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1.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 32: 102088, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33157333

RESUMO

Combinational therapy is among the most used treatment modality's to increase cancer treatment efficacy. It may also reduce side effects, treatment time, and development of drug resistance. The effects of different analogues of vitamin A (VA) as neoadjuvant agent were observed in this study with chemotherapeutic drugs (doxorubicin and methotrexate) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-ALA and Photogem as photosensitizers in RD cells. The uptake time of photosensitizer was optimized by means of spectrophotometric measurements. Diode laser (λ = 635 nm ±â€¯1 nm) was used as an illumination source for PDT. Responses of administered drugs were assessed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. VA and its analogues exert prophylactic and therapeutic effects. Protective or antagonistic effects (CI > 1) were observed in each of the case. These results propose that the use of VA as a neoadjuvant agent in combinational therapeutic modalities may reduce the efficacy of cancer treatment protocols as well as the existing side effects. Thus, VA is not the successful drug for combinational therapies and under treatment cancer patients should try to avoid its use with oxidative stress induction therapies (e.g. PDT, Radiotherapy, chemotherapy).


Assuntos
Fotoquimioterapia , Rabdomiossarcoma , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Fotoquimioterapia/métodos , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Rabdomiossarcoma/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina A
2.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 20(4): 817-824, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-19748

RESUMO

Although in-feed antibiotics work for broiler chicken's growth, they are a source of public health hazard. Therefore, there is a need for alternates which can act as growth promoter without deleterious effects on the health of meat consumers. Moringa oleifera is one such phytobiotic which is reported to possess antimicrobial and immuno-modulatory properties. This study investigated the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) supplementation on meat quality and bone morphometry of broiler. One-day-old chicks (n=100), divided into five groups (four replicates with n=5), were fed a basal diet (control group) or same diet supplemented with 6, 9, 12 or 15 g/kg MOLP. On d-35, two birds per replicate were euthanized to collect samples of breast muscle, blood and tibia bone. The MOLP supplementation significantly increased pH of breast muscle and ash percentage of tibia bone. The diameter of breast muscle fibres and also weight and weight length index of tibia bone significantly increased with 12 and 15 g/kg MOLP. The water holding capacity (WHC) of breast muscle was significantly higher with 9 and 15 g/kg MOLP; whereas robusticity index of tibia bone significantly decreased with 12 and 15 g/kg MOLP inclusion compared to the control group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (12g/kg) increased pH, water holding capacity, and muscle fibre diameter of breast muscle and also weight, ash percentage and density indices of tibia bone in broiler chickens.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Recém-Nascido , Moringa oleifera/efeitos adversos , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Peitorais , Tíbia , Anti-Infecciosos , Fatores Imunológicos
3.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 102(2): e948-e956, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29327786

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones (THs) are involved in the development of lymphoid organs and regulation of immune function in birds. However, their role as an immune-modulator in the hyperthyroid state is still debatable. To explore the interrelationship of thyroxine (T4 ) and the immune system, chicks were divided into three groups. Group I was comprised of control birds, who received the basal diet while group II and III were given diets supplemented with 5 µg and 10 µg thyroxine/kg feed, respectively, from 15 to 28 days of age. Cell-mediated immune response was evaluated through in vitro abdominal macrophage phagocytosis assay, macrophage nitric oxide (NO) production, heterophil-to-lymphocyte (H:L) ratio and delayed-type hypersensitivity response against phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Humoural immune response was assessed through serum IgG and IgM antibody production against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) and antibody production against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Sampling was carried out at 7, 14 and 21 days of treatment. Results have shown higher levels (p < .001) of circulating T4 in both treatment groups compared to the control group. There was a lower (p < .05) macrophage engulfment percentage, an increase in H:L ratio (p < .001) in treated birds, while their NO production remained higher (p < .05) in thyroxine supplemented groups after bacterial lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The humoural immune response revealed a significant decline (p < .001) in IgG, IgM antibody production against SRBCs but IBV circulating antibodies increased with age. In conclusion, hyperthyroidism has a strong co-relation with decreased immune performance of birds.


Assuntos
Hipertireoidismo/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Galinhas , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Hipertireoidismo/induzido quimicamente , Macrófagos Peritoneais/fisiologia , Masculino , Fito-Hemaglutininas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Ovinos , Ganho de Peso
4.
Andrologia ; 50(2)2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28766734

RESUMO

The pressure pattern in varicocele veins of infertile patients and its correlation with semen quality and testicular blood flow was determined. Consecutive patients at andro-urology clinic of a teaching hospital undergoing microsurgical varicocelectomy were included. Their semen quality and testicular blood flow were determined. Peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistive index (RI) of subcapsular and intraparenchymal branches of testicular artery were noted by colour Doppler ultrasonography. During surgery before ligation of varicocele veins, intravenous pressures of internal spermatic (ISV) and external spermatic (ESV) veins were determined at baseline and after Valsalva manoeuvre. Thirty patients, 20-45 years old, were evaluated. Baseline pressure for maximum dilated ISV (A), less dilated ISV (B) and ESV was 15.93 ± 6.34, 12.38 ± 4.60 and 12.92 ± 5.65 mm. Hg, respectively, which increased after Valsalva by 104.4%, 116.2% and 38.22% respectively. Correlation (r = -.71; p < .05) was appreciated between percentage increase in pressure of ISV B with PSV of intraparenchymal testicular arteries and progressive motility (r = -.759; p < .05), nonprogressive motility (r = -.738; p < .05) and morphology (r = -.653; p = .07) of spermatozoa. In conclusion, ISV develops higher pressure on Valsalva as compared to ESV and has correlation with semen quality and testicular blood flow.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Sêmen/fisiologia , Testículo/irrigação sanguínea , Varicocele/fisiopatologia , Veias/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Microcirurgia/métodos , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Testículo/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Manobra de Valsalva , Varicocele/diagnóstico por imagem , Varicocele/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias/cirurgia , Pressão Venosa , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 101 Suppl 1: 114-121, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28627054

RESUMO

Due to public health hazards of subtherapeutic use of antibiotics in poultry feed, there is a need for alternatives. Moringa oleifera is a phytobiotic, which is reported to possess antimicrobial and immuno-modulatory properties. This study aimed to investigate effects of M. oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) supplementation on growth performance and intestinal microarchitecture of broiler chickens. Day-old broiler chicks (n = 100) were randomly divided into five groups with four replicates each having five birds. Birds were fed a corn-based basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5% MOLP. Body weight and feed conversion ratio were recorded on weekly basis. On day 35, two birds per replicate were selected to collect samples of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecal tonsils and bursa of Fabricius. Tissue samples were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or combined alcian blue and PAS technique. Supplementation of MOLP had no effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, bursa weight and intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IEL) count. Birds fed with 1.2% MOLP had higher (p < 0.05) body weight, length and empty weight of small intestine, and weight of empty and filled ceca. Villus height (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), villus surface area (duodenum) and villus height:crypt depth (ileum) were higher (p < 0.05) in 1.2% MOLP group compared with non-supplemented group. In duodenum, total goblet cell count was higher (p < 0.05) in all the supplemented groups when compared with non-supplemented birds. Acidic mucin count was higher (p < 0.05) in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 1.2% MOLP group compared with the control group. Bursal follicle count was higher (p < 0.05) in 1.2% MOLP group compared with non-supplemented group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 1.2% MOLP modulated intestinal microarchitecture and acidic mucin production without any apparent effect on growth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Moringa oleifera/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia
6.
Br Poult Sci ; 58(2): 122-131, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27869509

RESUMO

1. The present study investigated the effects of encapsulated benzoic acid (BA) supplementation in broiler feed on performance and gastrointestinal microbiota. 2. Eighty broilers were randomly divided into two groups. Birds in the control group were fed on maize-soybean-based diets. Birds in the treatment group were provided the same diet supplemented with 2 g/kg BA encapsulated in a vegetable oil matrix. 3. At the end of the trial (d 35), pH, bacterial composition and metabolites were determined in the crop, jejunum, ileum and caecum. 4. Growth performance variables and pH were not significantly different. 5. BA concentration decreased rapidly in the proximal gut. However, the treatment diet showed higher BA in the crop, jejunum, ileum and caecum. 6. Total lactate in the crop and D-lactate in the jejunum was higher in the BA treated group. Caecal total and branched chain fatty acids were decreased due to the treatment. 7. Lactobacilli populations were significantly altered by BA supplementation. A trend for increased lactobacilli was observed in the crop, while it became significant in the jejunum and ileum. Lactobacillus species responded differently to the treatment. Four of 5 measured Lactobacillus species, particularly in the ileum, followed the course observed for total lactobacilli; only Lactobacillus salivarius was not modified. 8. Correlation analysis showed that BA modified the intestinal microbiota. Lactobacilli correlated negatively to all studied clostridial clusters and enterobacteria. Clostridial clusters IV and XIVa were significantly increased in the jejunum, whereas only clostridial cluster XIVa was increased in the caecum. 9. Encapsulated BA modified the intestinal microbiota which can lead to the conclusion, that the main beneficial mode of action of BA in the gut appears to be the enhancement of lactic acid bacteria, which in turn may act as a vanguard against pathogens.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Ácido Benzoico , Galinhas/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ração Animal , Animais , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória
7.
Poult Sci ; 94(2): 240-8, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25630675

RESUMO

Feed production with different milling methods, thermal treatment, and particle size may influence mineral digestibility and retention in eggs. The present study investigated the impact of roller (R) and hammer (H) mills, mash (M) and expandate (E) with fine (F) and coarse (C) particle sizes, on apparent ileal absorption (AIA) and apparent total digestibility (ATD) and retention of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron in yolk, albumen, and shell. A total of 384 hens (Lohmann Brown), 19 weeks old, were assigned using a randomized design with a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement. Eight experimental diets were offered ad libitum during the whole experimental period and one week before for diet adaption. The AIA of magnesium, zinc, copper, and iron was higher in treatment R in comparison with treatment H (P<0.01, P≤0.03, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). The AIA of magnesium was higher in treatment M than treatment E (P<0.01). The AIA of magnesium was higher in treatment C in comparison with treatment F (P≤0.05) due to particle size. The ATD of copper and iron was higher in treatment R than treatment H (P<0.01 and P≤0.03, respectively). The ATD was higher for phosphorus and lower for iron in treatment F than treatment C (P≤0.05 and P≤0.02. respectively). The copper concentration in yolk and albumen was higher in treatment C than treatment F (P<0.01 and P≤0.03, respectively). Besides a few overall interactions, the AIA and ATD of copper and manganese were lower in H+M group than R+M group (P≤0.05). The ATD of iron was higher in the M+C group compared to the M+F group (P<0.01), whereas the albumen zinc concentration was higher in the E+C group than E+F group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the feed produced by hammer mill had negative effects on AIA and ATD for trace elements in particular, but mineral concentrations in egg contents were mostly comparable for all treatments. Therefore, milling methods, thermal treatment, and particle sizes used in the present study can be used for layer feed formulation without negatively affecting egg quality.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Ovos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Minerais/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Minerais/metabolismo
8.
Animal ; 7(9): 1472-8, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23688620

RESUMO

Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P < 0.05), whereas CS intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW and LMF calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P < 0.05) in the CMF calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P < 0.05) in the EW calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that buffalo calves can be successfully weaned as early as 8 weeks of age without negatively affecting their growth performance.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Búfalos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Desmame , Fatores Etários , Ração Animal , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Masculino , Leite
9.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 97 Suppl 1: 68-73, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23639019

RESUMO

This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotics, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and/or probiotics (LBP) on intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) count, goblet cells (GC) count and differentiation and intestinal micro-architecture in broilers reared under cyclic heat stress. Day-old broilers (n = 250) were randomly divided into five groups. Fifty birds were reared within the thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Remaining birds were subjected to cyclic heat stress from day 21 to 42 (35° C, 75% RH, 8 h/d). The birds were fed corn-soy-based basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS), or 0.1% LBP (HS-LBP), or their combination (HS-SYN). The birds were slaughtered on day 42. Tissue samples were collected from mid-duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin or combined Alcian blue and PAS technique. All differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. The IEL count increased in all intestinal segments of the HS group compared with the TNZ group and decreased in all supplemented groups compared with the HS group. Compared with the TNZ, heat stress reduced villus height, crypt depth and surface area in duodenum and ileum, and increased crypt depth in ileum. Villus width decreased in duodenum and jejunum compared with the TNZ group. Supplementation of LBP, MOS and SYN reversed all these changes in duodenum, while only increased villus height and surface area in ileum. In jejunum, the villus height and surface area increased with HS-LBP, and crypt depth increased with HS-MOS. The number of GC containing acid mucins (duodenum and ileum) and mixed mucins (ileum) were increased in the HS compared with the TNZ. Supplementation of MOS, LBP and SYN maintained the enhanced activity of goblet cells. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of MOS and/or LBP may be helpful in alleviating some of the detrimental effects of heat stress on microstructure of the broiler gut.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Estresse Fisiológico , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Células Caliciformes/citologia , Células Caliciformes/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Periodicidade
10.
Poult Sci ; 91(7): 1598-603, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22700504

RESUMO

Prebiotics are being used as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry industry with a variable degree of success. This trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on growth performance, selected colonic bacterial population, and immune response in maternally-isolated rock pigeons. The pigeons (n = 36) were randomly distributed in 4 treatment groups (n = 9 per group) with 3 replicates or pens (n = 3) in each group. Birds were fed either a corn/wheat-based basal diet (control group/CON) or the same diet supplemented with 0.1%, 0.2%, or 0.5% MOS for 35 d. On d 35, birds were killed to collect visceral organs, colonic contents, and serum. Colonic contents were used to enumerate selected microbiota and serum was used to detect antibody titer against the Newcastle disease virus. Cell-mediated immunity was determined by measuring the skin thickness following 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene challenge. Results showed that supplementation did not affect the BW of birds. During wk 4, feed intake was significantly higher in the 0.2% (187.9 ± 0.86) and the 0.5% (186.4 ± 0.86) MOS-supplemented groups compared with the CON group (180.7 ± 0.86). Gizzard weights (with and without digesta) were significantly higher in the MOS 0.1% (10.67 ± 0.33 and 8.22 ± 0.26) and the MOS 0.2% (9.91 ± 0.33 and 7.94 ± 0.26) groups compared with the CON group (7.56 ± 0.33 and 6.25 ± 0.26). Small intestinal weight was significantly higher in the MOS 0.2% group (14.71 ± 0.56) compared with the CON group (9.56 ± 0.56). Lengths of small intestine (MOS 0.1% = 92.56 ± 1.69, MOS 0.2% = 90.79 ± 1.69, MOS 0.5% = 90.57 ± 1.69) in all the MOS-fed groups and large intestine in the 0.1% (3.50 ± 0.02) and the 0.5% (3.47 ± 0.02) MOS-fed groups were significantly higher than the CON group (small intestine = 77.63 ± 1.69, large intestine = 2.41 ± 0.02). Weights of heart, liver, pancreas, and large intestine remained unaffected. Feeding of MOS did not influence colonic population of Escherichia coli, Clostridia, and Bifidobacteria. Lactobacilli count was significantly higher in the 0.2% MOS-fed group (9.77 ± 0.12) compared with the CON group (9.19 ± 0.16). Mannan-oligosaccharide did not affect the immune response of the birds as antibody titer against the New Castle disease virus and the cell-mediated immunity remained similar in all the treatment groups. In conclusion, dietary MOS supplementation influenced only the colonic lactobacilli population without any apparent effects on the production performance in growing pigeons.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Columbidae , Dieta/veterinária , Mananas/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Colo/microbiologia , Columbidae/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Mananas/química , Prebióticos
11.
Poult Sci ; 90(11): 2573-7, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22010243

RESUMO

This study was intended to explore the oxidative status of broilers under cyclic heat stress (HS) as modulated by supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and a probiotic mixture (PM). Two hundred fifty 1-d-old chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups. From d 22, birds were either kept in a thermoneutral zone (TN; 26.7°C for 24 h/d) or subjected to HS (35 ± 1.1°C and 75 ± 5% RH for 8 h/d from 1000 to 1800 h) to the conclusion of the study on d 42. Birds were fed either a corn-based diet (TN and HS groups) or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS group), 0.1% PM (HS-PM group), or their combination as a symbiotic (SYN; HS-SYN group). On d 42, birds were killed by cervical dislocation to collect serum for the determination of total oxidants, total antioxidants, paraoxonase, arylesterase, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and trace minerals. Heat stress increased (P < 0.05) total oxidants and total antioxidants and decreased (P < 0.05) paraoxonase and arylesterase, with no change in ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. Dietary supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) total oxidants and total antioxidants, with no effect on the activities of other enzymes. Heat stress did not influence serum copper, zinc, and manganese concentrations of birds when compared with those in the TN group. However, MOS increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of all the trace minerals, whereas SYN increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of only zinc and copper. It was concluded that MOS or PM supplementation, alone or as a SYN, may reduce some of the detrimental effects of HS, whereas MOS alone or as a SYN may improve the absorption of trace minerals.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Mananas/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Oxidantes/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue
12.
Poult Sci ; 89(9): 1934-8, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20709978

RESUMO

Heat stress (HS), one of the major problems of tropical and subtropical countries, adversely affects the production performance of poultry. Keeping this in view, the present study was designed to investigate some of the biological markers of HS in broilers as modulated by dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) and a Lactobacillus-based probiotic (LBP), either alone or in combination. Two hundred fifty 1-d-old-chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups. From d 22, the birds were either kept at the thermoneutral zone (TN) or exposed to HS to the conclusion of study, d 42. Birds were fed either a corn-based basal diet (TN and HS groups) or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS group), 0.1% LBP (HS-LBP group), or their combination. Birds were immunized against Newcastle disease virus on d 4 (intraocular; live attenuated) and d 20 (drinking water; live attenuated) and infectious bursal disease virus on d 8 (intraocular; live intermediate strain) and d 24 (drinking water; live attenuated). Birds were killed on d 42 to collect serum for determination of cortisol, thyroid hormones, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and postvaccinal antibody titers. Results revealed that dietary supplementations decreased (P < 0.05) the serum cortisol and cholesterol concentrations and increased (P < 0.05) thyroxine concentration compared with the HS group without affecting triiodothyronine concentration. The percentage of the C-reactive protein-positive birds was higher (P < 0.05) in the HS group compared with the TN group. Dietary supplementations improved humoral immunity against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bursal disease virus during HS. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of either MOS or LBP alone or in combination can reduce some of the detrimental effects of HS in broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Temperatura Alta , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Probióticos/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Imunidade Humoral , Lactobacillus , Mananas/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Anim Sci ; 88(3): 922-5, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20023142

RESUMO

The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, which measures the reduction of MTT, is commonly used to validate the viability of metabolically active cells. This study was conducted to evaluate and validate the MTT assay to assess the spermatozoal viability of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls and compare the efficiency of the test with the supravital staining technique (eosin and nigrosin) and the hypoosmotic swelling test. Fresh semen samples from breeding Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls (n = 25) were collected using an artificial vagina. After assessing the quality of the semen for routine variables, the MTT assay was carried out in PBS. Results revealed a correlation (r = 0.979; P < 0.001) between the viability of spermatozoa and the rate of reduction of MTT. The other proportions of same semen samples showed a poor relationship between the eosin and nigrosin test (r = -0.25), the hypoosmotic swelling test (r = -0.12), and motility (r = -0.15). However, the MTT assay was found to be superior compared with other tests because it was able to determine those spermatozoa that were more than 90% viable. In conclusion, the MTT assay is a simple, robust test that can be used to select Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls on the basis of spermatozoa quality.


Assuntos
Búfalos/fisiologia , Corantes , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Sais de Tetrazólio , Tiazóis , Animais , Masculino , Sêmen/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia
14.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 93(1): 35-43, 2009 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19386006

RESUMO

A number of 252, 70 week old, single comb white leghorn hens at the end of their first production cycle were divided into two groups: group-I; molted by fasting and group-II; by high dietary zinc to obtain the second and third production cycle. Sampling was carried out at 5%, peak and end of the second production cycle and at 5% and peak of the third production cycle. Serum zinc decreased at the peak of the second production cycle, while increased at the 5% of the third production cycle in zinc-molted group. Serum copper and manganese increased at the 5% and peak of the second production cycle in zinc-molted group. Egg albumin zinc and copper increased at the 5% and peak of the second as well as third production cycles in zinc-molted group. Egg albumin manganese increased at 5% during the second production cycle in fasting molted group. Egg yolk zinc increased at the peak of the second production cycle in zinc-molted group. Egg yolk copper increased at the 5% of second production cycle but decreased during the third production cycle in zinc-molted group. Egg yolk manganese increased at the 5% and at the end of the second production cycle in zinc molted group. Egg yolk manganese and iron decreased during the third production cycle in zinc-molted group. Eggshell zinc decreased at the end of the second production cycle in the zinc-molted group, while eggshell copper increased at the peak of the second as well as third production cycles in fasting molted group.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Ovos/análise , Muda , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Feminino , Privação de Alimentos , Muda/efeitos dos fármacos , Muda/fisiologia , Oviposição/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Zinco/administração & dosagem
15.
Theriogenology ; 71(8): 1326-9, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19246080

RESUMO

The study was carried out to evaluate the potential impact of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the frozen-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Ejaculated bull semen was extended in a Tris-citrate egg yolk extender containing various concentrations of BHT (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0mM). Semen was frozen at -196 degrees C using 50 x 10(6) spermatozoa per 0.5 mL straws. Five straws from each treatment were thawed to assess the semen quality in terms of sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity. Post-thawed sperm motility was determined using a phase-contrast microscope. Viability, plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity were evaluated by the supravital staining, hypo-osmotic swelling test and normal acrosomal reaction, respectively. The highest (P<0.05) motility, acrosomal integrity and hypo-osmotic swelling response of spermatozoa was achieved by addition of 1.0 and 2.0mM BHT to semen extender. However, highest (P<0.05) viability of spermatozoa was achieved by inclusion of 2.0mM BHT. The higher concentration of BHT (3.0mM) reduced the motility, acrosomal integrity, viability and hypo-osmotic swelling response of the spermatozoa compared to other concentration used. In conclusion, BHT when added in the semen extender can improve the semen quality of buffalo bulls.


Assuntos
Búfalos , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/farmacologia , Criopreservação/métodos , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Acrossomo/efeitos dos fármacos , Acrossomo/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Búfalos/fisiologia , Hidroxitolueno Butilado/administração & dosagem , Crioprotetores/administração & dosagem , Crioprotetores/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen
16.
Theriogenology ; 71(8): 1220-5, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19246083

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of dietary fat on quality of liquid and frozen-thawed semen of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Adult bulls (n=21) were fed a balanced ration (Con; n=7) or the same ration either containing sunflower oil (SF-O; n=7) or whole sunflower seeds (SF-S; n=7) for 63 days. Body weight and body condition score of each bull was recorded on days 0, 30 and 60 of the experiment. Semen was collected on days 39, 46, 53 and 60, frozen by a fast method and stored at -196 degrees C for 24h. Sperm motility was assessed using a bright field microscope. Plasma membrane integrity of fresh and frozen-thawed spermatozoa was assessed using a hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) assay. The concentration of spermatozoa and volume of semen was not different among groups on various days of collection. Sunflower-enriched diets did not affect the motility and number of HOS-positive spermatozoa in the fresh semen. Motility and HOS of post-thawed spermatozoa were higher (p<0.05) in bulls fed the sunflower-enriched diets. Similarly, diets did not affect the body condition score and body weight of bulls. In conclusion, feeding of sunflower oil or sunflower seed as fat sources can improve the quality of buffalo bull spermatozoa.


Assuntos
Búfalos/fisiologia , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Criopreservação/métodos , Congelamento , Helianthus/química , Helianthus/fisiologia , Masculino , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Sementes/fisiologia , Preservação do Sêmen/métodos , Espermatozoides/química , Óleo de Girassol
17.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 92(6): 668-76, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19012612

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to investigate egg production performance, immunohistochemical (IHC) identification, localization and morphological characterization of moulted hen's pars distalis luteinizing hormone (LH) gonadotrophs. This system has been validated for chicken LH by immunodetection of purified hormones on dot blots, western blotting and by specific labelling of cells on sagittal sections of chicken pituitaries. This study showed that egg production and egg weight increased significantly after zinc-induced moult when compared with fasting-induced moult. Luteinizing hormone-gonadotrophs are of numerous shapes and distributed throughout the adenohypophysis, with densely populated regions on the margins of pars distalis. Moulting of laying hens was associated with a significant increase in immunoreactive LH gonadotroph cell count and cell size, which peaked at the subsequent production stages. Zinc-induced moulting also caused a significant increase in LH gonadotroph cell size as compared with fasting-induced moulting. The nuclear size of LH-positive cells was distinct during decreased egg production. Our results validate the use of ovine LHbeta antibodies for the IHC localization of chicken LH gonadotrophs. This technology was further applied to the characterization of the shape and morphological changes of gonadotrophs as a function of the egg production status of the birds.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Muda/fisiologia , Oviposição/fisiologia , Hipófise/citologia , Animais , Jejum , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica/veterinária , Zinco/farmacologia
18.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 43(6): 664-71, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18422863

RESUMO

In the present study, ovarian follicular fluid and serum biochemical, hormonal, electrolytes and amino acids profiles in female dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius), were investigated. Fluid from small (2-6 mm) and large follicles (7-20 mm) and blood samples were collected from 25 clinically healthy adult female camels. The concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, urea, total proteins, albumin, globulin, fibrinogen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and tri-iodothyronine were lower (p < or = 0.05) in large follicles when compared with the small follicles. However, the concentrations of low-density lipoproteins, uric acid, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase in small and large follicles did not differ. The concentrations of oestradiol 17-beta and progesterone were higher (p < or = 0.05) in large follicles. The serum concentrations of these hormones were many folds lower (p < or = 0.05) than those of follicular fluid. Among electrolytes, the concentration of phosphorus was higher (p < or = 0.05) in the large follicles, while that of potassium and chloride were lower (p < or = 0.05) in the small follicles. Serum concentrations of sodium, chloride, calcium and phosphorous were higher (p < or = 0.05), while that of potassium lower (p < or = 0.05) than corresponding concentrations in the follicular fluid. The concentrations of leucine and arginine were higher (p < or = 0.05) in follicular fluid when compared with serum concentrations, while the reverse was true for other amino acids. In conclusion, this study is indicative of either low or high concentrations of certain biochemical metabolites, hormones, electrolytes and amino acids in small and large follicles for the individual roles that they play in the growth and development of follicles in the one-humped she-camel.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Camelus/metabolismo , Líquido Folicular/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/anatomia & histologia , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Camelus/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Colesterol/metabolismo , Feminino , Líquido Folicular/química , Glucose/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
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