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1.
Evolution ; 77(9): 2000-2014, 2023 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37345732

RESUMO

The upper and lower jaws of some wrasses (Eupercaria: Labridae) possess teeth that have been coalesced into a strong durable beak that they use to graze on hard coral skeletons, hard-shelled prey, and algae, allowing many of these species to function as important ecosystem engineers in their respective marine habitats. While the ecological impact of the beak is well understood, questions remain about its evolutionary history and the effects of this innovation on the downstream patterns of morphological evolution. Here we analyze 3D cranial shape data in a phylogenetic comparative framework and use paleoclimate modeling to reconstruct the evolution of the labrid beak across 205 species. We find that wrasses evolved beaks three times independently, once within odacines and twice within parrotfishes in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. We find an increase in the rate of shape evolution in the Scarus+Chlorurus+Hipposcarus (SCH) clade of parrotfishes likely driven by the evolution of the intramandibular joint. Paleoclimate modeling shows that the SCH clade of parrotfishes rapidly morphologically diversified during the middle Miocene. We hypothesize that possession of a beak in the SCH clade coupled with favorable environmental conditions allowed these species to rapidly morphologically diversify.


Assuntos
Bico , Perciformes , Animais , Filogenia , Ecossistema , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica
2.
J Exp Biol ; 226(10)2023 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37204298

RESUMO

Air sacs are a well-known aspect of insect tracheal systems, but have received little research attention. In this Commentary, we suggest that the study of the distribution and function of air sacs in tracheate arthropods can provide insights of broad significance. We provide preliminary phylogenetic evidence that the developmental pathways for creation of air sacs are broadly conserved throughout the arthropods, and that possession of air sacs is strongly associated with a few traits, including the capacity for powerful flight, large body or appendage size and buoyancy control. We also discuss how tracheal compression can serve as an additional mechanism for achieving advection in tracheal systems. Together, these patterns suggest that the possession of air sacs has both benefits and costs that remain poorly understood. New technologies for visualization and functional analysis of tracheal systems provide exciting approaches for investigations that will be of broad significance for understanding invertebrate evolution.


Assuntos
Sacos Aéreos , Artrópodes , Animais , Filogenia , Insetos , Traqueia
3.
Syst Biol ; 72(2): 419-432, 2023 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36111797

RESUMO

Modularity is a ubiquitous feature of organismal design that plays an important role in structuring patterns of morphological diversification. Modularity can facilitate evolutionary changes by allowing subsets of traits to coevolve as integrated units and follow quasi-independent evolutionary trajectories, a pattern that may be particularly consequential in the case of highly complex morphological structures. Here we examine modularity in a complex and highly kinetic structure, the teleost skull, and ask if a modular organization of the skull has influenced the diversification dynamics of the shapes of its osteological components across the labrid phylogeny. We compiled one of the largest 3D morphological data sets of fishes to date and used geometric morphometrics to quantify patterns of cranial shape evolution across 184 species of wrasses (Labridae). We then tested several hypotheses of modularity inspired by functional and developmental relationships between cranial bones and compared phenotypic rates among modules. We also compared the fit of models of trait evolution for the entire skull and the various articulated bones that it comprises. Our analyses indicated strong support for a 2-module hypothesis, one that encompasses the oral and pharyngeal jaws and another module comprised of the neurocranium, hyoid apparatus, and operculum. This functional hypothesis yielded one of the highest significant rate differentials across modules, yet we also found that the best-fitting models of trait evolution differed among skull bones. These results suggest that modularity can influence morphological diversification in complex biological structures via differences in both the tempo and mode of evolutionary change. [3D geometric morphometrics, cranial morphology, evolutionary modularity, Labridae, phenotypic rates, structural complexity.].


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Crânio , Animais , Filogenia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo
4.
Evol Dev ; 25(1): 73-84, 2023 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971630

RESUMO

The evolution of behavioral and ecological specialization can have marked effects on the tempo and mode of phenotypic evolution. Head-first burrowing has been shown to exert powerful selective pressures on the head and body shapes of many vertebrate and invertebrate taxa. In wrasses, burrowing behaviors have evolved multiple times independently, and are commonly used in foraging and predator avoidance behaviors. While recent studies have examined the kinematics and body shape morphology associated with this behavior, no study to-date has examined the macroevolutionary implications of burrowing on patterns of phenotypic diversification in this clade. Here, we use three-dimensional geometric morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative methods to study the evolution of skull shape in fossorial wrasses and their relatives. We test for skull shape differences between burrowing and non burrowing wrasses and evaluate hypotheses of shape convergence among the burrowing wrasses. We also quantify rates of skull shape evolution between burrowing and non burrowing wrasses to test for whether burrowing constrains or accelerates rates of skull shape evolution in this clade. We find that while burrowing and non burrowing wrasses exhibit similar degrees of morphological disparity, for burrowing wrasses, it took nearly twice as long to amass this disparity. Furthermore, while the disparities between groups are evenly matched, we find that most burrowing species are confined to a particular region of shape space with most species exhibiting narrower heads than many non-burrowing species. These results suggest head-first burrowing constrains patterns of skull shape diversification in wrasses by potentially restricting the range of phenotypes that can perform this behavior.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Perciformes , Animais , Filogenia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Cabeça/anatomia & histologia
5.
Syst Biol ; 72(3): 530-543, 2023 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36331534

RESUMO

Phylogenomic analysis of large genome-wide sequence data sets can resolve phylogenetic tree topologies for large species groups, help test the accuracy of and improve resolution for earlier multi-locus studies and reveal the level of agreement or concordance within partitions of the genome for various tree topologies. Here we used a target-capture approach to sequence 1088 single-copy exons for more than 200 labrid fishes together with more than 100 outgroup taxa to generate a new data-rich phylogeny for the family Labridae. Our time-calibrated phylogenetic analysis of exon-capture data pushes the root node age of the family Labridae back into the Cretaceous to about 79 Ma years ago. The monotypic Centrogenys vaigiensis, and the order Uranoscopiformes (stargazers) are identified as the sister lineages of Labridae. The phylogenetic relationships among major labrid subfamilies and within these clades were largely congruent with prior analyses of select mitochondrial and nuclear datasets. However, the position of the tribe Cirrhilabrini (fairy and flame wrasses) showed discordance, resolving either as the sister to a crown julidine clade or alternatively sister to a group formed by the labrines, cheilines and scarines. Exploration of this pattern using multiple approaches leads to slightly higher support for this latter hypothesis, highlighting the importance of genome-level data sets for resolving short internodes at key phylogenetic positions in a large, economically important groups of coral reef fishes. More broadly, we demonstrate how accounting for sources of biological variability from incomplete lineage sorting and exploring systematic error at conflicting nodes can aid in evaluating alternative phylogenetic hypotheses. [coral reefs; divergence time estimation; exon-capture; fossil calibration; incomplete lineage sorting.].


Assuntos
Peixes , Perciformes , Animais , Filogenia , Perciformes/genética , Genoma
6.
Biol Open ; 11(9)2022 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066131

RESUMO

Suction feeding in fishes is characterized by rapid cranial movements, but extant lungfishes (Sarcopterygii: Dipnoi) exhibit a reduced number and mobility of cranial bones relative to actinopterygian fishes. Despite fusion of cranial elements, lungfishes are proficient at suction feeding, though the impacts of novel cranial morphology and reduced cranial kinesis on feeding remain poorly understood. We used X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology (XROMM) to study the kinematics of seven mobile elements (neurocranium, upper jaw, lower jaw, tongue, ceratohyal, clavicle, and cranial rib) and two muscles (costoclavicular portion of the hypaxialis and rectus cervicis) during the feeding strikes of West African lungfish (Protopterus annectens). We found that feeding by P. annectens on non-evasive prey is relatively slow, with a mean time to peak gape of 273 ms. Lower jaw depression and clavicular rotation were hinge-like, with one degree of freedom, but the ceratohyals rotated in a complex motion involving depression and long-axis rotation. We quantified the relative contributions to oral cavity volume change (RCVC) and found that oral cavity expansion is created primarily by ceratohyal and clavicle motion. P. annectens suction feeds relatively slowly but successfully through muscle shortening of hypaxial and rectus cervicis muscles contributing to hyoid mobility.


Assuntos
Peixes , Cinese , Animais , Peixes/fisiologia , Crânio/anatomia & histologia , Sucção , Raios X
7.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 177: 107616, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998799

RESUMO

Clades of marine fishes exhibit many patterns of diversification, ranging from relatively constant throughout time to rapid changes in the rates of speciation and extinction. The goatfishes (Syngnatharia: Mullidae) are a family of marine, reef associated fishes with a relatively recent origin, distributed globally in tropical and temperate waters. Despite their abundance and economic importance, the goatfishes remain one of the few coral reef families for which the species level relationships have not been examined using genomic techniques. Here we use phylogenomic analysis of ultra-conserved elements (UCE) and exon data to resolve a well-supported, time-calibrated phylogeny for 72 species of goatfishes, supporting a recent crown age of the goatfishes at 21.9 million years ago. We used this framework to test hypotheses about the associations among body shape morphometrics, taxonomy, and phylogeny, as well as to explore relative diversification rates across the phylogeny. Body shape was strongly associated with generic-level taxonomy of goatfishes, with morphometric analyses showing evidence for high phylogenetic signal across all morphotypes. Rates of diversification in this clade reveal a recent sharp increase in lineage accumulation, with 92% of the goatfish species sampled across all clades and major body plans having originated in just the past 5 million years. We suggest that habitat diversity in the early Pliocene oceans and the generalist ecology of goatfishes are key factors in the unusual evolutionary tempo of the family Mullidae.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Somatotipos , Animais , Recifes de Corais , Peixes , Perciformes/genética , Filogenia
8.
Integr Comp Biol ; 62(4): 865-877, 2022 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798019

RESUMO

Research on the water-to-land transition tends to focus on the locomotor changes necessary for terrestriality. However, the evolution from water breathing to air breathing was also a necessary precursor to the invasion of land. Air is approximately 1000 times less dense and 50 times less viscous, and contains hundreds of times more oxygen than water. However, unlike the transition to terrestrial locomotion, breathing air does not require body weight support, so the evolution of air breathing may have necessitated smaller changes to morphology and function. We used X-ray reconstruction of moving morphology to compare the cranial kinematics of aquatic buccal pumping, such as that seen in suction feeding, with the aerial buccal pumping required for lung ventilation in the West African lungfish (Protopterus annectens). During buccal pumping behaviors, the cranial bones and associated soft tissues act as valves and pumps, and the sequence of their motions controls the pattern of fluid flow. Both behaviors are characterized by an anterior-to-posterior wave of expansion and an anterior-to-posterior wave of compression. We found that the pectoral girdle and cranial rib rotate consistently during air breathing and suction feeding, and that the muscle between them shortens during buccal expansion. Overall, we conclude that the major cranial bones maintain the same basic functions (i.e., acting as valves or pumps, or transmitting power) across aquatic and aerial buccal pumping. The cranial morphology that enables aquatic buccal pumping is well suited to perform air breathing and accommodates the physical differences between air and water.


Assuntos
Peixes , Respiração , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Sucção , Peixes/fisiologia , Água
9.
J Exp Biol ; 225(3)2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019979

RESUMO

Many fishes use substantial cranial kinesis to rapidly increase buccal cavity volume, pulling prey into the mouth via suction feeding. Living polypterids are a key lineage for understanding the evolution and biomechanics of suction feeding because of their phylogenetic position and unique morphology. Polypterus bichir have fewer mobile cranial elements compared with teleosts [e.g. immobile (pre)maxillae] but successfully generate suction through dorsal, ventral and lateral oral cavity expansion. However, the relative contributions of these motions to suction feeding success have not been quantified. Additionally, extensive body musculature and lack of opercular jaw opening linkages make P. bichir of interest for examining the role of cranial versus axial muscles in driving mandibular depression. Here, we analyzed the kinematics of buccal expansion during suction feeding in P. bichir using X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology (XROMM) and quantified the contributions of skeletal elements to oral cavity volume expansion and prey capture. Mouth gape peaks early in the strike, followed by maximum cleithral and ceratohyal rotations, and finally by opercular and suspensorial abductions, maintaining the anterior-to-posterior movement of water. Using a new method of quantifying bones' relative contributions to volume change (RCVC), we demonstrate that ceratohyal kinematics are the most significant drivers of oral cavity volume change. All measured cranial bone motions, except abduction of the suspensorium, are correlated with prey motion. Lastly, cleithral retraction is largely concurrent with ceratohyal retraction and jaw depression, while the sternohyoideus maintains constant length, suggesting a central role of the axial muscles, cleithrum and ceratohyal in ventral expansion.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Cinese , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Peixes , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Boca/fisiologia , Filogenia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Sucção
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258889, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705840

RESUMO

The damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) inhabit near-shore communities in tropical and temperature oceans as one of the major lineages in coral reef fish assemblages. Our understanding of their evolutionary ecology, morphology and function has often been advanced by increasingly detailed and accurate molecular phylogenies. Here we present the next stage of multi-locus, molecular phylogenetics for the group based on analysis of 12 nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences from 345 of the 422 damselfishes. The resulting well-resolved phylogeny helps to address several important questions about higher-level damselfish relationships, their evolutionary history and patterns of divergence. A time-calibrated phylogenetic tree yields a root age for the family of 55.5 mya, refines the age of origin for a number of diverse genera, and shows that ecological changes during the Eocene-Oligocene transition provided opportunities for damselfish diversification. We explored the idea that body size extremes have evolved repeatedly among the Pomacentridae, and demonstrate that large and small body sizes have evolved independently at least 40 times and with asymmetric rates of transition among size classes. We tested the hypothesis that transitions among dietary ecotypes (benthic herbivory, pelagic planktivory and intermediate omnivory) are asymmetric, with higher transition rates from intermediate omnivory to either planktivory or herbivory. Using multistate hidden-state speciation and extinction models, we found that both body size and dietary ecotype are significantly associated with patterns of diversification across the damselfishes, and that the highest rates of net diversification are associated with medium body size and pelagic planktivory. We also conclude that the pattern of evolutionary diversification in feeding ecology, with frequent and asymmetrical transitions between feeding ecotypes, is largely restricted to the subfamily Pomacentrinae in the Indo-West Pacific. Trait diversification patterns for damselfishes across a fully resolved phylogeny challenge many recent general conclusions about the evolution of reef fishes.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Tamanho Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/classificação , Perciformes/metabolismo , Filogenia
11.
Integr Org Biol ; 3(1): obab011, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381962

RESUMO

Wing shape plays a critical role in flight function in birds and other powered fliers and has been shown to be correlated with flight performance, migratory distance, and the biomechanics of generating lift during flight. Avian wing shape and flight mechanics have also been shown to be associated with general foraging behavior and habitat choice. We aim to determine if wing shape in waterbirds, a functionally and ecologically diverse assemblage united by their coastal and aquatic habitats, is correlated with various functional and ecological traits. We applied geometric morphometric approaches to the spread wings of a selection of waterbirds to search for evolutionary patterns between wing shape and foraging behavior, habitat, and migratory patterns. We found strong evidence of convergent evolution of high and low aspect ratio wing shapes in multiple clades. Foraging behavior also consistently exhibits strong evolutionary correlations with wing shape. Habitat, migration, and flight style, in contrast, do not exhibit significant correlation with wing shape in waterbirds. Although wing shape is critical to aerial flight function, its relationship to habitat and periodic locomotor demands such as migration is complex.


La forme de l'aile joue un rôle essentiel dans le vol chez les oiseaux et les autres animaux présentant un vol actif. Il a été démontré que cette dernière est corrélée aux performances de vol, à la distance de migration et à la biomécanique générant de la portance pendant le vol. La forme de l'aile et la mécanique du vol chez les oiseaux sont également associées au comportement alimentaire et au choix de l'habitat. Notre objectif est de déterminer si la forme de l'aile chez les oiseaux aquatiques, un assemblage fonctionnellement et écologiquement diversifié uni par leurs habitats côtiers, est corrélée à divers traits fonctionnels et écologiques. Nous nous sommes appuyés sur des techniques de morphométrie géométrique appliquées aux ailes déployées d'une sélection d'oiseaux aquatiques afin de mettre en évidence un lien évolutif entre la forme des ailes, le comportement alimentaire, l'habitat et les mouvements migratoires. Nous avons trouvé des preuves concrètes de l'évolution convergente des formes d'ailes à fort et faible allongements dans plusieurs clades. Le comportement alimentaire présente également de fortes corrélations évolutives avec la forme des ailes. L'habitat, la migration et le style de vol, en revanche, ne présentent pas de corrélation significative avec la forme de l'aile chez les oiseaux aquatiques. Bien que la forme de l'aile soit essentielle au vol, sa relation avec l'habitat et les exigences locomotrices périodiques telles que la migration reste complexe.La forma del ala tiene un papel crítico en el vuelo de las aves y otros voladores activos, y se ha comprobado que se correlaciona con la eficiencia del vuelo, la distancia migratoria y la biomecánica en la generación de sustentación durante el vuelo. La forma de las alas de las aves y la mecánica del vuelo también están relacionadas con las estrategias de búsqueda de alimento y elección de hábitat. Nuestro propósito es determinar si la forma del ala se correlaciona con varias características funcionales y ecológicas en aves acuáticas, un grupo funcional y ecológicamente diverso que comparten un hábito costero y acuático. Se utilizó morfometría geométrica en alas extendidas de una selección de aves acuáticas para buscar patrones evolutivos entre la morfología del ala y estrategia de alimentación, hábitat y patrones migratorios. Se ha encontrado evidencia robusta de evolución convergente de morfologías de ala con mayor o menor alargamiento en varios clados. El comportamiento de búsqueda de alimento también tiene correlaciones evolutivas consistentes con la morfología del ala. Sin embargo, el hábitat, tipo de migración y tipo de vuelo no muestran una correlación significativa con la morfología del ala en aves acuáticas. Aunque la forma del ala es crítica para la función del vuelo aéreo, su relación con el hábitat o demandas locomotoras periódicas como la migración son complejas.

12.
Integr Comp Biol ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970795

RESUMO

Vertebrate dentitions are often collapsed into a few discrete categories, obscuring both potentially important functional differences between them and insight into their evolution. The terms homodonty and heterodonty typically conflate tooth morphology with tooth function, and require context-dependent subcategories to take on any specific meaning. Qualifiers like incipient, transient, or phylogenetic homodonty attempt to provide a more rigorous definition but instead highlight the difficulties in categorizing dentitions. To address these issues, we recently proposed a method for quantifying the function of dental batteries based on the estimated stress of each tooth (inferred using surface area) standardized for jaw out-lever (inferred using tooth position). This method reveals a homodonty-heterodonty functional continuum where small and large teeth work together to transmit forces to a prey item. Morphological homodonty or heterodonty refers to morphology, whereas functional homodonty or heterodonty refers to transmission of stress. In this study, we use Halichoeres wrasses to explore how functional continuum can be used in phylogenetic analyses by generating two continuous metrics from the functional homodonty-heterodonty continuum. Here we show that functionally heterodont teeth have evolved at least three times in Halichoeres wrasses. There are more functionally heterodont teeth on upper jaws than on lower jaws, but functionally heterodont teeth on the lower jaws bear significantly more stress. These nuances, which have functional consequences, would be missed by binning entire dentitions into discrete categories. This analysis points out areas worth taking a closer look at from a mechanical and developmental point of view with respect to the distribution and type of heterodonty seen in different jaws and different areas of jaws. These data, on a small group of wrasses, suggest continuous dental variables can be a rich source of insight into the evolution of fish feeding mechanisms across a wider variety of species.

13.
J Exp Biol ; 223(Pt 2)2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862848

RESUMO

For many fish species, rhythmic movement of the pectoral fins, or forelimbs, drives locomotion. In terrestrial vertebrates, normal limb-based rhythmic gaits require ongoing modulation with limb mechanosensors. Given the complexity of the fluid environment and dexterity of fish swimming through it, we hypothesize that mechanosensory modulation is also critical to normal fin-based swimming. Here, we examined the role of sensory feedback from the pectoral fin rays and membrane on the neuromuscular control and kinematics of pectoral fin-based locomotion. Pectoral fin kinematics and electromyograms of the six major fin muscles of the parrotfish, Scarus quoyi, a high-performance pectoral fin swimmer, were recorded during steady swimming before and after bilateral transection of the sensory nerves extending into the rays and surrounding membrane. Alternating activity of antagonistic muscles was observed and drove the fin in a figure-of-eight fin stroke trajectory before and after nerve transection. After bilateral transections, pectoral fin rhythmicity remained the same or increased. Differences in fin kinematics with the loss of sensory feedback also included fin kinematics with a significantly more inclined stroke plane angle, an increased angular velocity and fin beat frequency, and a transition to the body-caudal fin gait at lower speeds. After transection, muscles were active over a larger proportion of the fin stroke, with overlapping activation of antagonistic muscles rarely observed in the trials of intact fish. The increased overlap of antagonistic muscle activity might stiffen the fin system in order to enhance control and stability in the absence of sensory feedback from the fin rays. These results indicate that fin ray sensation is not necessary to generate the underlying rhythm of fin movement, but contributes to the specification of pectoral fin motor pattern and movement during rhythmic swimming.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais/fisiologia , Peixes/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia/veterinária , Masculino
14.
J Morphol ; 280(10): 1548-1570, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385619

RESUMO

Living gars are a small clade of seven species that occupy an important position on the actinopterygian phylogenetic tree as members of Holostei, sister-group to teleosts, and exhibit many plesiomorphic traits used to interpret and reconstruct early osteichthyan feeding mechanisms. Previous studies of gar feeding kinematics have focused on the ram-based, lateral-snapping mode of prey capture found in the narrow-snouted Lepisosteus genus, whereas this study focuses on a member of the broad-snouted Atractosteus sister-genus, the alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula, Lacépède, 1803). High-speed videography reveals that the feeding system of alligator gars is capable of rapid expansion from anterior to posterior, timed in a way to generate suction, counteract the effects of a bow-wave during ram-feeding, and direct a unidirectional flow of water through the feeding system. Reconstructed contrast-enhanced µCT-based cranial anatomy and three-dimensional modeling of linkage mechanics show that a lateral-sliding palatoquadrate, flexible intrasuspensorial joint, pivoting interhyal, and retractable pectoral girdle increase the range of motion and expansive capabilities of the alligator gar feeding mechanism. Reconstructions of muscular anatomy, inferences from in vivo kinematics, and in situ manipulations show that input from the hyoid constrictors and hypaxials play an important role in decoupling and modulating the dual roles of the sternohyoideus during feeding: hyoid retraction (jaw opening) and hyoid rotation (pharyngeal expansion). The alligator gar possesses an intricate feeding mechanism, capable of precise control with plesiomorphic muscles that represent one of the many ways the ancestral osteichthyan feeding mechanism has been modified for prey capture.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Comportamento Alimentar , Peixes/fisiologia , Osso Hioide/anatomia & histologia , Osso Hioide/fisiologia , Arcada Osseodentária/anatomia & histologia , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Músculos/anatomia & histologia , Músculos/fisiologia
15.
Integr Comp Biol ; 59(3): 696-704, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199432

RESUMO

Coral reefs are complex marine habitats that have been hypothesized to facilitate functional specialization and increased rates of functional and morphological evolution. Wrasses (Labridae: Percomorpha) in particular, have diversified extensively in these coral reef environments and have evolved adaptations to further exploit reef-specific resources. Prior studies have found that reef-dwelling wrasses exhibit higher rates of functional evolution, leading to higher functional variation than in non-reef dwelling wrasses. Here, we examine this hypothesis in the lower pharyngeal tooth plate of 134 species of reef and non-reef-associated labrid fishes using high-resolution morphological data in the form of micro-computed tomography scans and employing three-dimensional geometric morphometrics to quantify shape differences. We find that reef-dwelling wrasses do not differ from non-reef-associated wrasses in morphological disparity or rates of shape evolution. However, we find that some reef-associated species (e.g., parrotfishes and tubelips) exhibit elevated rates of pharyngeal jaw shape evolution and have colonized unique regions of morphospace. These results suggest that while coral reef association may provide the opportunity for specialization and morphological diversification, species must still be able to capitalize on the ecological opportunities to invade novel niche space, and that these novel invasions may prompt rapid rates of morphological evolution in the associated traits that allow them to capitalize on new resources.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Recifes de Corais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Arcada Osseodentária/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Peixes/fisiologia , Imageamento Tridimensional , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
16.
J Exp Biol ; 222(Pt 8)2019 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962280

RESUMO

Triggerfishes and filefishes (Balistoidea) use balistiform locomotion to power steady swimming with their dorsal and anal fins, and transition to a gait dominated by body and caudal fin (BCF) kinematics at high speeds. Fin and body shapes are predicted to be strong determinants of swimming performance and gait transitions. The goal of this study was to combine morphometrics and critical swimming tests to explore the relationships between fin and body shapes and swimming performance in a phylogenetic context in order to understand the evolution of balistiform swimming. Among 13 species of balistoid fishes, those with high aspect ratio fins tended to achieve higher critical swimming speeds than fishes with low aspect ratio fins. Species with long, large median fins and wide caudal peduncles used the balistiform gait alone for a larger percentage of their total critical swimming speed than fishes with short, small median fins and narrow caudal peduncles. Although analyses revealed overall positive relationships between median fin aspect ratios and gait transition speeds, fishes on both ends of the aspect ratio spectrum achieved higher swimming speeds using the balistiform gait alone than fishes with median fins of intermediate aspect ratios. Each species is specialized for taking advantage of one gait, with balistiform specialists possessing long, large median fins capable of the large power requirements of high-speed swimming using the median fins alone, while BCF specialists possess short, small median fins, ill-suited for powering high-speed balistiform locomotion, but narrow caudal peduncles capable of efficient caudal fin oscillations to power high-speed locomotion.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Marcha , Natação , Tetraodontiformes/anatomia & histologia , Tetraodontiformes/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Filogenia , Resistência Física , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
PeerJ ; 7: e6398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775177

RESUMO

Biological color may be adaptive or incidental, seasonal or permanent, species- or population-specific, or modified for breeding, defense or camouflage. Although color is a hugely informative aspect of biology, quantitative color comparisons are notoriously difficult. Color comparison is limited by categorization methods, with available tools requiring either subjective classifications, or expensive equipment, software, and expertise. We present an R package for processing images of organisms (or other objects) in order to quantify color profiles, gather color trait data, and compare color palettes on the basis of color similarity and amount. The package treats image pixels as 3D coordinates in a "color space," producing a multidimensional color histogram for each image. Pairwise distances between histograms are computed using earth mover's distance, a technique borrowed from computer vision, that compares histograms using transportation costs. Users choose a color space, parameters for generating color histograms, and a pairwise comparison method to produce a color distance matrix for a set of images. The package is intended as a more rigorous alternative to subjective, manual digital image analyses, not as a replacement for more advanced techniques that rely on detailed spectrophotometry methods unavailable to many users. Here, we outline the basic functions of colordistance, provide guidelines for the available color spaces and quantification methods, and compare this toolkit with other available methods. The tools presented for quantitative color analysis may be applied to a broad range of questions in biology and other disciplines.

18.
J Fish Biol ; 93(5): 860-873, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30175499

RESUMO

Burrowing through the substrate is a common behaviour in many organisms, both invertebrate and vertebrate. Sand-diving, a burrowing behaviour in the fish family Labridae, consists of a quick and forceful headfirst plunge into the sediment followed by undulatory axial body movements until the fish is completely concealed beneath the surface. This study determined that sand-diving of the slippery dick wrasse Halichoeres bivittatus is composed of two distinct phases of undulatory axial body movements. In the first phase, body undulations occur at high frequencies and wave speeds and low amplitudes, while in the second phase, frequencies and wave speeds decrease while amplitude increases. Furthermore, this study examined several morphological features of sand-diving labrids, including narrow, elongated bodies and lengthened neural spines that overlap with the dorsal pterygiophores, that may be anatomical traits that contribute to burrowing ability. Finally, ancestral state reconstruction showed that sand-diving occurs exclusively in the upper half of the labrid phylogenetic tree with an evolutionary history indicating that sand-diving may have evolved once and then been lost three to five times or may have evolved independently at least three times in family Labridae.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/classificação , Filogenia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Perciformes/metabolismo
19.
Integr Comp Biol ; 58(5): 844-859, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917043

RESUMO

Mechanosensation is a universal feature of animals that is essential for behavior, allowing detection of animals' own body movement and position as well as physical characteristics of the environment. The extraordinary morphological and behavioral diversity that exists across fish species provide rich opportunities for comparative mechanosensory studies in fins. The fins of fishes have been found to function as proprioceptors, by providing feedback on fin ray position and movement, and as tactile sensors, by encoding pressures applied to the fin surface. Across fish species, and among fins, the afferent response is remarkably consistent, suggesting that the ability of fin rays and membrane to sense deformation is a fundamental feature of fish fins. While fin mechanosensation has been known in select, often highly specialized, species for decades, only in the last decade have we explored mechanosensation in typical propulsive fins and considered its role in behavior, particularly locomotion. In this paper, we synthesize the current understanding of the anatomy and physiology of fin mechanosensation, looking toward key directions for research. We argue that a mechanosensory perspective informs studies of fin-based propulsion and other fin-driven behaviors and should be considered in the interpretation of fin morphology and behavior. In addition, we compare the mechanosensory system innervating the fins of fishes to the systems innervating the limbs of mammals and wings of insects in order to identify shared mechanosensory strategies and how different organisms have evolved to meet similar functional challenges. Finally, we discuss how understanding the biological organization and function of fin sensors can inform the design of control systems for engineered fins and fin-driven robotics.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Retroalimentação Sensorial , Peixes/fisiologia , Natação , Percepção do Tato , Tato , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Movimento , Robótica
20.
J Morphol ; 279(8): 1031-1044, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693259

RESUMO

The organization of tissues in appendages often affects their mechanical properties and function. In the fish family Labridae, swimming behavior is associated with pectoral fin flexural stiffness and morphology, where fins range on a continuum from stiff to relatively flexible fins. Across this diversity, pectoral fin flexural stiffness decreases exponentially along the length of any given fin ray, and ray stiffness decreases along the chord of the fin from the leading to trailing edge. In this study, we examine the morphological properties of fin rays, including the effective modulus in bending (E), second moment of area (I), segmentation, and branching patterns, and their impact on fin ray stiffness. We quantify intrinsic pectoral fin ray stiffness in similarly sized fins of two closely related species that employ fins of divergent mechanics, the flapping Gomphosus varius and the rowing Halichoeres bivittatus. While segmentation patterns and E were similar between species, measurements of I and the number of fin ray branch nodes were greater in G. varius than in H. bivittatus. A multiple regression model found that of these variables, I was always significantly correlated with fin ray flexural stiffness and that variation in I always explained the majority of the variation in flexural stiffness. Thus, while most of the morphological variables quantified in this study correlate with fin ray flexural stiffness, second moment of area is the greatest factor contributing to variation in flexural stiffness. Further, interspecific variation in fin ray branching pattern could be used as a means of tuning the effective stiffness of the fin webbing to differences in swimming behavior and hydrodynamics. The comparison of these results to other systems begins to unveil fundamental morphological features of biological beams and yields insight into the role of mechanical properties in fin deformation for aquatic locomotion.


Assuntos
Nadadeiras de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Natação , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Padronização Corporal , Módulo de Elasticidade , Locomoção , Análise Multivariada , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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