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1.
R. bras. Ci. avíc. ; 20(4): 817-824, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-19748

RESUMO

Although in-feed antibiotics work for broiler chicken's growth, they are a source of public health hazard. Therefore, there is a need for alternates which can act as growth promoter without deleterious effects on the health of meat consumers. Moringa oleifera is one such phytobiotic which is reported to possess antimicrobial and immuno-modulatory properties. This study investigated the effect of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) supplementation on meat quality and bone morphometry of broiler. One-day-old chicks (n=100), divided into five groups (four replicates with n=5), were fed a basal diet (control group) or same diet supplemented with 6, 9, 12 or 15 g/kg MOLP. On d-35, two birds per replicate were euthanized to collect samples of breast muscle, blood and tibia bone. The MOLP supplementation significantly increased pH of breast muscle and ash percentage of tibia bone. The diameter of breast muscle fibres and also weight and weight length index of tibia bone significantly increased with 12 and 15 g/kg MOLP. The water holding capacity (WHC) of breast muscle was significantly higher with 9 and 15 g/kg MOLP; whereas robusticity index of tibia bone significantly decreased with 12 and 15 g/kg MOLP inclusion compared to the control group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of Moringa oleifera leaf powder (12g/kg) increased pH, water holding capacity, and muscle fibre diameter of breast muscle and also weight, ash percentage and density indices of tibia bone in broiler chickens.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Recém-Nascido , Moringa oleifera/efeitos adversos , Aditivos Alimentares/efeitos adversos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Músculos Peitorais , Tíbia , Anti-Infecciosos , Fatores Imunológicos
2.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 102(2): e948-e956, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29327786

RESUMO

Thyroid hormones (THs) are involved in the development of lymphoid organs and regulation of immune function in birds. However, their role as an immune-modulator in the hyperthyroid state is still debatable. To explore the interrelationship of thyroxine (T4 ) and the immune system, chicks were divided into three groups. Group I was comprised of control birds, who received the basal diet while group II and III were given diets supplemented with 5 µg and 10 µg thyroxine/kg feed, respectively, from 15 to 28 days of age. Cell-mediated immune response was evaluated through in vitro abdominal macrophage phagocytosis assay, macrophage nitric oxide (NO) production, heterophil-to-lymphocyte (H:L) ratio and delayed-type hypersensitivity response against phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Humoural immune response was assessed through serum IgG and IgM antibody production against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) and antibody production against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Sampling was carried out at 7, 14 and 21 days of treatment. Results have shown higher levels (p < .001) of circulating T4 in both treatment groups compared to the control group. There was a lower (p < .05) macrophage engulfment percentage, an increase in H:L ratio (p < .001) in treated birds, while their NO production remained higher (p < .05) in thyroxine supplemented groups after bacterial lipopolysaccharide stimulation. The humoural immune response revealed a significant decline (p < .001) in IgG, IgM antibody production against SRBCs but IBV circulating antibodies increased with age. In conclusion, hyperthyroidism has a strong co-relation with decreased immune performance of birds.


Assuntos
Hipertireoidismo/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Anticorpos/imunologia , Anticorpos/metabolismo , Galinhas , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Hipertireoidismo/induzido quimicamente , Macrófagos Peritoneais/fisiologia , Masculino , Fito-Hemaglutininas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Ovinos , Ganho de Peso
3.
Andrologia ; 50(2)2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28766734

RESUMO

The pressure pattern in varicocele veins of infertile patients and its correlation with semen quality and testicular blood flow was determined. Consecutive patients at andro-urology clinic of a teaching hospital undergoing microsurgical varicocelectomy were included. Their semen quality and testicular blood flow were determined. Peak systolic velocity (PSV) and resistive index (RI) of subcapsular and intraparenchymal branches of testicular artery were noted by colour Doppler ultrasonography. During surgery before ligation of varicocele veins, intravenous pressures of internal spermatic (ISV) and external spermatic (ESV) veins were determined at baseline and after Valsalva manoeuvre. Thirty patients, 20-45 years old, were evaluated. Baseline pressure for maximum dilated ISV (A), less dilated ISV (B) and ESV was 15.93 ± 6.34, 12.38 ± 4.60 and 12.92 ± 5.65 mm. Hg, respectively, which increased after Valsalva by 104.4%, 116.2% and 38.22% respectively. Correlation (r = -.71; p < .05) was appreciated between percentage increase in pressure of ISV B with PSV of intraparenchymal testicular arteries and progressive motility (r = -.759; p < .05), nonprogressive motility (r = -.738; p < .05) and morphology (r = -.653; p = .07) of spermatozoa. In conclusion, ISV develops higher pressure on Valsalva as compared to ESV and has correlation with semen quality and testicular blood flow.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/fisiopatologia , Sêmen/fisiologia , Testículo/irrigação sanguínea , Varicocele/fisiopatologia , Veias/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Microcirurgia/métodos , Análise do Sêmen , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Testículo/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores , Manobra de Valsalva , Varicocele/diagnóstico por imagem , Varicocele/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/métodos , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem , Veias/cirurgia , Pressão Venosa , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 101 Suppl 1: 114-121, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28627054

RESUMO

Due to public health hazards of subtherapeutic use of antibiotics in poultry feed, there is a need for alternatives. Moringa oleifera is a phytobiotic, which is reported to possess antimicrobial and immuno-modulatory properties. This study aimed to investigate effects of M. oleifera leaf powder (MOLP) supplementation on growth performance and intestinal microarchitecture of broiler chickens. Day-old broiler chicks (n = 100) were randomly divided into five groups with four replicates each having five birds. Birds were fed a corn-based basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5% MOLP. Body weight and feed conversion ratio were recorded on weekly basis. On day 35, two birds per replicate were selected to collect samples of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecal tonsils and bursa of Fabricius. Tissue samples were stained with haematoxylin and eosin or combined alcian blue and PAS technique. Supplementation of MOLP had no effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio, bursa weight and intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IEL) count. Birds fed with 1.2% MOLP had higher (p < 0.05) body weight, length and empty weight of small intestine, and weight of empty and filled ceca. Villus height (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), villus surface area (duodenum) and villus height:crypt depth (ileum) were higher (p < 0.05) in 1.2% MOLP group compared with non-supplemented group. In duodenum, total goblet cell count was higher (p < 0.05) in all the supplemented groups when compared with non-supplemented birds. Acidic mucin count was higher (p < 0.05) in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of 1.2% MOLP group compared with the control group. Bursal follicle count was higher (p < 0.05) in 1.2% MOLP group compared with non-supplemented group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 1.2% MOLP modulated intestinal microarchitecture and acidic mucin production without any apparent effect on growth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Moringa oleifera/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia
5.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 112: 69-79, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27016709

RESUMO

Proton, deuteron and alpha-particle induced reactions on (87,88)Sr, (nat)Zr and (85)Rb targets were evaluated for the production of (87,88)Y. The literature data were compared with nuclear model calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2. The evaluated cross sections were generated; therefrom thick target yields of (87,88)Y were calculated. Analysis of radio-yttrium impurities and yield showed that the (87)Sr(p, n)(87)Y and (88)Sr(p, n)(88)Y reactions are the best routes for the production of (87)Y and (88)Y respectively. The calculated yield for the (87)Sr(p, n)(87)Y reaction is 104 MBq/µAh in the energy range of 14→2.7MeV. Similarly, the calculated yield for the (88)Sr(p, n)(88)Y reaction is 3.2 MBq/µAh in the energy range of 15→7MeV.

6.
Appl Radiat Isot ; 104: 232-41, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26210800

RESUMO

The proton induced nuclear reactions on (86)Sr, (88)Sr and (nat)Zr were investigated for the production of (86)Y. The literature data were compared with the results of nuclear model calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2. The thick target yields of (86)Y were calculated from the recommended excitation functions. Analysis of radioyttrium impurities was also performed. A comparison of the various production routes showed that for medical applications of (86)Y, the reaction (86)Sr(p,n)(86)Y is the method of choice, which gives efficient yield with minimum impurities.


Assuntos
Modelos Químicos , Prótons , Isótopos de Estrôncio/química , Isótopos de Estrôncio/efeitos da radiação , Radioisótopos de Ítrio/química , Zircônio/química , Simulação por Computador , Relação Dose-Resposta à Radiação , Marcação por Isótopo/métodos , Doses de Radiação , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , Zircônio/efeitos da radiação
7.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 97 Suppl 1: 68-73, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23639019

RESUMO

This study was designed to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotics, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) and/or probiotics (LBP) on intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) count, goblet cells (GC) count and differentiation and intestinal micro-architecture in broilers reared under cyclic heat stress. Day-old broilers (n = 250) were randomly divided into five groups. Fifty birds were reared within the thermoneutral zone (TNZ). Remaining birds were subjected to cyclic heat stress from day 21 to 42 (35° C, 75% RH, 8 h/d). The birds were fed corn-soy-based basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS), or 0.1% LBP (HS-LBP), or their combination (HS-SYN). The birds were slaughtered on day 42. Tissue samples were collected from mid-duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and stained with haematoxylin and eosin or combined Alcian blue and PAS technique. All differences were considered significant at p < 0.05. The IEL count increased in all intestinal segments of the HS group compared with the TNZ group and decreased in all supplemented groups compared with the HS group. Compared with the TNZ, heat stress reduced villus height, crypt depth and surface area in duodenum and ileum, and increased crypt depth in ileum. Villus width decreased in duodenum and jejunum compared with the TNZ group. Supplementation of LBP, MOS and SYN reversed all these changes in duodenum, while only increased villus height and surface area in ileum. In jejunum, the villus height and surface area increased with HS-LBP, and crypt depth increased with HS-MOS. The number of GC containing acid mucins (duodenum and ileum) and mixed mucins (ileum) were increased in the HS compared with the TNZ. Supplementation of MOS, LBP and SYN maintained the enhanced activity of goblet cells. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of MOS and/or LBP may be helpful in alleviating some of the detrimental effects of heat stress on microstructure of the broiler gut.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Prebióticos , Probióticos , Estresse Fisiológico , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Células Caliciformes/citologia , Células Caliciformes/fisiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/fisiologia , Periodicidade
8.
Poult Sci ; 91(7): 1598-603, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22700504

RESUMO

Prebiotics are being used as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry industry with a variable degree of success. This trial was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on growth performance, selected colonic bacterial population, and immune response in maternally-isolated rock pigeons. The pigeons (n = 36) were randomly distributed in 4 treatment groups (n = 9 per group) with 3 replicates or pens (n = 3) in each group. Birds were fed either a corn/wheat-based basal diet (control group/CON) or the same diet supplemented with 0.1%, 0.2%, or 0.5% MOS for 35 d. On d 35, birds were killed to collect visceral organs, colonic contents, and serum. Colonic contents were used to enumerate selected microbiota and serum was used to detect antibody titer against the Newcastle disease virus. Cell-mediated immunity was determined by measuring the skin thickness following 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene challenge. Results showed that supplementation did not affect the BW of birds. During wk 4, feed intake was significantly higher in the 0.2% (187.9 ± 0.86) and the 0.5% (186.4 ± 0.86) MOS-supplemented groups compared with the CON group (180.7 ± 0.86). Gizzard weights (with and without digesta) were significantly higher in the MOS 0.1% (10.67 ± 0.33 and 8.22 ± 0.26) and the MOS 0.2% (9.91 ± 0.33 and 7.94 ± 0.26) groups compared with the CON group (7.56 ± 0.33 and 6.25 ± 0.26). Small intestinal weight was significantly higher in the MOS 0.2% group (14.71 ± 0.56) compared with the CON group (9.56 ± 0.56). Lengths of small intestine (MOS 0.1% = 92.56 ± 1.69, MOS 0.2% = 90.79 ± 1.69, MOS 0.5% = 90.57 ± 1.69) in all the MOS-fed groups and large intestine in the 0.1% (3.50 ± 0.02) and the 0.5% (3.47 ± 0.02) MOS-fed groups were significantly higher than the CON group (small intestine = 77.63 ± 1.69, large intestine = 2.41 ± 0.02). Weights of heart, liver, pancreas, and large intestine remained unaffected. Feeding of MOS did not influence colonic population of Escherichia coli, Clostridia, and Bifidobacteria. Lactobacilli count was significantly higher in the 0.2% MOS-fed group (9.77 ± 0.12) compared with the CON group (9.19 ± 0.16). Mannan-oligosaccharide did not affect the immune response of the birds as antibody titer against the New Castle disease virus and the cell-mediated immunity remained similar in all the treatment groups. In conclusion, dietary MOS supplementation influenced only the colonic lactobacilli population without any apparent effects on the production performance in growing pigeons.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Columbidae , Dieta/veterinária , Mananas/farmacologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Colo/microbiologia , Columbidae/imunologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Imunidade Materno-Adquirida , Mananas/química , Prebióticos
9.
Poult Sci ; 90(11): 2573-7, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22010243

RESUMO

This study was intended to explore the oxidative status of broilers under cyclic heat stress (HS) as modulated by supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) and a probiotic mixture (PM). Two hundred fifty 1-d-old chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups. From d 22, birds were either kept in a thermoneutral zone (TN; 26.7°C for 24 h/d) or subjected to HS (35 ± 1.1°C and 75 ± 5% RH for 8 h/d from 1000 to 1800 h) to the conclusion of the study on d 42. Birds were fed either a corn-based diet (TN and HS groups) or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS group), 0.1% PM (HS-PM group), or their combination as a symbiotic (SYN; HS-SYN group). On d 42, birds were killed by cervical dislocation to collect serum for the determination of total oxidants, total antioxidants, paraoxonase, arylesterase, ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and trace minerals. Heat stress increased (P < 0.05) total oxidants and total antioxidants and decreased (P < 0.05) paraoxonase and arylesterase, with no change in ceruloplasmin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase activities. Dietary supplementation decreased (P < 0.05) total oxidants and total antioxidants, with no effect on the activities of other enzymes. Heat stress did not influence serum copper, zinc, and manganese concentrations of birds when compared with those in the TN group. However, MOS increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of all the trace minerals, whereas SYN increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of only zinc and copper. It was concluded that MOS or PM supplementation, alone or as a SYN, may reduce some of the detrimental effects of HS, whereas MOS alone or as a SYN may improve the absorption of trace minerals.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Galinhas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Mananas/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Oxidantes/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue
10.
Poult Sci ; 89(9): 1934-8, 2010 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20709978

RESUMO

Heat stress (HS), one of the major problems of tropical and subtropical countries, adversely affects the production performance of poultry. Keeping this in view, the present study was designed to investigate some of the biological markers of HS in broilers as modulated by dietary supplementation of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) and a Lactobacillus-based probiotic (LBP), either alone or in combination. Two hundred fifty 1-d-old-chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups. From d 22, the birds were either kept at the thermoneutral zone (TN) or exposed to HS to the conclusion of study, d 42. Birds were fed either a corn-based basal diet (TN and HS groups) or the same diet supplemented with 0.5% MOS (HS-MOS group), 0.1% LBP (HS-LBP group), or their combination. Birds were immunized against Newcastle disease virus on d 4 (intraocular; live attenuated) and d 20 (drinking water; live attenuated) and infectious bursal disease virus on d 8 (intraocular; live intermediate strain) and d 24 (drinking water; live attenuated). Birds were killed on d 42 to collect serum for determination of cortisol, thyroid hormones, cholesterol, C-reactive protein, and postvaccinal antibody titers. Results revealed that dietary supplementations decreased (P < 0.05) the serum cortisol and cholesterol concentrations and increased (P < 0.05) thyroxine concentration compared with the HS group without affecting triiodothyronine concentration. The percentage of the C-reactive protein-positive birds was higher (P < 0.05) in the HS group compared with the TN group. Dietary supplementations improved humoral immunity against Newcastle disease virus and infectious bursal disease virus during HS. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of either MOS or LBP alone or in combination can reduce some of the detrimental effects of HS in broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Temperatura Alta , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Probióticos/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/sangue , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Imunidade Humoral , Lactobacillus , Mananas/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
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