than ATIII as a marker of hepatocellular damage.


Assuntos
Antitrombina III/análise , Coagulação Sanguínea , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteína C/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/sangue , Hepatite B Crônica/virologia , Hepatite C Crônica/sangue , Hepatite C Crônica/virologia , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Fígado/virologia , Cirrose Hepática/sangue , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
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