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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285628

RESUMO

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.

2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242818, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378656

RESUMO

The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Animais , Bacteroides , Bacteroidetes , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Disbiose , Humanos , Inflamação , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Prevotella , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Ruminococcus
3.
J Econ Entomol ; 107(2): 623-9, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24772542

RESUMO

The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual Animal , Tephritidae/classificação , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , China , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Controle de Insetos , Quênia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Longevidade , Paquistão , Pupa/classificação , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia , Reprodução , Razão de Masculinidade , Tephritidae/genética , Tephritidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
J Econ Entomol ; 106(2): 695-707, 2013 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23786057

RESUMO

Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock are pest members within the B. dorsalis species complex of tropical fruit flies. The species status of these taxa is unclear and this confounds quarantine, pest management, and general research. Mating studies carried out under uniform experimental conditions are required as part of resolving their species limits. These four taxa were collected from the wild and established as laboratory cultures for which we subsequently determined levels of prezygotic compatibility, assessed by field cage mating trials for all pair-wise combinations. We demonstrate random mating among all pair-wise combinations involving B. dorsalis, B. papayae, and B. philippinensis. B. carambolae was relatively incompatible with each of these species as evidenced by nonrandom mating for all crosses. Reasons for incompatibility involving B. carambolae remain unclear; however, we observed differences in the location of couples in the field cage for some comparisons. Alongside other factors such as pheromone composition or other courtship signals, this may lead to reduced interspecific mating compatibility with B. carambolae. These data add to evidence that B. dorsalis, B. papayae, and B. philippinensis represent the same biological species, while B. carambolae remains sufficiently different to maintain its current taxonomic identity. This poses significant implications for this group's systematics, impacting on pest management, and international trade.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sexual Animal , Tephritidae/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Controle de Insetos , Masculino , Reprodução , Tephritidae/classificação
5.
Br Poult Sci ; 45(3): 395-9, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15327126

RESUMO

1. Rice bran processed by extrusion cooking, roasting or pelleting and treated with antioxidant was used in broiler starter and finisher diets at various concentrations up to 500 g/kg. 2. Extrusion cooking gave the best performance, followed by roasting, while non-significant differences were observed between raw and pelleted bran. 3. Increasing the amount of rice bran in broiler diets resulted in significantly negative effects on growth performance. Non-significant differences were observed in mortality and dressing percentage due to different processes and concentrations of rice bran in the diet. Organ weights were significantly higher on raw and pelleted rice bran as compared to extruded and roasted bran. Liver and heart weights significantly increased with increasing contents of rice bran above 200g/kg, while pancreas weight increased with an addition of rice bran. 4. Treating the rice bran with antioxidant up to 250ppm had non-significant effects on broiler performance.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Oryza , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ingestão de Alimentos , Coração/anatomia & histologia , Temperatura Alta , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Pâncreas/anatomia & histologia , Ganho de Peso
6.
Poult Sci ; 82(9): 1438-43, 2003 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12967258

RESUMO

Nutrient digestibility of broiler feeds containing different levels of variously processed rice bran stored for varying periods was determined. A total of 444 Hubbard male chicks were used to conduct four trials. Each trial was carried out on 111 chicks to determine digestibility of 36 different feeds. Chicks of 5 wk age were fed feeds containing raw, roasted, and extruded rice bran treated with antioxidant, Bianox Dry (0, 125, 250 g/ton), stored for a periods of 0, 4, 8, and 12 mo and used at levels of 0, 10, 20, and 30% in feeds. Digestibility coefficients for fat and fiber of feeds were determined. Increasing storage periods of rice bran significantly reduced the fat digestibility of feed, whereas no difference in fiber digestibility was observed. Processing of rice bran by extrusion cooking significantly increased digestibility of fat even used at higher levels in broiler feeds. Interaction of storage, processing, and levels was significant for fat digestibility. Treatments of rice bran by different levels of antioxidant had no effect on digestibility of fat and fiber when incorporated in broiler feed.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Oryza , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Culinária , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Folia Microbiol (Praha) ; 47(5): 511-5, 2002.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12503396

RESUMO

The influence of some fermentation parameters on the semi-pilot scale (alteration of growth conditions, e.g., sugar concentration, incubation temperature and initial pH) on citrate production was demonstrated in parent and mutant strains of Aspergillus niger. Raw material from sugar industry (cane molasses) was examined as basal fermentation medium in a stirred stainless-steel 15-L fermentor. After growth on medium with 150 g/L sugar, the parent strain produced 51.2 g/L citric acid; the mutant strain achieved production maximum of 96.2 g/L. Comparing the growth, kinetic (volumetric substrate uptake rate, rate of substrate consumption and volumetric productivity rate) and production parameters it was found that the mutant strain grows more rapidly, with slightly changed morphology (intermediate, shiny round pellets with diameter 0.6-0.7 mm), and exhibits a higher citrate production and higher efficiency of sugar utilization.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citratos/metabolismo , Aspergillus niger/genética , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Carboidratos , Meios de Cultura/química , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Melaço , Projetos Piloto , Temperatura
8.
BMJ ; 320(7236): 671-6, 2000 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10710573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the accuracy of a new version of the Sheffield table designed to aid decisions on lipids screening and detect thresholds for risk of coronary heart disease needed to implement current guidelines for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. DESIGN: Comparison of decisions made on the basis of the table with absolute risk of coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease calculated by the Framingham risk function. The decisions related to statin treatment when coronary risk is >/=30% over 10 years; aspirin treatment when the risk is >/=15% over 10 years; and the treatment of mild hypertension when the cardiovascular risk is >/=20% over 10 years. SETTING: The table is designed for use in general practice. SUBJECTS: Random sample of 1000 people aged 35-64 years from the 1995 Scottish health survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the table. RESULTS: 13% of people had a coronary risk of >/=15%, and 2. 2% a risk of >/=30%, over 10 years. 22% had mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure 140-159 mm Hg). The table indicated lipids screening for everyone with a coronary risk of >/=15% over 10 years, for 95% of people with a ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol of >/=8.0, but for <50% with a coronary risk of <5% over 10 years. Sensitivity and specificity were 97% and 95% respectively for a coronary risk of >/=15% over 10 years; 82% and 99% for a coronary risk of >/=30% over 10 years; and 88% and 90% for a cardiovascular risk of >/=20% over 10 years in mild hypertension. CONCLUSION: The table identifies all high risk people for lipids screening, reduces screening of low risk people by more than half, and ensures that treatments are prescribed appropriately to those at high risk, while avoiding inappropriate treatment of people at low risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Intervalos de Confiança , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco/métodos , Escócia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
9.
Br J Neurosurg ; 13(3): 265-9, 1999 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10562836

RESUMO

We present three patients with brain abscesses who also had pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). All patients had hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler's Disease). It is probable that the lung AVMs contributed to the development of the brain abscesses by allowing bacteria easier access to the systemic circulation through a right to left pulmonary vascular shunt, bypassing the filtering action of the pulmonary capillaries. In addition, one patient required a period of postoperative ventilation using PEEP, which may have exacerbated the shunt through the lung AVM and led to difficulty in weaning her from the ventilator.


Assuntos
Malformações Arteriovenosas/complicações , Abscesso Encefálico/etiologia , Telangiectasia Hemorrágica Hereditária/complicações , Adulto , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
J Hypertens Suppl ; 14(5): S187-94, 1996 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9120677

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the findings of prospective controlled trials of antihypertensive treatment and determine whether the evidence they have provided is embodied satisfactorily in current national and international guidelines for hypertension management. MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES: Conventional guidelines all advise prompt treatment of moderate-to-severe hypertension and treatment of even mild hypertension in subjects with cardiovascular disease, target organ damage or diabetes, and in the elderly; and treatment of isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly. All acknowledge that evidence for efficacy and safety of treatment is strongest for thiazide diuretics and beta-blockers. UNCOMPLICATED MILD HYPERTENSION: Conventional guidelines all emphasize the importance of long-term blood pressure, measured over some months, for treatment decisions. However the blood pressure for routine treatment varies from 160/100 mmHg (British Hypertension Society) to 140/90 mmHg (Joint National Committee V). This dictates very large differences in the number of patients to be treated to prevent a cardiovascular disease event and in the proportion of the population to be treated, yet the reasons for these differences are not explicit. None of the conventional guidelines is entirely satisfactory. The more conservative British Hypertension Society policy may leave untreated some middle-aged men who ought to be treated. The more aggressive Joint National Committee V policy will lead to treatment of some young subjects who have only a remote chance of benefit, at very high cost, and possibly with adverse harm-benefit consequences. RISK-BASED GUIDELINES: Guidelines developed in New Zealand target absolute cardiovascular disease risk in mild hypertension and have the potential to correct this shortcoming of conventional guidelines. However they require further consideration as regards the number needed to treat which is acceptable to well-informed patients, the appropriate estimate of relative cardiovascular disease risk reduction by treatment in mild hypertension, the pattern of treatment which will emerge and their acceptability in ordinary practice. CONCLUSION: Comparative evaluation will be needed to determine whether the outcome is better with conventional guidelines, which are simple but at the expense of accuracy, or with risk-targeted guidelines, which are more accurate but at the expense of simplicity.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Pressão Sanguínea , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 91(4): 399-413, 1996 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8983865

RESUMO

1. Recent outcome trials suggest that lipid-lowering with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors is justifiable on risk-benefit grounds in subjects with serum cholesterol > 5.5 mmol/l who have coronary heart disease, other forms of atherosclerotic vascular disease, or who are free of vascular disease but have a risk of major coronary events > or = 1.5% per year. Choice of an appropriate treatment policy will require (i) knowledge of the proportion of the population who will need treatment for secondary prevention, and (ii) targeting of treatment for primary prevention at a specified absolute risk of coronary heart disease events. Selection of an appropriate coronary heart disease risk for primary prevention requires consideration of the number needed to be treated to prevent one coronary heart disease event, the proportion of the population requiring treatment, the cost-effectiveness of treatment and the total cost of treatment. 2. In a random stratified sample of subjects aged 35-69 years from the Health Survey for England 1993 we first examined the prevalence of subjects with cardiovascular disease and serum cholesterol > 5.5 mmol/l who may be candidates for secondary prevention. In those free of cardiovascular disease we then examined the prevalence of subjects with serum cholesterol > 5.5 mmol/l who had three different levels of coronary heart disease risk: coronary heart disease event rates of 4.5% per year, 3.0% per year and 1.5% per year. These subjects may be candidates for primary prevention depending on the treatment policy selected. 3. For secondary prevention, 4.8% (95% confidence interval 4.3-5.3) of the U.K. population aged 35-69 years might be candidates for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor treatment, comprising 2.4% (2.0 to 2.7) with a history of myocardial infarction, 1.9% (1.6 to 2.2) with angina and 0.5% (0.3-0.7) with a history of stroke--all with total cholesterol > 5.5 mmol/l. The prevalence of these diagnoses with total cholesterol > 5.5 mmol/l increased with age, from 1.5% at age 35-39 years to 16.2% at age 65-69 years in men, and from 0.2% at age 35-39 years to 10.0% at age 65-69 years in women. Approximately 13 people would need treatment for 5 years to prevent one coronary event, at a cost of 36,000 pounds per event prevented. The number needing treatment for secondary prevention would increase substantially if treatment was extended to patients above 70 years of age or to those with serum cholesterol < or = 5.5 mmol/l. 4. Primary prevention aimed at a coronary event risk of 4.5% per year would lead to treatment of only 0.3% (0.2-0.4) of those aged 35-69 years, and those treated would be predominantly older men with additional risk factors for coronary heart disease. The number needed to be treated and cost per coronary event prevented would be similar to those for secondary prevention. 5. Primary prevention targeted at subjects with a coronary event rate of 3.0% per year would entail treating 3.4% (3.0-3.9) of all those aged 35-69 years. At this level of risk, 20 people would need treatment for 5 years to prevent one coronary event, at a cost of 55,000 pounds per event prevented. 6. Primary prevention aimed at a coronary event rate of 1.5% per year would entail treating 19.6% (18.7-20.6) of all subjects aged 35-69 years, and about 80% of men aged 60-69 years for primary or secondary prevention. At this level of risk, 40 people would need treatment for 5 years to prevent one event, at a cost of 111,000 pounds per event saved. 7. Guidelines for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor treatment should take into account the considerable workload and financial resources needed to implement secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, the accepted first priority. For primary prevention they need to consider the number needed to be treated to prevent one event, the number of subjects needing treatment, the cost-effectiveness of treatment and


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde/economia , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Colesterol/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Doença das Coronárias/tratamento farmacológico , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Lovastatina/análogos & derivados , Lovastatina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pravastatina/uso terapêutico , Risco , Sinvastatina , Reino Unido
15.
J Trop Med Hyg ; 88(1): 7-15, 1985 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-4020933

RESUMO

A point survey of malaria in Karachi revealed a concentration of malaria cases in the periurban perimeter and marginal areas where immigrating groups, including Afghan refugees and Biharis from Bangladesh are concentrated. Populations of Anopheles stephensi, Karachi's main vector, were low, and were feeding chiefly on buffaloes which are also concentrated along the periurban perimeter. Maintenance of malaria transmission in periurban zones may depend on immigration of susceptibles, bovid hosts which help maintain zoophilic vector populations, and mosquito breeding sites in water tanks or buffalo hoofprints. The vector's switch to man-biting behaviour may occur either due to a 'spillover' effect from buffalo corrals to surrounding houses, or when buffaloes become less available for biting. Four types of chromosome inversions were found in the Karachi An. stephensi; as this species is not a vector in similar habitats in Lahore and Pondicherry where such inversions are not prevalent, it is likely that its status as a vector is related to chromosomal polymorphism influencing behaviour.


Assuntos
Anopheles/genética , Insetos Vetores/genética , Malária/transmissão , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Malária/epidemiologia , Masculino , Paquistão , Polimorfismo Genético , Densidade Demográfica , População Urbana
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