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1.
J Dairy Sci ; 2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36631318

RESUMO

The effects of ambient temperature (AT) on total evaporative water loss from dairy cows at different relative humidity (RH) and air velocity (AV) levels were studied. Twenty Holstein dairy cows with an average parity of 2.0 ± 0.7 and body weight of 687 ± 46 kg participated in the study. Two climate-controlled respiration chambers were used. The experimental indoor climate was programmed to follow a diurnal pattern with AT at night being 9°C lower than during the day. Night AT was gradually increased from 7 to 21°C and day AT was increased from 16°C to 30°C within an 8-d period, both with an incremental change of 2°C/d. The effect of 3 RH levels with a diurnal pattern were studied as well, with low values during the day and high values during the night: low (day, 30%; night, 50%), medium (day, 45%; night, 70%), and high (day, 60%; night, 90%). The effects of AV were studied during the daytime at 3 levels: no fan (0.1 m/s), fan at medium speed (1.0 m/s), and fan at high speed (1.5 m/s). The medium and high AV levels were only combined with medium RH. In total, there were 5 treatments with 4 replicates each. The animals had free access to feed and water. Based on the water balance principle inside the respiration chambers, the total evaporative water loss from dairy cows at a daily level was quantified by measuring the mass of water in the incoming and outgoing air, condensed water, added water from a humidifier, and evaporative water from a wet floor, drinking bowl, manure reservoir, and water bucket. Water evaporation from a sample skin area was measured with a ventilated skin box, and water evaporation, through respiration with a face mask. The results show that RH/AV levels had no significant effect on total evaporative water loss, whereas the interaction effect between RH/AV with AT was significant. Cows at a high RH had a tendency for a lower increasing rate of evaporative water loss compared with cows at a low RH (0.61 vs. 0.79 kg/d per 1°C increase of AT). Cows at medium and high AV levels had a greater increasing rate than cows at low AV (0.91 and 0.95 vs. 0.71 kg/d per 1°C increase of AT, respectively). The increase of evaporative heat loss from dairy cows was mainly a result of the increase in evaporation (of sweat) from the skin. The skin water evaporation determined with the water balance method (less evaporation from respiration) and the ventilated skin box method showed no significant difference. The implication of this study is that cows at a high AT depend mainly on evaporative cooling from the skin. The ventilated skin box method, measuring only a small part of the skin during a short period during the day, can be a convenient and accurate way to determine the total cutaneous evaporative water loss from cows.

2.
Public Health ; 215: 66-74, 2023 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate existing evidence of prospective cohort studies on associations between insomnia and multiple health outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: An umbrella review of meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies. METHODS: A systematic search was undertaken in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science from inception to October 2021 to find meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies investigating the association of insomnia with any health outcome. The summary relative risk (SRR) for each meta-analysis was recalculated with random-effects model. The methodological quality and the quality of evidence were assessed by the A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 25 published meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies, reporting 63 SRRs for 29 unique outcomes were included. Insomnia was mainly related to cardiovascular outcomes and mental disorders. The former comprised atrial fibrillation (SRR: 1.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.26 to 1.35), cardiovascular diseases (1.45, 1.29 to 1.64), coronary heart disease (1.28, 1.10 to 1.50), myocardial infarction (1.42, 1.17 to 1.72), and stroke (1.55, 1.39 to 1.72). The latter involved alcohol abuse (1.35, 1.08 to 1.67), all mental disorders (2.16, 1.70 to 3.97), anxiety (3.23, 1.52 to 6.85), depression (2.31, 1.90 to 2.81), suicidal ideation (2.26, 1.79 to 2.86), suicidal attempt (1.99, 1.31 to 3.02), and suicidal death (1.72, 1.42 to 2.08). Besides, insomnia enhanced the risk of Alzheimer's disease (1.51, 1.06 to 2.14) and hyperlipidemia (1.64, 1.53 to 1.76). CONCLUSION: Insomnia exhibits considerable adverse outcomes, primarily comprises cardiovascular outcomes and mental disorders, but further studies with robustly designed trials are needed to draw firmer conclusions.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247181, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339388

RESUMO

Abstract The protozoans include many intracellular human pathogens. Accurate detection of these pathogens is necessary to treat the diseases. In clinical epidemiology, molecular identification of protozoan is considered a more reliable and rapid method for identification than microscopy. Among these protozoans, Cryptosporidium considered being one of the important water-borne zoonotic pathogens and a major cause of a diarrheal disease named cryptosporidiosis in humans, domestic animals, and wild animals. This study was aimed to identify Cryptosporidium in zoo felids (N= 56) belonging to different zoo of China, but accidentlly Colpodella was encountered in the zoo felids sample and phylogenetic data confirmed this unexpected amplification from fecal samples using two-step nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the fact about the specific primers used previously by many researchers and cross-genera amplification. We came to know that genetically sequenced amplicon gives more accurate identification of species. This study suggests more investigation on Colpodella which has been neglected previously but gains the attention of researchers after identified from humans and animals and has been known to correlate with neurological symptoms in patients.


Resumo Os protozoários incluem muitos patógenos humanos intracelulares. A detecção acurada desses patógenos é necessária para tratar as doenças. Na epidemiologia clínica, a identificação molecular de protozoários é considerada o método de identificação mais confiável e rápido do que a microscopia. Entre esses protozoários, o Cryptosporidium é considerado um dos importantes patógenos zoonóticos transmitidos pela água e uma das principais causas de uma doença diarreica denominada criptosporidiose em humanos, animais domésticos e selvagens. Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar Cryptosporidium em zoofelídeos (N = 56) pertencentes a diferentes zoológicos da China, mas acidentalmente Colpodella foi encontrada na amostra de zoofelídeos e os dados filogenéticos confirmaram essa amplificação inesperada de amostras fecais usando nested-PCR em duas etapas. A análise filogenética revelou o fato sobre os primers específicos usados ​​anteriormente por muitos pesquisadores e a amplificação entre gêneros. Ficamos sabendo que o amplicon sequenciado geneticamente fornece uma identificação mais acurada das espécies. Este estudo sugere mais investigação sobre Colpodella, que foi negligenciada anteriormente, mas ganha a atenção dos pesquisadores depois de identificada em humanos e animais e é conhecida por se correlacionar com sintomas neurológicos em pacientes.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Filogenia , China , Fezes , Genótipo
4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(12): 1939-1944, 2022 Dec 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36572467

RESUMO

Objective: To explore sex and rural-urban differences in the associations of different blood pressure levels with the risk of prediabetes. Methods: We used a multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method to investigate 21 637 residents aged ≥18 years from 10 survey areas in Hubei province in 2020. The data on questionnaire, physical measurements, and laboratory indicators of the participants were collected. The associations of different blood pressure levels with risk of prediabetes by sex and regions were analyzed using multivariate logistic regressions after complex weighting. Results: A total of 16 111 subjects were included. The prevalence (95%CI) of prediabetes, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and IFG complicated with IGT were 25.1% (14.4%-35.9%), 12.7% (3.2%-22.1%), 8.1% (6.3%-9.8%), and 4.4% (2.3%-6.5%), respectively. After multivariate adjustment, the risk of prediabetes, IFG, IGT, and IFG complicated with IGT increased with the increment of blood pressure (both P for trend <0.05). The positive dose-response relationships between blood pressure levels and risk of prediabetes were also significant among male, urban, and rural residents (both P for trend <0.05), and the interactions between sex and blood pressure showed significant associations for risk of prediabetes and IGT (both P for interaction <0.05). Conclusions: Higher blood pressure levels were associated with an increased risk of prediabetes. The association with prediabetes was stronger in males, but no significant difference was found between urban and rural residents. More distinctive and effective prevention and control strategies should be developed for different populations.


Assuntos
Intolerância à Glucose , Estado Pré-Diabético , Masculino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Glicemia , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Jejum
5.
Public Health ; 213: 78-84, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395683

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the impact of deviant peer affiliation on migrant children's school adaptation in China and explore the mediating role of mental health in the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and school adaptation among migrant children. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study based on secondary data. METHODS: This study was based on the nationally representative China Education Panel Survey. Multiple linear regression models were used to quantify the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and school adaptation among 1,012 migrant children aged 12-17 years. Bootstrap test was used to evaluate the mediating effect of children's mental health. RESULTS: Deviant peer affiliation showed a significant negative impact on the school adaptation of migrant children (ß = -0.41, 95% confidence interval = -0.56 to -0.26). The relationship between deviant peer affiliation and school adaptation was partially mediated by children's mental health, resulting in an indirect effect of deviant peer affiliation on their school adaptation through their mental health (ß = -0.05, 95% confidence interval = -0.09 to -0.03). The mediating role of mental health could explain 11.4% of the relationship between deviant peer affiliation and school adaptation. CONCLUSIONS: Among migrant children, deviant peer affiliation showed unique effects on their school adaptation. Taking care of their mental health might help improve their school adaptation.

6.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 58(11): 882-889, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348524

RESUMO

Objective: To report the incidence and time distribution of early transient intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation after penetrating canaloplasty. Methods: Retrospective case series study. Data of patients treated by penetrating canaloplasty for glaucoma in the Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from June 2015 to March 2020 were collected. Early transient IOP elevation was defined as an increase of IOP to over 21 mmHg on the first week to the third month after surgery followed by a decrease to 21 mmHg or less within 3 months. Main outcome measures included IOP, quantity of medication use, the occurrence time and duration of IOP elevation. Generalized estimating equations were used for statistical analysis, and measurement data with non-normal distribution was represented as M (Q1, Q3). Results: A total of 277 patients (315 eyes) achieved 360-degree catheterization of the canal successfully, and 299 eyes (94.9%) completed the postoperative 6-month follow-up. Thirty-four eyes (10.8%) had persistently high IOP, so the surgical treatment failed in them. Consequently, 234 patients (265 eyes) were enrolled in the analyses, including 161 males (184 eyes) and 73 females (81 eyes). The median age was 42 (26, 54) years, the mean preoperative IOP was (37.7±11.1) mmHg, and the mean number of drugs used was 3 (2, 4). The incidence of early transient IOP elevation was 43.0% (114/265) in all enrolled eyes, 42.7% (35/82) in eyes with primary open angle glaucoma, 37.8% (17/45) in eyes with primary angle closure glaucoma, 27.7% (13/47) in eyes with congenital glaucoma and 53.8% (49/91) in eyes with secondary glaucoma. The IOP began to increase on the first to fourth week in 91.2% (104/114) of eyes with early transient IOP elevation and reached the peak [21.3 mmHg to 54.8 mmHg; mean, (32.4±8.2) mmHg] in 88.6% (101/114) on the first to fifth week after surgery. The IOP elevation lasted for no more than 4 weeks in 69.3% (79/114) of eyes. Conclusions: Over 40.0% of patients with penetrating canaloplasty may experience postoperative transient IOP elevation. The incidence is relatively high in secondary glaucoma but low in congenital glaucoma. Most of the elevations and peak IOP occur within 1-4 weeks after surgery.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Glaucoma , Masculino , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto , Pressão Intraocular , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Incidência , Glaucoma/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 42(8): 1237-1243, 2022 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) exposure on anxiety-like behaviors and learning and memory ability in mice and explore the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Forty male ICR mice were randomized equally into control group (0 mg/kg) and 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg DEHP exposure groups, in which the mice were exposed to DEHP at the indicated doses by gavage for 4 weeks. After the treatments, the mice were assessed for behavioral changes using open filed test, elevated plus-maze and Morris water maze test. Brain tissues were collected from the mice for determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) content, pathologies and expressions of ZO-1 and occludin in the hippocampus. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the mice with DEHP exposure for 4 weeks exhibited no significant body weight change (P>0.05) but presented with obvious behavioral changes, manifested by reduced movement distance (P < 0.05) and time spent in the center of the open field (P < 0.05), reduced movement distance (P < 0.05) and time spent in the open arm of the elevated maze (P < 0.05), significantly increased latency of searching for the platform (P < 0.05), and decreased frequency of crossing the platform (P < 0.05). HE staining showed obvious vertebral cell death in the hippocampal CA1 to CA3 regions of the mice with DEHP exposure. The exposed mice showed significantly increased MDA content and decreased expressions of ZO-1 and occludin at both the mRNA and protein levels in the hippocampus (P < 0.05 or 0.01). Multivariate linear regression analysis suggested a close correlation between anxiety-like behaviors and learning and memory abilities in DEHP-exposed mice. CONCLUSION: DEHP exposure may cause damages of the blood-brain barrier and the pyramidal cells in the hippocampus of mice, thereby inducing anxiety-like behaviors and learning and memory impairment.


Assuntos
Dietilexilftalato , Animais , Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Dietilexilftalato/metabolismo , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Ocludina/metabolismo , Ocludina/farmacologia
8.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058663

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the prognosis and risk factors of lung metastasis of patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma(ACC) of head and neck. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted. The data of 157 patients with ACC of head and neck treated in Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University from January 2014 to October 2020 were collected, including 72 males and 85 females, with onset age between 14 and 72 years old. According to whether lung metastasis occurred, the patients were divided into lung metastasis group (88 cases) and non-pulmonary metastasis group (69 cases). Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the overall survival rate and progression-free survival rate using SPSS 26.0 software. Log-rank test was used to evaluate statistically relevant clinicopathological factors. Cox proportional risk model was used in multivariate analysis for the factors affecting the lung metastasis-free survival using R Studio 1.2.5042. Results: The 3-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 91.5% and 85.2%, respectively. The 3-year and 5-year progression-free survival rates were 57.7% and 34.3%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that primary site, histological grade, high-grade transformation, Ki-67, T stage, and lymph node status were the risk factors for lung metastasis (χ2=11.78, 10.41, 4.06, 4.71, 5.37, 16.20, respectively, all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed independent risk factors for lung metastasis, including submandibular gland and sublingual gland (HR=3.53, 95%CI: 1.19-10.46, P<0.05), T3-4 stage (HR=3.09, 95%CI: 1.54-6.23, P<0.05), and Grade Ⅱ-Ⅲ grade (HR=2.47, 95%CI: 1.26-4.86,P<0.05). Conclusion: Distant metastasis, mainly pulmonary metastasis, affects the long-term prognosis of patients with ACC significantly. Primary site, T stage and histopathological grade can be used as the predictors for the risk of lung metastasis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Adenoide Cístico , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
10.
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi ; 60(8): 774-780, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922187

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the incidence and trend of short-term outcomes among preterm infants born <34 weeks' gestation. Methods: A secondary analysis of data from the standardized database established by a multicenter cluster-randomized controlled study "reduction of infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) using the evidence-based practice for improving quality (REIN-EPIQ) study". This study was conducted in 25 tertiary NICU. A total of 27 192 infants with gestational age <34 weeks at birth and admitted to NICU within the first 7 days of life from May 2015 to April 2018 were enrolled. Infants with severe congenital malformation were excluded. Descriptive analyses were used to describe the mortality and major morbidities of preterm infants by gestational age groups and different admission year groups. Cochran-Armitage test and Jonckheere-Terpstra test were used to analyze the trend of incidences of mortality and morbidities in 3 study-years. Multiple Logistic regression model was constructed to analyze the differences of outcomes in 3 study-years adjusting for confounders. Results: A total of 27 192 preterm infants were enrolled with gestational age of (31.3±2.0) weeks at birth and weight of (1 617±415) g at birth. Overall, 9.5% (2 594/27 192) of infants were discharged against medical advice, and the overall mortality rate was 10.7% (2 907/27 192). Mortality for infants who received complete care was 4.7% (1 147/24 598), and mortality or any major morbidity was 26.2% (6 452/24 598). The incidences of moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis, severe intraventricular hemorrhage or periventricular leukomalacia, proven necrotizing enterocolitis, and severe retinopathy of prematurity were 16.0% (4 342/27 192), 11.9% (3 225/27 192), 6.8% (1 641/24 206), 3.6% (939/25 762) and 1.5% (214/13 868), respectively. There was a decreasing of the overall mortality (P<0.001) during the 3 years. Also, the incidences for sepsis and severe retinopathy of prematurity both decreased (both P<0.001). However, there were no significant differences in the major morbidity in preterm infants who received complete care during the 3-year study period (P=0.230). After adjusting for confounders, infants admitted during the third study year showed significantly lower risk of overall mortality (adjust OR=0.62, 95%CI 0.55-0.69, P<0.001), mortality or major morbidity, moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, sepsis and severe retinopathy of prematurity, compared to those admitted in the first study year (all P<0.05). Conclusions: From 2015 to 2018, the mortality and major morbidities among preterm infants in Chinese NICU decreased, but there is still space for further efforts. Further targeted quality improvement is needed to improve the overall outcome of preterm infants.


Assuntos
Idade Gestacional , Doenças do Prematuro , Alta do Paciente , Displasia Broncopulmonar/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Doenças do Prematuro/epidemiologia , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/epidemiologia , Sepse/epidemiologia
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(7): 1147-1153, 2022 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35856213

RESUMO

Regional longevity refers to a phenomenon of population age distribution in which longevity level in a certain area is significantly higher than the surrounding area at a certain point or period of time, and its longevity level is among the best in the whole country. In recent years, experts and scholars both at home and abroad have carried out multi studies of the influencing factors of individual longevity, but there are still relatively less studies to evaluate regional longevity level. This paper introduces the domestic and foreign evaluation research of regional longevity in terms of evaluation indicators and results, research scales and data sources, and proposes some advice for the future development. First, making full use of population death surveillance data to evaluate regional longevity level. Second, adopting multi-dimensional composite indexes to comprehensively, dynamically evaluate and accurately depict the regional longevity levels and its spatio-temporal change trend. Third, transforming regional longevity level evaluation to regional health and longevity level evaluation to promote healthy population aging.


Assuntos
Longevidade , Humanos
12.
J Nutr Health Aging ; 26(6): 628-636, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35718873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively evaluate the association between BMI and death risk in people aged 65 years and over in Shenzhen, China, and suggest the optimal range of body mass index (BMI) for the older adults. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: A population-based study of elderly adults in Shenzhen, China. PARTICIPANTS: 359044 Shenzhen Healthy Ageing Research participants aged 65 and over with 4682 deaths during a mean of 1.5 years of follow-up were included in this analysis. MEASURES: Hazard ratio of all-cause and cause specific mortality risks associated with BMI categories. The association between BMI and all-cause and cause specific mortality were independently estimated by Cox regression model. RESULTS: Regardless of gender, BMI of 24 -29.9 kg/m2 was a protective factor for death in all ages, while BMI above 30 kg/m2 was still a protective factor for older adults under 70 years old. Regardless of age, BMI at 24-25.9 kg/m2 was associated with lower mortality in men, while BMI at 26-27.9 kg/m2 was associated with lower mortality in women. For the older adults without chronic diseases, BMI at 24-25.9 kg/m2 was also significantly associated with lower mortality. In the analysis of BMI and cause of death, we also found that BMI of 24-25.9 kg/m2 was significantly associated with the lower mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic respiratory disease and digestive system disease in China. CONCLUSION: BMI in the range of 24-25.9 kg/m2 may be protective for mortality in Chinese older adults. Additional more large-scale, multicenter and long-term follow-up studies are needed to confirm these findings in different populations.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 35(4): 370-377, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35652306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical outcome of patients with infective endocarditis (IE) during and after outpatient parenteral antimicrobial treatment (OPAT), and to further clarify the safety and efficacy of OPAT for IE patients. METHODS: Through December 20, 2021, a total of 331 articles were preliminarily searched in Pubmed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Embase, and 9 articles were eventually included in this study. RESULTS: A total of 9 articles comprising 1,116 patients were included in this study. The overall mortality rate of patients treated with OPAT was 0.04 (95% CI, 0.02-0.07), that means 4 deaths per 100 patients treated with OPAT. Separately, mortality was low during the follow-up period after OPAT treatment, with an effect size (ES) of 0.03 (95%CI, 0.02-0.07) and the mortality of patients during OPAT treatment was 0.04 (95% CI, 0.01-0.12). In addition, the readmission rate was found to be 0.14 (95% CI, 0.09-0.22) during the follow-up and 0.18 (95% CI, 0.08-0.39) during treatment, and 0.16 (95% CI, 0.10-0.24) for patients treated with OPAT in general. Regarding the relapse of IE in patients, our results showed a low overall relapse rate, with an ES of 0.03 (95% CI, 0.01-0.05). In addition, we found that the incidence of adverse events was low, with an ES of 0.26 (95% CI, 0.19-0.33). CONCLUSIONS: In general, the incidence of adverse events and mortality, readmission, and relapse rates in IE patients treated with OPAT are low both during treatment and follow-up period after discharge, indicating that OPAT is safe and effective for IE patients. However, our study did not compare routine hospitalization as a control group, so conclusions should be drawn with caution. In order to obtain more scientific and rigorous conclusions and reduce clinical risks, it is still necessary to conduct more research in this field and improve the patient selection criteria for OPAT treatment, especially for IE patients. Finally, clinical monitoring and follow-up of OPAT-treated patients should be strengthened.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Endocardite Bacteriana , Endocardite , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Endocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Endocardite Bacteriana/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Infusões Parenterais/métodos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos
14.
J Dairy Sci ; 105(8): 7061-7078, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35688732

RESUMO

The focus of this study was to identify the effects of increasing ambient temperature (T) at different relative humidity (RH) and air velocity (AV) levels on heat loss from the skin surface and through respiration of dairy cows. Twenty Holstein dairy cows with an average parity of 2.0 ± 0.7 and body weight of 687 ± 46 kg participated in the study. Two climate-controlled respiration chambers were used. The experimental indoor climate was programmed to follow a diurnal pattern with ambient T at night being 9°C lower than during the day. Night ambient T was gradually increased from 7 to 21°C and day ambient T was increased from 16 to 30°C within an 8-d period, both with an incremental change of 2°C per day. A diurnal pattern for RH was created as well, with low values during the day and high values during the night (low: RH_l = 30-50%; medium: RH_m = 45-70%; and high: RH_h = 60-90%). The effects of AV were studied during daytime at 3 levels (no fan: AV_l = 0.1 m/s; fan at medium speed: AV_m = 1.0 m/s; and fan at high speed: AV_h = 1.5 m/s). The AV_m and AV_h were combined only with RH_m. In total, there were 5 treatments with 4 replicates (cows) for each. Effects of short and long exposure time to warm condition were evaluated by collecting data 2 times a day, in the morning (short: 1-h exposure time) and afternoon (long: 8-h exposure time). The cows were allowed to adapt to the experimental conditions during 3 d before the main 8-d experimental period. The cows had free access to feed and water. Sensible heat loss (SHL) and latent heat loss (LHL) from the skin surface were measured using a ventilated skin box placed on the belly of the cow. These heat losses from respiration were measured with a face mask covering the cow's nose and mouth. The results showed that skin SHL decreased with increasing ambient T and the decreasing rate was not affected by RH or AV. The average skin SHL, however, was higher under medium and high AV levels, whereas it was similar under different RH levels. The skin LHL increased with increasing ambient T. There was no effect of RH on the increasing rate of LHL with ambient T. A larger increasing rate of skin LHL with ambient T was observed at high AV level compared with the other levels. Both RH and AV had no significant effects on respiration SHL or LHL. The cows lost more skin sensible heat and total respiration heat under long exposure than short exposure. When ambient T was below 20°C the total LHL (skin + respiration) represented approx. 50% of total heat loss, whereas above 28°C the LHL accounted for more than 70% of the total heat loss. Respiration heat loss increased by 34 and 24% under short and long exposures when ambient T rose from 16 to 32°C.


Assuntos
Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Alta , Animais , Temperatura Corporal , Bovinos , Feminino , Umidade , Lactação , Gravidez , Respiração , Temperatura
15.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 44(6): 587-592, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35754235

RESUMO

Single-arm trial refers to a clinical trial design that does not set up parallel control group, adopts open design, and does not involve randomization and blind method. These features, on the one hand, speed up the process of clinical trials, significantly shorten the time to market and meet the needs of patients with advanced malignancies, but also lead to the uncertainty of single-arm clinical trials themselves. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration held a meeting of the oncologic drug advisory committee to discuss six tumor indications that have been accelerated approved, which once again triggered the discussion of single-arm trials. The basis of accelerated approval by single-arm trial is actually a compromise on the level of evidence-based medical evidence requirements after assessing the benefit risk. Therefore, the sponsor should strictly grasp the applicable conditions of single-arm trial in anti-tumor drugs and conduct single-arm trial scientifically. Post-marketing clinical trial should be implement as early as possible to ensure the benefit of patients. Based on the characteristics of single-arm trial, combined with two guidance relevant to single-arm trial issued by National Medical Products Administration recently, this article is supposed to propose and summarize the strategy of single-arm trial supporting the marketing of anti-tumor drugs.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Humanos , Marketing , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
16.
J Prev Alzheimers Dis ; 9(2): 306-314, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Updated information on the burden of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia are of great importance for evidence-based health care planning. However, such an estimate has been lacking in Chinese populations at both national and provincial levels. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the temporal trends and the attributable burdens of selected risk factors of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia in China. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This is an observational description of the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2019 (GBD 2019). Data on incidence, mortality, prevalence, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and years of life lost (YLLs) of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia were derived from the GBD 2019 study at both national and provincial levels in China. MEASUREMENTS: Six indicators were used: incidence, mortality, prevalence, DALYs, YLLs, and YLDs. Absolute numbers in detail by age, sex, region, and age-standardized rates (with 95% uncertainty intervals) were calculated. RESULTS: There were notable increasing trends in the number of deaths (247·9%), incidence (264·8%), prevalence (296·5%), DALYs (228·1%), YLDs (308·7%) and YLLs (201·7%) from 1990 to 2019, respectively. The corresponding age-standardized rates increased by 6·2%, 19·3%, 33·6%, 10·7%, 33·4% and 3·1%. Smoking, high body mass index, high fasting plasma glucose levels, and metabolic risks were the four leading risk factors. Higher burden was observed among females versus males and in the more developed regions. CONCLUSIONS: The disease burden in China were increasing substantially. Regional differences of the disease burden are accompanied by discrepancies of economic level and geographical location, as well as different levels of exposure to risk factors. Targeted prevention and control strategies are urgently needed to reduce the disease burden.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco
17.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 50(4): 361-368, 2022 Apr 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35399032

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the representability and etiological diagnostic value of myocardium samples obtained from patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by transthoracic echocardiography-guided percutaneous intramyocardial septal biopsy (myocardial biopsy of Liwen procedure). Methods: This study was a retrospective case-series analysis. Patients with HCM, who underwent myocardial biopsy of Liwen procedure and radiofrequency ablation in Xijing Hospital, Air Force Military Medical University from July to December 2019, were included. Demographic data (age, sex), echocardiographic data and complications were collected through electronic medical record system. The histological and echocardiographic features, pathological characteristics of the biopsied myocardium of the patients were analyzed. Results: A total of 21 patients (aged (51.2±14.5) years and 13 males (61.9%)) were enrolled. The thickness of ventricular septum was (23.3±4.5)mm and the left ventricular outflow tract gradient was (78.8±42.6)mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa). Eight patients (38.1%) were complicated with hypertension, 1 patient (4.8%) had diabetes, and 2 patients (9.5%) had atrial fibrillation. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of myocardial samples of HCM patients before radiofrequency ablation evidenced myocytes hypertrophy, myocytes disarray, nuclear hyperchromatism, hypertrophy, atypia, coronary microvessel abnormalities, adipocyte infiltration, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytoplasmic vacuoles, lipofuscin deposition. Interstitial fibrosis and replacement fibrosis were detected in Masson stained biopsy samples. Hematoxylin-eosin staining of myocardial samples of HCM patients after radiofrequency ablation showed significantly reduced myocytes, cracked nuclear in myocytes, coagulative necrosis, border disappearance and nuclear fragmentation. Quantitative analysis of myocardial specimens of HCM patients before radiofrequency ablation showed that there were 9 cases (42.9%) with mild myocardial hypertrophy and 12 cases (57.1%) with severe myocardial hypertrophy. Mild, moderate and severe fibrosis were 5 (23.8%), 9 (42.9%) and 7 (33.3%), respectively. Six cases (28.6%) had myocytes disarray. There were 11 cases (52.4%) of coronary microvessel abnormalities, 4 cases (19.0%) of adipocyte infiltration, 2 cases (9.5%) of inflammatory cell infiltration,6 cases (28.5%) of cytoplasmic vacuole, 16 cases (76.2%) of lipofuscin deposition. The diameter of cardiac myocytes was (25.2±2.8)µm, and the percentage of collagen fiber area was 5.2%(3.0%, 14.6%). One patient had severe replacement fibrosis in the myocardium, with a fibrotic area of 67.0%. The rest of the patients had interstitial fibrosis. The myocardial specimens of 13 patients were examined by transmission electron microscopy. All showed increased myofibrils, and 9 cases had disorder of myofibrils. All patients had irregular shape of myocardial nucleus, partial depression, mild mitochondrial swelling, fracture and reduction of mitochondrial crest, and local aggregation of myofibrillary interfascicles. One patient had hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes, but the arrangement of muscle fibers was roughly normal. There were vacuoles in the cytoplasm, and Periodic acid-Schiff staining was positive. Transmission electron microscopy showed large range of glycogen deposition in the cytoplasm, with occasional double membrane surround, which was highly indicative of glycogen storage disease. No deposition of glycolipid substance in lysozyme was observed under transmission electron microscope in all myocardial specimens, which could basically eliminate Fabry disease. No apple green substance was found under polarized light after Congo red staining, which could basically exclude cardiac amyloidosis. Conclusion: Myocardium biopsied samples obtained by Liwen procedure of HCM patients are representative and helpful for the etiological diagnosis of HCM.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Biópsia/efeitos adversos , Cardiomegalia/complicações , Cardiomegalia/patologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico , Amarelo de Eosina-(YS) , Fibrose , Hematoxilina , Humanos , Lipofuscina , Masculino , Miocárdio/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Malays J Pathol ; 44(1): 101-109, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484892

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Solitary fibrous tumour (SFT) of the sacrum is a very rare disease. So far, there have been few reports on this disease. Here, we reported 2 such cases and reviewed the other 7 reports in the literature. CASE SERIES: Case 1, a 48-year-old man presented with lumbosacral pain for 2 months and numbness in the left plantar region for more than 1 month. The report of CT scan indicated that the sacrum was destroyed and the soft tissue mass projected into the pelvis. Histopathology showed that the cells were fusiform or short fusiform, arranged in strips, sheets, and wavy patterns. Case 2, a 40-year-old woman presented with hip joint pain and lower extremity dyskinesia for more than 2 months. The result of the MRI examination demonstrated a mass on the right sacral foramen and anterior sacrum. The characteristics of histopathology are ovoid or spindle-shaped cells with focal nuclear pleomorphism and prominently branched, hemangiopericytoma-like vascular patterns. In addition, immunohistochemical showed that CD34, Bcl-2, CD99, STAT6 and vimentin were positive, while Desmin, MSA, EMA, S100 were negative in both cases. CONCLUSION: Previous literatures have revealed that SFTs of the sacrum are rare neoplasms. Case 1 and a part of these lesions previously reported seem to be malignant and should be treated with surgery. Radiation or chemotherapy was adopted if necessary. Since SFT of the sacrum is prone to recur and metastasis, long-term follow-up should be considered. To a certain extent, new risk stratification models can predict prognosis more accurately.


Assuntos
Hemangiopericitoma , Tumores Fibrosos Solitários , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pelve/patologia , Prognóstico , Sacro/patologia , Tumores Fibrosos Solitários/diagnóstico
19.
Animal ; 16(4): 100491, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35334393

RESUMO

Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have antimicrobial properties and cause negative or positive effects on animal performance depending on its dosage. We hypothesized that MCFA supplementation at a lower dose (i.e., 0.05-0.2% of dietary DM) would increase rumen pH and milk production without decreasing nutrient digestibility which is typically observed with the higher inclusion rates (i.e., >1% of dietary DM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of MCFA supplementation at a lower dose on productivity, plasma energy metabolite concentrations, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, and rumen microbial profile of lactating dairy cows. Thirty (n = 8 primiparous, n = 22 multiparous) Holstein cows in mid-lactation (637 ± 68.5 kg of initial BW, 98.5 ± 27.4 d in milk; mean ± standard deviation) were used in a crossover design with two 28-d periods. The MCFA supplement, consisted of 25% MCFA (containing 32% C8:0, 21% C10:0, 47% C12:0 on DM basis) and 75% carrier ingredients, was fed at 0.25% of dietary DM replacing dry ground corn in control (CON). Total inclusion of MCFA was 0.063% of dietary DM. No differences were observed in DM intake, apparent total tract nutrient digestibility and BW change between MCFA and CON. Milk and milk component yields did not differ between treatment groups. The MCFA supplementation tended to have higher minimum rumen pH (5.66 vs. 5.54), and decreased daily fluctuation range of rumen pH (1.17 vs. 1.40) compared to CON. However, the duration of acidosis (pH < 5.8, min/d) did not differ between treatment groups and ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration and its profile did not differ between treatment groups. For rumen microbiota, the Chao1 index of bacterial community tended to be lower (10.9 vs. 11.6) whereas the Shannon index did not differ (0.91 vs. 0.93) in MCFA compared to CON, and both indices did not differ for archaeal and protozoan communities between treatment groups. The relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii increased when supplemented with MCFA (5.14 vs. 4.92%). These results suggest that supplementation of MCFA at 0.063% dietary DM may not affect overall animal performance or total tract nutrient digestibility, but decrease the daily range of pH and the bacterial richness in the rumen.


Assuntos
Lactação , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Fermentação , Leite/metabolismo , Rúmen/metabolismo
20.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 75(1): 81-88, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35353911

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common marine foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis. With the long-term use of antibiotics, many bacteria become resistant; therefore, developing antibiotic-free antimicrobial strategies is urgent. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a constituent of polyphenols present abundantly in tea extract, has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and is non-toxic. Here, we take advantage of these properties of EGCG to evaluate its inhibition effect on the growth and biofilm formation of V. parahaemolyticus 17802, and explore its antibacterial mechanism. It was found that EGCG showed antibacterial activity against V. parahaemolyticus 17802, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was estimated to be 128 µg ml-1 . Results of crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) evidenced that EGCG hindered its biofilm formation. Moreover, the swimming motility and extracellular polysaccharides were also notably inhibited. The antibacterial mechanism was further confirmed by several assays, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and live/dead staining assay, together with membrane permeability assay, which all suggested that EGCG caused damage to cell membrane and made it lose integrity, eventually resulting in the death of V. parahaemolyticus 17802. The bactericidal activity of EGCG verified its potential as a promising candidate to combat foodborne pathogen.


Assuntos
Catequina , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Catequina/farmacologia
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