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1.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 42(1): 91-5, 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025164

RESUMO

Regarding the development of international standard of Guideline for Clinical Practice of Acupuncture and Moxibustion: Migraine, the existing problems of the design and methodology of randomized controlled trial (RCT) on acupuncture and moxibustion for migraine were summarized in views of participant, intervention, control, outcome and study design. Four directions need to be further explored, (1) research of adolescent migraine, special subtype of migraine and migraine in a special population; (2) research of the immediate analgesic effect of acupuncture and moxibuation at the attack stage of migraine and the therapeutic effect of migraine at each stage; (3) research on safety and health economics; (4) clinical trial registration of acupuncture and moxibustion. In study, the target population should be further determined and specialized, the diagnosis criteria of western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine be generalized and concentrated, the staging and type division of disease be accurate, the intervention procedure be integrated, the control design be rationalized, the outcomes be validated, and the description of randomization and blinding be clarified.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Moxibustão , Adolescente , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0143821, 2022 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34985323

RESUMO

With the emergence and wide spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs), such as the Delta variant (B.1.617.2 lineage and AY sublineage), it is important to track VOCs for sourcing of transmission. Currently, whole-genome sequencing is commonly used for detecting VOCs, but this is limited by the high costs of reagents and sophisticated sequencers. In this study, common mutations in the genomes of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs were identified by analyzing more than 1 million SARS-CoV-2 genomes from public data. Among them, mutations C1709A (a change of C to A at position 1709) and C56G, respectively, were found in more than 99% of the genomes of Alpha and Delta variants and were specific to them. Then, a method using the amplification refractory mutation system combined with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (ARMS-RT-qPCR) based on the two mutations was developed for identifying both VOCs. The assay can detect as little as 1 copy/µL of the VOCs, and the results for identifying Alpha and Delta variants in clinical samples by the ARMS-RT-qPCR assay showed 100% agreement with the results using sequencing-based methods. The whole assay can be completed in 2.5 h using commercial fluorescent PCR instruments. Therefore, the ARMS-RT-qPCR assay could be used for screening the two highly concerning variants Alpha and Delta by normal PCR laboratories in airports and in hospitals and other health-related organizations. Additionally, based on the unique mutations identified by the genomic analysis, similar molecular assays can be developed for rapid identification of other VOCs. IMPORTANCE The current stage of the pandemic, led by SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), underscores the necessity to develop a cost-effective and rapid molecular diagnosis assay to differentiate the VOCs. In this study, over 1 million SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences of high quality from GISAID were analyzed and a network of the common mutations of the lineages was constructed. The conserved unique mutations specific for SARS-CoV-2 VOCs were found. Then, ARMS-RT-qPCR assays based on the two unique mutations of the Alpha and Delta variants were developed for the detection of the two VOCs. Application of the assay in clinical samples demonstrated that the current method is a convenient, cost-effective, and rapid way to screen the target SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

3.
Neural Netw ; 148: 37-47, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066416

RESUMO

For a class of quaternion-valued neural networks (QVNNs) with discrete and distributed time delays, its finite-time synchronization (FTSYN) is addressed in this paper. Instead of decomposition, a direct analytical method named two-step analysis is proposed. That method can always be used to study FTSYN, under either 1-norm or 2-norm of quaternion. Compared with the decomposing method, the two-step method is also suitable for models that are not easily decomposed. Furthermore, a switching controller based on the two-step method is proposed. In addition, two criteria are given to realize the FTSYN of QVNNs. At last, three numerical examples illustrate the feasibility, effectiveness and practicability of our method.

4.
J Control Release ; 342: 210-227, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34998916

RESUMO

The past decade has witnessed a great progress in cancer immunotherapy with the sequential approvals of therapeutic cancer vaccine, immune checkpoint inhibitor and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy. However, some hurdles still remain to the wide implementation of cancer immunotherapy, including low immune response, complex tumor heterogeneity, off-target immunotoxicity, poor solid tumor infiltration, and immune evasion-induced treatment tolerance. Owing to changeable physicochemical properties in response to endogenous or exogenous stimuli, nanomaterials hold the remarkable potential in incorporation of multiple agents, efficient biological barrier penetration, precise immunomodulator delivery, and controllable content release for boosting cancer immunotherapy. Herein, we review the recent advances in nanomaterials with changeable physicochemical property (NCPP) to develop cancer vaccine, remold tumor microenvironment and evoke direct T cell activation. Besides, we provide our outlook on this emerging field at the intersection of NCPP design and cancer immunotherapy.

5.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 23(1): 69, 2022 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of cortical strut allograft has not been determined for Vancouver type B1 or C fracture. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term efficacy of locking compression plating with or without cortical strut allograft in managing these types of fractures. METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 32 patients (17 males, 15 females; 23-88 years, mean: 67.2 years) with Vancouver type B1 or C fractures. Seventeen patients (Group A; B1 fractures in 15 hips, C fractures in 2 hips) were treated with open reduction and internal fixation with locking compression plates (group A). The other 15 patients (Group B; B1 in 14 hips, C in 1 hip) were fixed by locking compression plating combined with cortical strut allografting (group B). The fracture healing rate, healing time, complications and function were compared between these two groups. RESULTS: The mean follow-up time was 32.4 months (12 to 66), and the overall fracture union rate of the 32 patients was 96.9%. Group B had a higher fracture union rate than Group A, but the difference was not statistically significant. Group A had one case of nonunion of type B1 fracture and one case of malunion; the mean time to fracture healing was 5.3 months (3 to 9). In group B, all patients reached bony union without malunion, with a mean time of fracture healing of 5.1 months (3 to 8). CONCLUSION: Treatment of Vancouver type B1 or C fractures by locking compression plating, with or without cortical strut allografting, resulted in similar union rates in these patients. This suggest that, the use of cortical strut allografting should be decided cautiously.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril , Fraturas do Fêmur , Prótese de Quadril , Fraturas Periprotéticas , Aloenxertos , Placas Ósseas , Feminino , Fraturas do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Fêmur/cirurgia , Seguimentos , Fixação Interna de Fraturas/efeitos adversos , Consolidação da Fratura , Humanos , Masculino , Fraturas Periprotéticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Periprotéticas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Periprotéticas/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; 20: 100361, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35036977

RESUMO

Background: Acute meningitis or encephalitis (AME) results from a neurological infection causing high case fatality and severe sequelae. AME lacked comprehensive surveillance in China. Methods: Nation-wide surveillance of all-age patients with AME syndromes was conducted in 144 sentinel hospitals of 29 provinces in China. Eleven AME-causative viral and bacterial pathogens were tested with multiple diagnostic methods. Findings: Between 2009 and 2018, 20,454 AME patients were recruited for tests. Based on 9,079 patients with all-four-virus tested, 28.43% (95% CI: 27.50%‒29.36%) of them had at least one virus-positive detection. Enterovirus was the most frequently determined virus in children <18 years, herpes simplex virus and Japanese encephalitis virus were the most frequently determined in 18-59 and ≥60 years age groups, respectively. Based on 6,802 patients with all-seven-bacteria tested, 4.43% (95% CI: 3.94%‒4.91%) had at least one bacteria-positive detection, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis were the leading bacterium in children aged <5 years and 5-17 years, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently detected in adults aged 18-59 and ≥60 years. The pathogen spectrum also differed statistically significantly between northern and southern China. Joinpoint analysis revealed age-specific positive rates, with enterovirus, herpes simplex virus and mumps virus peaking at 3-6 years old, while Japanese encephalitis virus peaked in the ≥60 years old. As age increased, the positive rate for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli statistically significantly decreased, while for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus suis it increased. Interpretation: The current findings allow enhanced identification of the predominant AME-related pathogen candidates for diagnosis in clinical practice and more targeted application of prevention and control measures in China, and a possible reassessment of vaccination strategy. Funding: China Mega-Project on Infectious Disease Prevention and the National Natural Science Funds.

7.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 132082, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523456

RESUMO

Knowledge is insufficient on feasible remediation techniques to agricultural soils contaminated by multiple heavy metal(loid)s with elevated concentrations and extreme acidy from acid mine drainages (AMD). We aimed to elucidate the effect of integrated biochar (BC) and soil replacement on improving the mining soil properties and then alleviating the phytotoxicity of As, Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn on radish (Raphanus sativus L.)-soya bean (Glycine max Merr.) -amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) rotation and the potential risk of crops to human health. Biochar and soil replacement showed outstanding effects on improving soil properties by increasing soil pH values, reducing available metal(loid)s, and enhancing the activity of catalase, urease and acid phosphatase. Also, the integrated technique regulated the physiological disorders of crops caused by metal(loid)s, specifically increasing chlorophyll content and reducing malondialdehyde (MDA) in the three crops, and reducing the content of metal(loid)s in edible parts of plants. The combination of biochar and soil replacement exhibited better remediation effect than the single application of biochar or soil replacement, which played different roles in remediating mining farmland. Biochar exhibited efficacy in soil pH amelioration, metal stabilization and soil enzyme activity enhancement, while soil replacement alleviated metal(loid)s stress through the dilution effect. Among the 8 treatments, only biochar combined with 35% (S35BC) and 50% (S50BC) of replaced soil could achieve the safe production of the three crops under the three-season crop rotation.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Raphanus , Poluentes do Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Soja
8.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; : e22885, 2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859534

RESUMO

Ginsenoside-Rg1 (G-Rg1), a saponin that is a primary component of ginseng, is effective against inflammatory diseases. The P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) receptor is an ATP-gated ion channel that is predominantly expressed in immune cells and plays a key role in inflammatory processes. We investigated the role of G-Rg1 in sepsis-related cardiac dysfunction and the underlying mechanism involving the regulation of the P2X7 receptor. We detected cell viability, cytotoxicity, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) with or without G-Rg1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced H9c2 cell models of ischemia/reperfusion injury. We applied cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce a mouse model of sepsis and measured the survival duration and cardiac function of CLP mice. Next, we quantified the ROS level, MMP, respiratory chain complex I-IV enzymatic activity, and mitochondrial fusion in CLP mouse heart tissues. We then investigated the role of G-Rg1 in repairing LPS-induced cell mitochondrial damage, including mitochondrial superoxidation products. The results showed that G-Rg1 inhibited LPS- or H/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, cytotoxicity, ROS levels, and mitochondrial damage. In addition, G-Rg1 prolonged the survival time of CLP mice. G-Rg1 attenuated LPS-induced superoxide production in the mitochondria of cardiomyocytes and the excessive release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into the cytoplasm. Most importantly, G-Rg1 suppressed LPS-mediated induction of proapoptotic Bax, activated Akt, induced GSK-3ß phosphorylation, and balanced mitochondrial calcium levels. Overall, G-Rg1 activates the Akt/GSK-3ß pathway through P2X7 receptors to inhibit sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction and mitochondrial dysfunction.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890842

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pyroptosis, gasdermin-mediated programmed cell death, is readily induced in macrophages by activation of the canonical inflammasome (caspase-1), or by intracellular lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated non-canonical inflammasome (caspase-11) activation. However, whether pyroptosis is induced similarly in hepatocytes is still largely controversial but highly relevant to liver pathologies such as alcoholic/non-alcoholic liver disease, drug-induced liver injury, ischemia-reperfusion and liver transplant injury, or organ damage secondary to sepsis. APPROACH AND RESULTS: In this study, we find that hepatocytes activate and cleave gasdermin-D (GSDMD) at low levels after treatment with LPS. Overexpression of caspase-1 or caspase-11 p10/p20 activated domains was able to induce typical GSDMD-dependent pyroptosis in hepatocytes both in vitro and in vivo. However, morphological features of pyroptosis in macrophages (e.g. pyroptotic bodies, cell flattening, loss of cell structure) did not occur in pyroptotic hepatocytes, with cell structure remaining relatively intact despite the cell membrane being breached. Our results suggest that hepatocytes activate pyroptosis pathways and cleave GSDMD, but this does not result in cell rupture and confer the same pyroptotic morphologic changes as previously reported in macrophages. This is even with caspase-1 or caspase-11 artificial overexpression way above levels seen endogenously even after priming or in pathological conditions. CONCLUSION: Our novel findings characterize hepatocyte morphology in pyroptosis, and suggest alternative use for canonical/non-canonical inflammasome activation/signaling, and subsequent GSDMD cleavage, as there is no rapid cell death as in macrophages. Improved understanding and recognition of the role of these pathways in hepatocytes may result in novel therapeutics for a range of liver diseases.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34964467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our study documented communication workflows across adult day care centers (ADCs) and primary care providers (PCPs) around complex needs of persons living with dementia (PLWD). We also identified barriers and facilitators to productive communication in clinical decision support and clinical information systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted 6 focus groups with ADC staff (N = 33) and individual semistructured interviews with PCPs (N = 22) in California. The eHealth Enhanced Chronic Care Model was used to frame the directed qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Our results captured cumbersome and ineffective workflows currently used to exchange information across PCPs and ADCs. Stakeholders characterized current communication as (1) infrequent, (2) delayed, (3) incomplete, (4) unreliable, (5) irrelevant, and (6) generic. Conversely, communication that was bidirectional, relevant, succinct, and interdisciplinary was needed to elevate the standard of care for PLWD. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: ADCs possess a wealth of information that can support clinical decision-making across community-based providers involved in the care of PLWD, especially PCPs. However, effective information exchange is mired by complicated workflows that rely on antiquated technologies (eg, facsimile) and standard templates. Current information exchange largely focuses on satisfying regulatory guidelines rather than supporting clinical decision-making. Integrating community-based services into the health care continuum is a necessary step in elevating the standard of care for PLWD. In the absence of interoperable electronic health records, which may not be financially viable for ADCs, other options, such as mobile health, should be explored to facilitate productive information exchange of personalized relevant information.

11.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 17: 3683-3691, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934321

RESUMO

Purpose: Theory of mind (ToM) is an important part of social cognitive function and is associated with medial prefrontal cortical (mPFC) activity. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of paliperidone in improving ToM task performance in patients with schizophrenia compared with haloperidol. Patients and Methods: This study was a single-center, single-blinded (assessor), parallel-group randomized clinical trial of patients with schizophrenia randomized to paliperidone or haloperidol. ToM was assessed at weeks 0, 8, 12, and 16 using the first-order belief, higher-order belief, faux-pas, and Reading the Mind in the Eyes tests. The primary outcome was the change in the ToM performance scores from baseline to after 16 weeks of treatment. Results: The participants received paliperidone (n = 29) or haloperidol (n = 31). For the first-order belief task, there were no between-group differences (P > 0.05) but time differences in both groups (P < 0.05). For the higher-order belief task, there were no between-group differences (P > 0.05), but there were time differences in both groups (P < 0.05) and a time×group interaction in the paliperidone group only (P < 0.05). For the faux-pas task, there was a difference between groups at week 16 (P < 0.05), and the improvement in time was significant for the paliperidone group only (P < 0.05). For the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task, there was an improvement over time for the paliperidone group only (P < 0.05). Safety was manageable in both groups. Conclusion: Paliperidone treatment might be more effective than haloperidol in improving ToM task performance in schizophrenia. Trial Registration: chictr.org.cn_identifier ChiCTR-IPR-15007635.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941532

RESUMO

In this article, minimal pinning control for oscillatority (i.e., instability) of Boolean networks (BNs) under algebraic state space representations method is studied. First, two criteria for oscillatority of BNs are obtained from the aspects of state transition matrix (STM) and network structure (NS) of BNs, respectively. A distributed pinning control (DPC) from these two aspects is proposed: one is called STM-based DPC and the other one is called NS-based DPC, both of which are only dependent on local in-neighbors. As for STM-based DPC, one arbitrary node can be chosen to be controlled, based on certain solvability of several equations, meanwhile a hybrid pinning control (HPC) combining DPC and conventional pinning control (CPC) is also proposed. In addition, as for NS-based DPC, pinning control nodes (PCNs) can be found using the information of NS, which efficiently reduces the high computational complexity. The proposed STM-based DPC and NS-based DPC in this article are shown to be simple and concise, which provide a new direction to dramatically reduce control costs and computational complexity. Finally, gene networks are simulated to discuss the effectiveness of theoretical results.

13.
Cancer Manag Res ; 13: 8063-8076, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737635

RESUMO

Purpose: Hexokinase-II (HK-II) is the key enzyme in the first rate-limiting step of glycolysis that catalyzes the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. Here, we examined the association between HK-II expression and radioresistance in laryngeal carcinoma and whether the inhibition of HK-II expression can enhance the radiosensitivity of these tumors. Methods: The effects of HK-II small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the radiosensitivity of Tu212 cells were examined in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model. Cells were irradiated using a 6-MV linear accelerator. The cell viability, cell survival, proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle of Tu212 cells were evaluated using trypan blue staining, colony formation assays, CCK-8 assays, and flow cytometry, respectively. Oxygen consumption, lactic acid production, glucose consumption, and the ATP level of Tu212 cells were also examined. The expression of glycolytic and regulatory enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle was assessed using Western blotting. Results: The HK-II siRNA and X-ray combination treatment led to a significantly greater reduction of cell viability, inhibition of cell survival and proliferation, increased apoptosis, and increased G2 phase arrest compared to either treatment alone (all, P<0.01). HK-II siRNA increased the oxygen consumption rate of cells, significantly inhibited lactic acid production and glucose consumption, and significantly suppressed the upregulation of HK-II, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), phosphofructokinase platelet (PFKP), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), and citrate synthase (CS) (all, P<0.01). Conclusion: The inhibition of HK-II by siRNA enhances the radiosensitivity of laryngeal carcinoma Tu212 cells by inhibiting glycolysis and partially inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation.

14.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 4824613, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34804142

RESUMO

In this paper, we propose a novel method, an adaptive localizing region-based level set using convolutional neural network, for improving performance of maxillary sinus segmentation. The healthy sinus without lesion inside is easy for conventional algorithms. However, in practice, most of the cases are filled with lesions of great heterogeneity which lead to lower accuracy. Therefore, we provide a strategy to avoid active contour from being trapped into a nontarget area. First, features of lesion and maxillary sinus are studied using a convolutional neural network (CNN) with two convolutional and three fully connected layers in architecture. In addition, outputs of CNN are devised to evaluate possibilities of zero level set location close to lesion or not. Finally, the method estimates stable points on the contour by an interactive process. If it locates in the lesion, the point needs to be paid a certain speed compensation based on the value of possibility via CNN, assisting itself to escape from the local minima. If not, the point preserves current status till convergence. Capabilities of our method have been demonstrated on a dataset of 200 CT images with possible lesions. To illustrate the strength of our method, we evaluated it against state-of-the-art methods, FLS and CRF-FCN. For all cases, our method, as assessed by Dice similarity coefficients, performed significantly better compared with currently available methods and obtained a significant Dice improvement, 0.25 than FLS and 0.12 than CRF-FCN, respectively, on an average.


Assuntos
Seio Maxilar , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Seio Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagem
15.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPI) were implemented worldwide, which impacted a broad spectrum of acute respiratory infections (ARI). METHODS: Etiologically diagnostic data from 142 559 cases with ARIs, who were tested for eight viral pathogens (influenza virus, IFV; respiratory syncytial virus, RSV; human parainfluenza virus, HPIV; human adenovirus; human metapneumovirus; human coronavirus, HCoV; human bocavirus, HBoV, and human rhinovirus, HRV) between 2012 and 2021, were analyzed to assess the changes of respiratory infections in China during the first COVID-19 pandemic year compared to pre-pandemic years. RESULTS: Test positive rates of all respiratory viruses decreased during 2020, compared to the average levels during 2012-2019, with changes ranging from -17·2% for RSV to -87·6% for IFV. Sharp decreases mostly occurred between February and August when massive NPIs remained active, although HRV rebounded to the historical level during the summer. While IFV and HMPV were consistently suppressed year round, RSV, HPIV, HCoV, HRV HBov resurged and went beyond historical levels during September, 2020-January, 2021, after NPIs were largely relaxed and schools reopened. Resurgence was more prominent among children younger than 18 years and in Northern China. These observations remain valid after accounting for seasonality and long-term trend of each virus. CONCLUSIONS: Activities of respiratory viral infections were reduced substantially in the early phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, and massive NPIs were likely the main driver. Lifting of NPIs can lead to resurgence of viral infections, particularly in children.

16.
Cell Res ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34799726

RESUMO

The plant aluminum (Al)-activated malate transporter ALMT1 mediates the efflux of malate to chelate the Al in acidic soils and underlies the plant Al resistance. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of Arabidopsis thaliana ALMT1 (AtALMT1) in the apo, malate-bound, and Al-bound states at neutral and/or acidic pH at up to 3.0 Å resolution. The AtALMT1 dimer assembles an anion channel and each subunit contains six transmembrane helices (TMs) and six cytosolic α-helices. Two pairs of Arg residues are located in the center of the channel pore and contribute to malate recognition. Al binds at the extracellular side of AtALMT1 and induces conformational changes of the TM1-2 loop and the TM5-6 loop, resulting in the opening of the extracellular gate. These structures, along with electrophysiological measurements, molecular dynamic simulations, and mutagenesis study in Arabidopsis, elucidate the structural basis for Al-activated malate transport by ALMT1.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6923, 2021 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836947

RESUMO

Nationwide nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have been effective at mitigating the spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), but their broad impact on other diseases remains under-investigated. Here we report an ecological analysis comparing the incidence of 31 major notifiable infectious diseases in China in 2020 to the average level during 2014-2019, controlling for temporal phases defined by NPI intensity levels. Respiratory diseases and gastrointestinal or enteroviral diseases declined more than sexually transmitted or bloodborne diseases and vector-borne or zoonotic diseases. Early pandemic phases with more stringent NPIs were associated with greater reductions in disease incidence. Non-respiratory diseases, such as hand, foot and mouth disease, rebounded substantially towards the end of the year 2020 as the NPIs were relaxed. Statistical modeling analyses confirm that strong NPIs were associated with a broad mitigation effect on communicable diseases, but resurgence of non-respiratory diseases should be expected when the NPIs, especially restrictions of human movement and gathering, become less stringent.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(46): 55188-55197, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757713

RESUMO

Rare-earth elements (REEs) in industrial wastewaters have great value for recycling and reuse, but their characteristic of low concentration poses a challenge to an efficient enrichment from wastewaters. In recent years, thiometallates featuring two-dimensional layers have shown great potential in the enrichment of REEs via the ion-exchange process. However, investigations on thiometallates featuring three-dimensional anionic frameworks for the recovery of REEs have not been reported. Herein, K2Sn2S5 (KTS-2), a thiostannate possessing a three-dimensional porous framework, was chosen as an ion-exchange material for capturing REEs from an aqueous solution. Indeed, KTS-2 exhibited excellent ion-exchange performance for all 16 REEs (except Pm). Specifically, KTS-2 displayed a high capture capacity (232.7 ± 7.8 mg/g) and a short equilibrium time (within 10 min) for Yb3+ ions. In addition, KTS-2 had a high distribution coefficient for Yb3+ ions (Kd > 105 mL/g) in the presence of excessive interfering ions. Impressively, KTS-2 could reach removal rates of above 95% for all 16 REEs in a large quantity of wastewater with low initial concentration (∼7 mg/L). Moreover, KTS-2 could be used as an eco-friendly material for ion exchange of REEs, since the released K+ cations would not cause secondary pollution to the water solution.

19.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 26: 970-986, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34760339

RESUMO

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is associated with an accumulation of neurotoxic molecules and increased infiltration of peripheral cells within the brain parenchyma. Accruing evidence suggests that microglia and astrocytes play a crucial role in the recovery of BBB integrity and the corralling of infiltrating cells into clusters after brain damage, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Intriguingly, the results of flow cytometry and immunofluorescence analyses have shown that BBB permeability to peripheral cells is substantially enhanced during normal aging at 12 months in mice. Thus, we used the SMART-seq2 method to perform RNA sequencing of microglia and astrocytes at five time points before and immediately after the BBB permeability change. Our comprehensive analyses revealed that microglia are characterized by marked alterations in the negative regulation of protein phosphorylation and phagocytic vesicles, whereas astrocytes show elevated enzyme or peptidase-inhibitor activity in the recovery of BBB function. Moreover, we identified a cassette of key genes that might ameliorate the insults of pathophysiological events in aging and neurodegenerative disease.

20.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(30): 9276-9284, 2021 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34786414

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ß-ketothiolase deficiency (ß-KTD) is an inherited disease, and insufficient attention has been paid to imageology due to its lower morbidity. Therefore, few lesions outside the basal ganglia have been found before, and the persistent pathological changes have rarely been reported. CASE SUMMARY: A 10-mo-old Chinese female patient with a free previous medical history but with poor physical and athletic development had received the haemophilus influenzae vaccine and then developed a low fever 2 d prior. She was initially diagnosed with severe brain injury, central respiratory failure, metabolic acidosis complicated with respiratory alkalosis, hyper-IgE, etc. With further examination, a definite diagnosis of ß-KTD was made. Symptomatic treatment was adopted. Ten days later, the dyspnea was improved evidently and the ventilator was removed, but there were still obvious abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The lesions mainly invaded the corpus striatum but were not limited to the basal ganglia. Then, the patient's disease improved and discharged approximately 1 mo later, and the abnormal lesions on MRI had partially improved. However, for about 1 year, the residual irreversible lesions were observed on MRI, the mental and physical development of the patient was obviously regressive, and extra rehabilitation training was needed. CONCLUSION: The case highlights the critical importance of one view that the range of lesions in some patients may be more extensive than previously thought in some ß-KTD patients. In addition to biochemical tests, genetic tests and magnetic resonance imaging are not only conducive to quickly diagnosing ß-KTD but also to partially evaluating the short- and long-term outcomes. Moreover, more attention should be paid to the two mutations (c.478C>G; c.951C>T) that may be associated with severe ß-KTD.

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