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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0312422, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645285

RESUMO

Worldwide, extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) rates are increasing at an alarming level with increasing rates of health care exposures, international travel, and antibiotic usage. In this study, we investigated whether enhanced social isolation, travel restrictions, and the reduced use of antibiotics in Ontario, Canada during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had an impact on ESBL rates in urine cultures collected from the community and long-term-care (LTC) facilities across the province. Data from a total of 8.6 million urine cultures performed at LifeLabs Ontario from 2016 to 2021 were utilized for analysis. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL Escherichia coli) and ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae were identified using standard operating procedures. Data trends were estimated by interrupted time series (ITS) regression analysis. Among 2.3 million positive urine cultures, 48.9% and 7.2% grew E. coli and K. pneumoniae, of which 5.8% and 3.3% produced ESBLs, respectively. While the overall rate of ESBL isolation was higher in the pandemic period than in the prepandemic period, by ITS regression analysis of the monthly rates of ESBL isolation, decreasing trends were noted for ESBL E. coli in both the community and LTC facilities and for ESBL K. pneumoniae in the community. The ESBL K. pneumoniae rates in LTC facilities continued to increase throughout the COVID-19 period. By subgroup analysis for different genders, age groups, and local health integration network (LHIN) units, similar trends were seen in most cases (P < 0.05), except for a few densely populated LHINs where rate changes were not statistically significant. IMPORTANCE Community-onset urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacterales, particularly E. coli and K. pneumoniae, are a major public health concern. In this study, we assessed the impact of COVID-19 on ESBL rates in urine cultures in Ontario, Canada. Our results show the recent epidemiology of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales in urine cultures from both the community and LTC facilities in Ontario, Canada, and the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on ESBL trends for the entire province as well as different subgroups of the population based on demographic and geographic characteristics. Our results may have important public health implications in the context of the gradual easing of COVID-19 restrictions.

2.
Am J Surg Pathol ; 2023 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36597787

RESUMO

The use of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) as a diagnostic term has changed considerably since its introduction. Utilizing a multi-institutional collection of 201 cases from the last 20 years that demonstrate features associated with the LIP rubric, we compared cases meeting strict histologic criteria of LIP per American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) consensus ("pathologic LIP"; n=62) with cystic cases fulfilling radiologic ATS/ERS criteria ("radiologic LIP"; n=33) and with other diffuse benign lymphoid proliferations. "Pathologic LIP" was associated with immune dysregulation including autoimmune disorders and immune deficiency, whereas "radiologic LIP" was only seen with autoimmune disorders. No case of idiopathic LIP was found. On histology, "pathologic LIP" represented a subgroup of 70% (62/88) of cases with the distinctive pattern of diffuse expansile lymphoid infiltrates. In contrast, "radiologic LIP" demonstrated a broad spectrum of inflammatory patterns, airway-centered inflammation being most common (52%; 17/33). Only 5 cases with radiologic cysts also met consensus ATS/ERS criteria for "pathologic LIP." Overall, broad overlap was observed with the remaining study cases that failed to meet consensus criteria for "radiologic LIP" and/or "pathologic LIP." These data raise concerns about the practical use of the term LIP as currently defined. What radiologists and pathologist encounter as LIP differs remarkably, but neither "radiologic LIP" nor "pathologic LIP" present with sufficiently distinct findings to delineate such cases from other patterns of diffuse benign lymphoid proliferations. As a result of this study, we believe LIP should be abandoned as a pathologic and radiologic diagnosis.

3.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-8, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765419

RESUMO

Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.(AU)


A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.(AU)


Assuntos
Aspergillus flavus/isolamento & purificação , Queratinas/análise , Queratinas/toxicidade , Biotransformação
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285638

RESUMO

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas , Plumas , Fermentação , Fungos , Resíduos Industriais , Queratinas/metabolismo
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 157: 114050, 2022 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36462310

RESUMO

Experimental and clinical evidence implicate disrupted gut barrier integrity in provoking innate immune responses, specifically macrophages, towards the progression of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), a subset of the nuclear receptor superfamily, act to fine-tune several metabolic and inflammatory processes implicated in NASH. As such, the current study was carried out to decipher the potential role of dual PPAR α/δ activation using elafibranor (ELA) on ileal macrophage polarization (MP) and its likely impact on the liver in a NASH setting. To achieve this aim, an in vitro NASH model using fat-laden HepG2 cells was first used to validate the impact of ELA on hepatic fat accumulation. Afterwards, ELA was used in a combined model of dietary NASH and chronic colitis analogous to the clinical presentation of NASH parallel with intestinal barrier dysfunction. ELA mitigated fat accumulation in vitro as evidenced by Oil Red-O staining and curbed triglyceride levels. Additionally, ELA restored the expression of tight junctional proteins, claudin-1 and occludin, along with decreasing intestinal permeability and inflammation skewing ileal macrophages towards the M2 phenotype, as indicated by boosted arginase-1 (Arg1) and curtailed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression levels. These changes were aligned with a modulation in hepatic toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) along with ileal interleukin-10 (IL-10)/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) axes. Overall, the present findings suggest that the dual PPAR α/δ agonist, ELA, may drive MP in the ileum towards the M2 phenotype improving intestinal integrity towards alleviating NASH.

6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22147, 2022 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550146

RESUMO

Fucoidans (FUCs) are highly sulfated polysaccharides demonstrating multiple actions in different systems. Oxaliplatin (OXA) is a platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agent with several side effects that restrict its usage. The current study aimed to determine the potential effect of FUC in male rats with splenic dysfunction induced by OXA. Eighty adult male rats aged (8-9 weeks) weighing (190-230 g) were divided into four groups: (Group I: the control group): Rats were administrated normal saline; (Group II: controls treated by FUC): Rats were treated with FUC; (Group III: Splenic dysfunction group): Rats were treated with 8 mg/kg OXA. (IV: Splenic dysfunction treated by FUC): Rats were treated by OXA as Group III, then fucoidan was given. At the end of the experiment, blood was collected to determine red blood cells and white blood cells. Splenic tissues were divided into one part for biochemical assays, oxidative stress markers as MDA and catalase, inflammatory markers (TNF-alpha, IL6), and apoptotic markers (caspase 3) and gene expression of Nrf2, Mapk1 gene expression, and endoplasmic stress parameters and the other part was used for immunohistochemical and histopathological analysis. Compared to the OXA-induced splenic dysfunction group, FUC significantly decreased high levels of MDA, TNF- alpha, IL6, caspase-3, Mapk1, endoplasmic stress induced by OXA, and increased the level of catalase and Nrf2. Fucoidan has corrected the histopathological and immunohistochemical changes compared to the OXA-induced splenic dysfunction group. In conclusion, our findings suggest that fucoidan has a significant role in the treatment of splenic dysfunction induced by OXA.


Assuntos
Interleucina-6 , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2 , Ratos , Masculino , Animais , Oxaliplatina/efeitos adversos , Catalase/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Estresse Oxidativo
7.
Toxicol Rep ; 9: 778-787, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36561948

RESUMO

Many metals exhibit genotoxic and/or carcinogenic effects. These toxic metals can be found ubiquitously - in drinking water, food, air, general use products, in everyday and occupational settings. Exposure to such carcinogenic metals can result in serious health disorders, including cancer. Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, and their compounds have already been recognized as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This review summarizes a wide range of epigenetic mechanisms contributing to carcinogenesis induced by these metals, primarily including, but not limited to, DNA methylation, miRNA regulation, and histone posttranslational modifications. The mechanisms are described and discussed both from a metal-centric and a mechanism-centric standpoint. The review takes a broad perspective, putting the mechanisms in the context of real-life exposure, and aims to assist in guiding future research, particularly with respect to the assessment and control of exposure to carcinogenic metals and novel therapy development.

8.
Int J Surg Pathol ; : 10668969221137516, 2022 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36514272

RESUMO

Background: Hyalinizing clear cell carcinomas of tracheobronchial origin are very rare salivary gland type tumors accounting for less than 1% of lung tumors with only 13 cases reported to date. Their radiological features, morphological spectrum, and molecular features are not well described. Aim: To perform a clinicopathological analysis of primary pulmonary hyalinizing clear cell carcinomas. Method: A retrospective search of primary pulmonary hyalinizing clear cell carcinomas was conducted from authors' institutions and the clinicopathological features including details of molecular testing were analyzed. Results: Five primary pulmonary hyalinizing clear cell carcinomas were identified. The mean patient age at diagnosis was 48.2 years (range: 33-64 years). Three patients were women. All patients were nonsmokers and 3 were symptomatic; 2 were detected incidentally during health screening. The tumors were located in the main lobar bronchi ranging from 1.3 to 4.9 cm in maximum dimension. Microscopy showed cords and nests of at least, focally clear tumor cells. Mucin cysts lacking goblet cells were seen. All tumors were uniformly positive for p40, p63, AE1/AE3, keratin 7, and epithelial membrane antigen but negative for TTF1, KIT, neuroendocrine markers, and other myoepithelial markers. All cases showed Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) gene rearrangement. Perineural invasion and lymph node metastases were detected in patient 5. Two patients with available follow-up data were recurrence-free until 4 years (patient 1) and 9 months (patient 5) after resection. Conclusion: The present series adds to the scant available literature on primary pulmonary hyalinizing clear cell carcinomas highlighting the characteristic histomorphology, immunoprofiles, and benign outcomes of these rare tumors.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36335185

RESUMO

Even though cigarette smoking (CS) has been on the decline over the past 50 years, it is still the leading cause of preventable premature death in the United States. Preclinical models have investigated the cardiopulmonary effects of CS exposure (CSE), but the structure-function relationship in the respiratory system has not yet been fully explored. To evaluate these relationships, we exposed female apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe[Formula: see text]) mice to mainstream CS ([Formula: see text]) for 5 days/week over 24 weeks with room air as a control (AE, [Formula: see text]). To contextualize the impact of CSE, we also assessed the natural aging effects over 24 weeks of air exposure (baseline, [Formula: see text]). Functional assessments were performed on a small animal mechanical ventilator (flexiVent, SCIREQ), where pressure-volume curves and impedance data at four levels of positive end-expiratory pressure ([Formula: see text]) and with increasing doses of methacholine were collected. Constant phase model parameters ([Formula: see text]: Newtonian resistance, H: coefficient of tissue elastance, and G: coefficient of tissue resistance) were calculated from the impedance data. Perfusion fixed-left lung tissue was utilized for quantification of parenchyma airspace size and tissue thickness, airway wall thickness, and measurements of elastin, cytoplasm + nucleus, fibrin, and collagen content for the parenchyma and airways. Aging caused the lung to become more compliant, with an upward-leftward shift of the pressure-volume curve and a reduction in all constant phase model parameters. This was supported by larger parenchyma airspace sizes, with a reduction in cell cytoplasm + nucleus area. Airway walls became thinner, even though low-density collagen content increased. In contrast, CSE caused a downward-rightward shift of the pressure-volume curve along with an increase in H, G, and hysteresivity ([Formula: see text]). Organ stiffening was accompanied by enhanced airway hyper-responsiveness following methacholine challenge. Structurally, parenchyma airspaces enlarged, as indicated by an increase in equivalent airspace diameter ([Formula: see text]), and the septum thickened with significant deposition of low-density collagen along with an influx of cells. Airway walls thickened due to deposition of both high and low-density collagen, infiltration of cells, and epithelial cell elongation. In all, our data suggest that CSE in female Apoe[Formula: see text] mice reduces respiratory functionality and causes morphological alterations in both central and peripheral airways that results in lung stiffening, compared to AE controls.

10.
Life Sci ; 308: 120957, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113730

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease is a crucial health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality. Eugenol is a natural phenolic plant compound with various pharmacological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study was designed to evaluate the possible protective effect of different eugenol doses in an experimental model of chronic CCl4-induced renal damage and investigate various mechanisms that underlie this postulated effect. Eugenol treatment (100 mg/kg) ameliorated kidney damage induced by CCl4 and rectified the distorted kidney function parameters and renal histological structure. Additionally, eugenol at a dose of 100 mg/kg suppressed the upregulated oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in CCl4-treated rats as evident by down regulations of NADPH oxidase (NOX2 and NOX4), proinflammatory markers (IL-6 and TNF-α) and proapoptotic markers (cyt c and caspase-3), respectively. Importantly, eugenol co-administration in rats challenged with CCl4 downregulated the renal protein expressions of both TGF-ß as well as pAkt compared with CCl4 group. In conclusion, eugenol showed a potent nephroprotective effect against CCl4-induced renal damage through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic activities.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Eugenol , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Eugenol/farmacologia , Eugenol/uso terapêutico , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
11.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917487

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD) is a well-recognized complication of systemic connective tissue disease (CTD) but rarely arises in patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis, a poorly understood phenomenon. OBJECTIVE.­: To characterize DPLD associated with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis, with or without prior immunomodulation. DESIGN.­: Pathology consultation files were searched for patients having psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis and DPLD. After excluding cases with active infection or smoking-related DPLD only, 44 patients (22 women; median age, 60 years; range, 23-81 years) were enrolled. Clinical history and pathology slides were reviewed. RESULTS.­: Twenty-seven of 44 patients (61%) had psoriatic arthritis; the remainder had psoriasis alone. Most presented many years later with nonspecific respiratory symptoms. Nearly one-third had no prior immunosuppression and most had no concomitant CTD. Radiographically, ground-glass opacities, consolidation, and/or reticulation were typical. Histologically, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and unclassifiable fibrosis were seen in 24 patients (55%) and 8 patients (18%), respectively; usual interstitial pneumonia and airway-centered fibrosis were rare. Superimposed acute lung injury was common, usually manifesting as organizing pneumonia. Lymphoplasmacytic infiltrates, lymphoid aggregates, and chronic pleuritis were frequent. Interstitial granulomas were seen in 17 patients (39%) but were usually rare, poorly formed, and nonnecrotizing. No histologic differences were apparent among patients with or without concomitant CTDs or prior therapy. CONCLUSIONS.­: Some patients with psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis develop clinically significant DPLD, even without prior therapy. Histopathologic findings mirror changes seen with other CTDs. Additional studies are warranted to clarify the association between psoriasis or psoriatic arthritis and DPLD.

12.
Pflugers Arch ; 474(10): 1107-1119, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35972578

RESUMO

Obesity is linked to reproductive disorders. Novel neuropeptide phoenixin demonstrated many therapeutic actions. In this study, we aim to evaluate phoenixin's potential effect in obesity-induced infertility through modulating mitochondrial dynamics. Ninety adult female rats were divided to 4 groups: (I), fed with normal pellet diet; (II), given phoenixin; (III), fed with high-fat diet. Rats that developed obesity and infertility were divided to 2 groups: (III-A), received no further treatment; (III-B), given phoenixin. Our results showed that phoenixin treatment in obese infertile rats significantly decreased serum levels of insulin and testosterone and ovarian levels of dynamin-related protein1(Drp1),reactive oxygen species ROS, TNF-α, MDA, and caspase-3. Phoenixin treatment also significantly increased serum estrogen progesterone, LH, and FSH together with ovarian levels of GnRH receptor (GnRHR), mitofusin2(Mfn2), mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), and electron transport chain (ETC) complex-I significantly when compared with obese group. Ovarian histopathological changes were similarly improved by phoenixin. Our data demonstrate phoenixin's role in improving obesity-induced infertility.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Neuropeptídeos , Animais , Caspase 3 , Estrogênios , Feminino , Fertilidade , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Insulina , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Proteínas Mitocondriais , Neuropeptídeos/farmacologia , Obesidade/complicações , Progesterona , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Receptores LHRH , Testosterona , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
13.
Inhal Toxicol ; 34(9-10): 260-274, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) are popular nicotine delivery devices, yet the health effects remain unclear. To determine equivalent biomarkers, we characterized the immediate response in Apoe-/- mice exposed to tank/box-mod e-cig (e-cigtank), pod e-cig (e-cigpod), or cig smoke. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Reproducible puff profiles were generated for each aerosol and delivered to Apoe-/- mice via a nose-only exposure system. Serum cotinine levels were quantified at various time points through ELISA and utilized to model cotinine pharmacokinetics. In addition, particle size measurements and mouse respiratory function were characterized to calculate particle dosimetry. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Cig and e-cigtank particles were lognormally distributed with similar count median diameters (cig: 178 ± 2, e-cigtank: 200 ± 34nm), while e-cigpod particles were bimodally distributed and smaller (116 ± 13 and 13.3 ± 0.4 nm). Minute volumes decreased with cig exposure (5.4 ± 2.7 mL/min) compared to baseline (90.8 ± 11.6 mL/min), and less so with e-cigtank (45.2 ± 9.2 mL/min) and e-cigpod exposures (58.6 ± 6.8 mL/min), due to periods of apnea in the cig exposed groups. Cotinine was absorbed and eliminated most rapidly in the e-cigpod group (tmax = 14.5; t1/2' = 51.9 min), whereas cotinine was absorbed (cig: 50.4, e-cigtank: 40.1 min) and eliminated (cig: 104.6, e-cigtank: 94.1 min) similarly in the cig and e-cigtank groups. For exposure times which equate the area under the cotinine-concentration curve, ∼6.4× (e-cigtank) and 4.6× (e-cigpod) more nicotine deposited in e-cig compared to cig exposed mice. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a basis for incorporating cotinine pharmacokinetics into preclinical exposure studies, allowing for longitudinal studies of structural and functional changes due to exposure.


This study highlights that pod e-cigs deliver smaller particles than tank/box-mode e-cigs and cig smoke. Minute volumes were substantially reduced in cig smoke-exposed mice, due to periods of apnea, whereas only expiration times increased in the e-cig-exposed groups. More particles deposit in e-cig exposed mice, compared to the cig group, for equivalent daily area under the cotinine concentration curve.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Aerossóis , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Cotinina , Camundongos
14.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267131, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35560311

RESUMO

Elastin is present in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of connective tissues, and its mechanical properties are well documented. In Marfan syndrome, however, the inability to properly code for the protein fibrillin-1 prematurely leads to the degradation and loss of elastin fiber integrity in the ECM. In this study, the role of elastin in the ECM of the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve was investigated by examining the biomechanical behavior of porcine leaflets before and after the application of the enzyme elastase. Five loading protocols were applied to the leaflet specimens in two groups (elastase-treated and control samples). The mechanical response following elastase application yielded a significantly stiffer material in both the radial and circumferential directions. At a physiological level of stress (85 kPa), the elastase group had an average strain of 26.21% and 6.32% in the radial and circumferential directions, respectively, at baseline prior to elastase application. Following elastase treatment, the average strain was 5.28% and 0.97% in the radial and circumferential directions, respectively. No statistically significant change was found in the control group following sham treatment with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Two-photon microscopy images confirmed that after the removal of elastin, the collagen fibers displayed a loss of undulation. With a significant reduction in radial compliance, the ability to withstand physiological loads may be compromised. As such, an extracellular matrix that is structurally deficient in elastin may hinder normal tricuspid valve function.


Assuntos
Elastina , Valva Tricúspide , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Elastina/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Elastase Pancreática/metabolismo , Estresse Mecânico , Suínos
15.
Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis ; 14(1): e2022037, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35615333

RESUMO

Background: Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD) and its associated disease complications. Superoxide Dismutases (SODs) are protective enzymes against oxidative stress. SOD2 deficiency results in the accumulation of oxidized red cell proteins, increased rate of hemoglobin oxidation, decreased red cell membrane deformability, and subsequently decreased red cells survival. Objective: The current study was designed to determine the effect of SOD2 Val16Ala gene polymorphism (rs4880) on SOD2 level and their possible impact on SCD disease severity in a cohort of Egyptian SCD patients. Methods: Genotyping SOD2 Val16Ala polymorphism by TaqMan allelic discrimination assay for hundred SCD patients and a hundred age-sex matched healthy controls revealed the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the studied polymorphism in the SCD patients were close to that of the controls. Results: Serum SOD2 level was significantly lower in those having the polymorphic genotypes (p=0.005). SOD2 level inversely correlates with the annual rate of hospitalization (r=-0.023, p= 0.038). Conclusion: SOD2 Val16Ala polymorphism was associated with low serum SOD2 level that may predict disease severity.

16.
Cureus ; 14(3): e23310, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35464548

RESUMO

As a renowned local anesthetic agent of choice, lidocaine is also a class 1b antiarrhythmic agent that is primarily used for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. Although lidocaine systemic toxicity is rare, it may be life-threatening; thus, its early identification and management are of vital importance. This case report details the clinical scenario of intravenous lidocaine administration to a patient at high risk of toxicity in a 64-year-old patient, who initially presented with sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia received lidocaine and subsequently developed neurologic manifestations of lidocaine toxicity, including altered mental status and seizure. The patient was treated promptly with benzodiazepine and discontinuation of lidocaine as the offending agent, with complete resolution of adverse effects.

17.
Chem Biol Interact ; 361: 109953, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35439472

RESUMO

An interplay exists between non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and intestinal barrier dysfunction. A plethora of mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of intestinal integrity, among which is autophagy. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a key metabolic regulator in the liver, however, its impact on ileal autophagy and barrier integrity in the context of NASH has not yet been unraveled. Accordingly, the present study aimed at investigating the impact of the FXR agonist, obeticholic acid (OCA), on modulating the aberrant ileal autophagy and barrier dysfunction in NASH, exploring the possible implication of the TLR4/TGF-ß1 axis. High-fat diet (HFD) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, MW ∼40 kDa) were used for 13 weeks to induce NASH with distorted intestinal integrity in Swiss albino male mice. Post-treatment with OCA (5 mg/kg/day; p.o; 4 weeks), histopathological evaluation revealed a restoration of normal hepatic and ileal architectures. OCA partially restored intestinal permeability, as evidenced by the FITC-dextran leakage assay, with no change in serum LPS or LBP levels. Meanwhile, ileal expression of the tight junctions; claudin-1, zonulin-1, and occludin, was upregulated. Hepatic and ileal TLR-4 and TGF-ß1 immunoreactivities were also decreased with no change observed in ileal phosphorylated Akt. In addition, ATG5 gene expression and LC3II/I protein ratio were upregulated in the ileum. Overall, the present study suggests a protective role of OCA on intestinal integrity in NASH, possibly through autophagy induction via interfering with the TLR4/TGF-ß1 pathway.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Animais , Autofagia , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico/análogos & derivados , Íleo , Camundongos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1
18.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 146(7): 791-804, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319744

RESUMO

CONTEXT.­: Studies of lungs in patients with COVID-19 have focused on early findings. OBJECTIVE.­: To systematically study histopathologic and imaging features and presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in lung tissue from patients in later stages of COVID-19. DESIGN.­: Autopsies, explants, surgical lung biopsies, transbronchial biopsies, cryobiopsies, and needle biopsies from patients with COVID-19 whose onset of symptoms/confirmed diagnosis was more than 28 days before the procedure were studied. Available images were reviewed. Reverse transcription droplet digital polymerase chain reaction for SARS-CoV-2 RNA was performed on lung tissue. RESULTS.­: Of 44 specimens (43 patients; median age, 59.3 years; 26 [60.5%] male) features of acute lung injury (ALI) were seen in 39 (88.6%), predominantly organizing pneumonia and diffuse alveolar damage, up to 298 days after onset of COVID-19. Fibrotic changes were found in 33 specimens (75%), most commonly fibrotic diffuse alveolar damage (n = 22) and cicatricial organizing pneumonia (n = 12). Time between acquiring COVID-19 and specimen was shorter in patients with diffuse ALI (median, 61.5 days) compared with patients with focal (140 days) or no ALI (130 days) (P = .009). Sixteen (of 20; 80%) SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription droplet digital polymerase chain reaction tests were positive, up to 174 days after COVID-19 onset. Time between COVID-19 onset and most recent computed tomography in patients with consolidation on imaging was shorter (median, 43.0 days) versus in patients without consolidation (87.5 days; P = .02). Reticulations were associated with longer time to computed tomography after COVID-19 onset (median, 82 versus 23.5 days; P = .006). CONCLUSIONS.­: ALI and SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in patients with COVID-19 for many months. ALI may evolve into fibrotic interstitial lung disease.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Autopsia , COVID-19/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Cureus ; 14(1): e21332, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35186590

RESUMO

Lyme disease is a multisystem disease that can present as a life-threatening condition known as Lyme carditis. While most commonly manifesting as a fluctuating atrioventricular block, Lyme carditis can also emerge as myocarditis and coronary artery events. This case report will detail the clinical scenario of a 23-year-old patient who presented with acute onset fluctuating atrioventricular block and erythema migrans and was found to have Lyme carditis. The patient was treated promptly with antibiotics, thus avoiding long-term Lyme disease sequela, with a complete resolution of his disease, including his high degree atrioventricular block.

20.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 17: 733-750, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210772

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To design and optimize trans-cinnamic acid-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (CIN-PLGA-NPs) and assess its inhibitory effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in triple-negative breast cancer. METHODS: The quality by design approach was used to correlate the formulation parameters (PLGA amount and Poloxamer188 concentration) and critical quality attributes (entrapment efficiency percent, particle size and zeta potential). Design of CIN-PLGA-NPs formulations was done based on central composite response surface design and formulated by nanoprecipitation method. In addition, the optimized CIN-PLGA-NPs formulation was further evaluated for morphology using transmission electron microscopy and in vitro dissolution test. The cytotoxicity of CIN-PLGA-NPs optimized formula in comparison to the free trans-cinnamic acid (CIN-Free) was investigated in vitro using MDA-MB-231, triple-negative breast cancer cells, followed by scratch wound assay for evaluating the impact on the migratory potential of MDA-MB-231 cells. In vivo antitumor activity was evaluated using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma solid tumor animal model where tumor volumes were measured at different time points and necrotic/apoptotic indices were estimated in tumor sections. EMT markers, E- and N-cadherin, were assessed in solid tumors as well. RESULTS: The optimized formulation showed entrapment efficiency of 76.98%, particle size of 186.3 nm with a smooth spherical surface and zeta potential of -28.47 mV indicating its stability. Furthermore, CIN-PLGA-NPs optimized formula released 60.8±1.89% of the total CIN-Free within 24 hours compared to 29±1.25% of the raw CIN-Free indicating improved dissolution rate. The optimized formula showed superior cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231 cells compared to its free counterpart as well as increased wound closure percentage along with reduced tumor size in mice and increased necrotic and apoptotic indices. Tumor levels of E-cadherin and N-cadherin were indicative of EMT inhibition. CONCLUSION: Our findings proved the capability of PLGA nanoparticles in loading trans-cinnamic acid in addition to enhancing its antitumor efficacy in triple-negative breast cancer possibly via inhibiting EMT.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Nanopartículas , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Cinamatos , Portadores de Fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Tamanho da Partícula
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