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1.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(1): 37-46, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33999850

RESUMO

Invasive Salmonella infection is a common cause of acute febrile illness (AFI) among children in sub-Saharan Africa; however, diagnosing Salmonella bacteremia is challenging in settings without blood culture. The Uganda AFI surveillance system includes blood culture-based surveillance for etiologies of bloodstream infection (BSIs) in hospitalized febrile children in Uganda. We analyzed demographic, clinical, blood culture, and antimicrobial resistance data from hospitalized children at six sentinel AFI sites from July 2016 to January 2019. A total of 47,261 children were hospitalized. Median age was 2 years (interquartile range, 1-4) and 26,695 (57%) were male. Of 7,203 blood cultures, 242 (3%) yielded bacterial pathogens including Salmonella (N = 67, 28%), Staphylococcus aureus (N = 40, 17%), Escherichia spp. (N = 25, 10%), Enterococcus spp. (N = 18, 7%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 17, 7%). Children with BSIs had longer median length of hospitalization (5 days versus 4 days), and a higher case-fatality ratio (13% versus 2%) than children without BSI (all P < 0.001). Children with Salmonella BSIs did not differ significantly in length of hospitalization or mortality from children with BSI resulting from other organisms. Serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility results were available for 49 Salmonella isolates, including 35 (71%) non-typhoidal serotypes and 14 Salmonella serotype Typhi (Typhi). Among Typhi isolates, 10 (71%) were multi-drug resistant and 13 (93%) had decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Salmonella strains, particularly non-typhoidal serotypes and drug-resistant Typhi, were the most common cause of BSI. These data can inform regional Salmonella surveillance in East Africa and guide empiric therapy and prevention in Uganda.


Assuntos
Febre/sangue , Infecções por Salmonella/sangue , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/genética , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Criança Hospitalizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Feminino , Febre/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Uganda/epidemiologia
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(33): 713-717, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437141

RESUMO

In September 2018, CDC identified Salmonella enterica serotype Newport (Newport) infections that were multidrug resistant (MDR), with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin, a recommended oral treatment agent. Until 2017, decreased susceptibility to azithromycin had occurred in fewer than 0.5% of Salmonella isolates from U.S. residents. This report summarizes the investigation of a multistate MDR Salmonella outbreak conducted by CDC, state and local health departments, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service. During June 2018-March 2019, 255 cases of infection with the outbreak strain were identified in 32 states; 43% of patients (89 of 206 with information on travel) reported recent travel to Mexico. Infections were linked to consumption of soft cheese obtained in Mexico and beef obtained in the United States. Consumers should avoid eating soft cheese that could be made from unpasteurized milk, regardless of the source of the cheese. When preparing beef, a food thermometer should be used to ensure that appropriate cooking temperatures are reached. When antibiotic treatment is needed for a patient, clinicians should choose antibiotics based on susceptibility testing wherever possible.


Assuntos
Azitromicina/farmacologia , Surtos de Doenças , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Queijo/microbiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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