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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253215, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360216

RESUMO

Abstract Frequencies, magnitudes, and distributions of occurrence can affect the events. The problem can be worse or the solution better if greater frequencies and magnitudes are presented with aggregated distribution in the production system. Indices, hence, are used to assist in decision-making on certain issues. The system formed by Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae), a typical and economically important Brazilian Cerrado tree species, and its several arthropods are adequate to evaluate a new index. This study aimed to test an index to identify the loss and solution sources and their importance in the system's loss or income gain. The index is: Percentage of Importance Indice % I . I . = k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 / Σ k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 + k s 2 × c 2 × d s 2 + k s n × c n × d s n x 100. T h e % I . I . separated the loss sources [e.g., Edessa rufomarginata De Geer, 1773 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on fruits = 41.90%)] on the percentage of reduction of fruit production (e.g., 0.13%), calculated the attention level (e.g., 0.10/fruit), with a total lost production of 1.35% (≈ 307 total lost fruits). The % I.I. also separated the solution sources [e.g., Zelus armillatus (Lep. and Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) = 55.48%), the non-attention level (e.g., Z. armillatus: 0.394 for E. rufomarginata on fruit), with total income gain of 0.56% (≈ 128 total saved fruits) on the natural system (e.g., C. brasiliense trees). This index can calculate losses or the effectiveness of the solutions monetarily. Here I test the % I.I., an index that can detect the key loss and solution sources on the system, which can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Resumo Frequências, magnitudes e distribuição de ocorrência pode afetar os eventos. O problema pode ser pior ou a solução melhor se maiores frequências e magnitudes forem apresentadas com distribuição agregada no sistema de produção. Índices, então, são usados para assistir na decisão de certas questões. O sistema formado pelo Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (Malpighiales: Caryocaraceae), uma espécie arbórea típica e economicamente importante do Cerrado brasileiro, e seus diversos artrópodes são adequados para avaliar um novo índice. A motivação deste trabalho foi testar um índice capaz de identificar as fontes de perda e de soluções, e suas importâncias em termos de perdas ou ganhos no sistema. O índice é: percentagem de importância % I . I . = k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 / Σ k s 1 × c 1 × d s 1 + k s 2 × c 2 × d s 2 + k s n × c n × d s n x 100. O % I . I . separou as fontes de perda [ex., Edessa rufomarginata De Geer, 1773 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) em frutos = 41,90%)] na percentagem de redução na produção de frutos (ex., 0,13%), calculando o nível de atenção (ex., 0,10/fruto), com um total de perda de produção de 1,35% (≈ 307 frutos totais perdidos). O % I.I. também separou as fontes de solução [ex., Zelus armillatus (Lep. and Servi., 1825) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) = 55,48%)], o nível de não atenção (ex., Z. armillatus: 0,394 para E. rufomarginata em fruto), com total de ganho de 0,56% (≈ 128 total de frutos salvos) no sistema natural (ex., árvores de C. brasiliense). Esse índice pode calcular essas perdas ou a eficácia das soluções monetariamente. Aqui eu testo o % I.I., um índice capaz de detectar fatores chaves de perda e de soluções no sistema, capaz de ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253218, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355863

RESUMO

Abstract Indices are used to help on decision-making. This study aims to develop and test an index, which can determine the loss (e.g., herbivorous insects) and solution (e.g., natural enemies) sources. They will be classified according to their importance regarding the ability to damage or to reduce the source of damage to the system when the final production is unknown. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), a non-native pioneer species in Brazil with fast growth and rusticity, is used in restoration programs, and it is adequate to evaluate a new index. The formula was: Percentage of the Importance Indice-Production Unknown (% I.I.-PU) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. The loss sources Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and Tettigoniidae, and solution sources Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae), and Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) showed the highest % I.I.-PU on leaves of A. auriculiformis saplings. The number of Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was reduced per number of Salticidae; that of A. reticulatum that of Uspachus sp.; and that of Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) that of P. termitarius on A. auriculiformis saplings. However, the number of Aleyrodidae was increased per number of Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and that of A. reticulatum that of Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on A. auriculiformis saplings. The A. reticulatum damage was reduced per number of Uspachus sp., but the Aleyrodidae damage was increased per number of Cephalotes sp., totaling 23.81% of increase by insect damages on A. auriculiformis saplings. Here I show and test the % I.I.-PU. It is an new index that can detect the loss or solution sources on a system when production is unknown. It can be applied in some knowledge areas.


Resumo Índices são usados para ajudar na tomada de decisões. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver e testar um índice capaz de determinar fontes de perda (ex.: insetos herbívoros) e de solução (ex.: inimigos naturais). Eles serão classificados de acordo com sua importância quanto a habilidade de danificar ou reduzir danos no sistema, quando a produção final é desconhecida. Acacia auriculiformis (Fabales: Fabaceae), uma espécie pioneira não nativa do Brasil com rápido crescimento e rusticidade, usada em programas de restauração, é adequada para avaliar um novo índice. A fórmula foi: Porcentagem de Índice de Importância-Produção Desconhecida (% I.I.-PD) = [(ks1 x c1 x ds1)/Σ (ks1 x c1 x ds1) + (ks2 x c2 x ds2) + (ksn x cn x dsn)] x 100. As fontes de perda Aethalion reticulatum L., 1767 (Hemiptera: Aethalionidae), Aleyrodidae (Hemiptera), Stereoma anchoralis Lacordaire, 1848 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) e Tettigoniidae, e as fontes de solução Uspachus sp. (Araneae: Salticidae), Salticidae (Araneae) e Pseudomyrmex termitarius (Smith, 1877) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) apresentaram maiores % I.I.-PD nas folhas das mudas de A. auriculiformis. O número de Diabrotica speciosa Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) foi reduzido pelo número de Salticidae; o de A. reticulatum pelo de Uspachus sp.; e o de Cephalocoema sp. (Orthoptera: Proscopiidae) pelo de P. termitarius em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Entretanto, o número de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) e o de A. reticulatum pelo de Brachymyrmex sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em mudas de A. auriculiformis. O dano de A. reticulatum foi reduzido pelo número de Uspachus sp., mas o dano de Aleyrodidae foi aumentado pelo número de Cephalotes sp., totalizando 23,81% de aumento de danos em mudas de A. auriculiformis. Aqui eu apresento e testo o % I.I.-PD. Ele é um novo índice capaz de detectar fontes de perda e de solução no sistema quando não se conhece a produção final. Ele pode ser aplicado em algumas áreas do conhecimento.


Assuntos
Animais , Formigas , Besouros , Acacia , Hemípteros , Insetos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249211, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345523

RESUMO

Abstract This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H'=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H'=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more information's regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline


Resumo Este estudo foi conduzido para estimar a diversidade e a ocorrência de espécies de peixes comercialmente importantes coletadas por vinte locais de amostragem de peixes nas costas de Sindh e Baluchistão do mar da Arábia, no Paquistão, de janeiro a dezembro de 2019. Além disso, as características físico-químicas da água do mar foram analisadas a partir desses peixes locais selecionados e considerados dentro dos intervalos adequados necessários para o crescimento e sobrevivência dos peixes. Um total de 8.1287 indivíduos de peixes foi coletado e identificado como 49 espécies pertencentes a 26 famílias em nosso estudo. A família mais diversificada foi Sparidae (13 espécies), seguida por Carangidae e Lutjanidae (4 espécies), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 espécies) e Sciaenidae (2 espécies). As 20 famílias restantes foram representadas por apenas uma espécie. Os valores do índice de diversidade de Shannon calculados para os quatro habitats selecionados revelaram que uma alta diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa Sonmiani (H' = 1,81), enquanto menos na costa Ormara (H' = 0,23). Da mesma forma, o índice de regularidade (E) foi alto na costa de Sonmiani (E = 0,50) e menos diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa de Ormara (E = 0,06). A redução dos riscos para as espécies marinhas ameaçadas em habitats costeiros também requer ações de conservação em várias escalas. Assim, concluiu-se que nosso estudo pode ser valioso para fornecer mais informações sobre a diversidade de espécies de peixes finos e sua ocorrência ao longo da costa do Paquistão. Além disso, para compreender melhor os efeitos, medidas regulares de monitoramento e conservação devem ser tomadas para mitigar a influência das atividades antropogênicas e proteger a diversidade de peixes finos de um declínio maior.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Água , Biodiversidade , Água do Mar , Ecossistema , Peixes
4.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-18, 2023. mapas, ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX | ID: vti-765565

RESUMO

This study was conducted to estimate the diversity and the occurrence of commercially important finfish species collected by twenty fish sampling site of Sindh and Baluchistan coasts of the Arabian Sea in Pakistan from January to December 2019. Additionally, physicochemical characteristics of seawater were analyzed from these selected sites and found to be within suitable ranges required for fish growth and survive. A total of 81287 fish individuals were collected and identified as 49 species belonging to 26 families in our study. The most diversified family was Sparidae (13 species) followed by Carangidae and Lutjanidae (4 species), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 species), and Sciaenidae (2 species). The remaining 20 families were represented by only one species. The values of Shannon diversity index calculated for the four selected habitats revealed that high fish diversity was reported at Sonmiani Coast (H=1.81), while less at Ormara Coast (H=0.23). Likewise, Evenness index (E) was high at Sonmiani Coast (E=0.50) and less fish diversity was reported at Ormara Coast (E=0.06). Reducing risks to threatened marine species in coastal habitats also requires conservation actions at multiple scales. Thus, it was concluded that our study could be valuable in providing the more informations regarding to the diversity of finfish species and their occurrence along the Pakistan Coast. Further, to better understand the effects, regular monitoring and conservation measures should be taken to mitigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and protect finfish diversity from further decline.(AU)


Este estudo foi conduzido para estimar a diversidade e a ocorrência de espécies de peixes comercialmente importantes coletadas por vinte locais de amostragem de peixes nas costas de Sindh e Baluchistão do mar da Arábia, no Paquistão, de janeiro a dezembro de 2019. Além disso, as características físico-químicas da água do mar foram analisadas a partir desses peixes locais selecionados e considerados dentro dos intervalos adequados necessários para o crescimento e sobrevivência dos peixes. Um total de 8.1287 indivíduos de peixes foi coletado e identificado como 49 espécies pertencentes a 26 famílias em nosso estudo. A família mais diversificada foi Sparidae (13 espécies), seguida por Carangidae e Lutjanidae (4 espécies), Mullidae, Serranidae, Ariidae (3 espécies) e Sciaenidae (2 espécies). As 20 famílias restantes foram representadas por apenas uma espécie. Os valores do índice de diversidade de Shannon calculados para os quatro habitats selecionados revelaram que uma alta diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa Sonmiani (H = 1,81), enquanto menos na costa Ormara (H = 0,23). Da mesma forma, o índice de regularidade (E) foi alto na costa de Sonmiani (E = 0,50) e menos diversidade de peixes foi relatada na costa de Ormara (E = 0,06). A redução dos riscos para as espécies marinhas ameaçadas em habitats costeiros também requer ações de conservação em várias escalas. Assim, concluiu-se que nosso estudo pode ser valioso para fornecer mais informações sobre a diversidade de espécies de peixes finos e sua ocorrência ao longo da costa do Paquistão. Além disso, para compreender melhor os efeitos, medidas regulares de monitoramento e conservação devem ser tomadas para mitigar a influência das atividades antropogênicas e proteger a diversidade de peixes finos de um declínio maior.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Biodiversidade , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água do Mar/química , Fenômenos Químicos
5.
Environ Pollut ; 310: 119890, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932899

RESUMO

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered one of the important sources of aquatic/terrestrial microplastic (MP) pollution. Therefore, the abundance and properties of MPs in the wastewater and sludge of an urban WWTP in Bursa Turkey were investigated. The amount, properties, and removal of MPs were evaluated. The results showed that the average abundance of MPs was 135.3 ± 28.0 n/L in the influent and 8.5 ± 4.7 n/L in the effluent, with a 93.7% removal rate, MP was removed and transferred to the sludge. The daily MP amount released in the aquatic environment is calculated as 525 million MPs, and the annual amount is 1.9 × 1011 MPs. The abundance of MPs in the sludge thickening and sludge filter cake is 17.9 ± 2.3 and 9.5 ± 2.3 n/g dry weight (dw), respectively. The sludge disposal amount of WWTP is 81.5 tons/day and the approximate amount of MP accumulated in the sludge per year is calculated as 2.8 × 1011 MPs. In wastewater and sludge samples, fragment dominant shape, black main colour, and 500-1000 µm sizes are the most common size. The main MP types in wastewater samples at the influent are polypropylene (PP, 36.8%), polyethylene (PE, 31.0%), polystyrene (PS, 11.8%), polyethylene terephthalate (PET, 8.0%), and polyamide (PA, 7.1%), at the effluent (PE, 33.0%), (PP, 52.5%), and (PS, 8.2%). In the sludge cake, the distribution is (PE, 40.8%), (PP, 27.6%), (PS, 18.7%) and (PET, 8.0%). The results of this study show that MPs are removed from wastewater with high efficiency by treatment processes and a significant amount accumulates in the sludge. Therefore, it is suggested that to integrate advanced treatment processes into urban WWTPs and use effective sludge disposal management practices to reduce the amount of MP released into the environment with effluent and sludge.

6.
Chemosphere ; : 135945, 2022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944680

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) are an emerging environmental problem due to their all-around existence and extraordinary stability. A significant number of studies are found in recent literature on the occurrence, distribution, transport, and fate of the MPs in several environmental compartments. In this study, we have investigated the occurrence and characteristics of MPs in the surface water and sediment of the Buriganga river, located beside the mega-city of Dhaka in Bangladesh. In the Buriganga river, the concentration of MPs in the surface water was found from 4.33 ±â€¯0.58 to 43.67 ±â€¯0.58 items L-1, and in the sediment, MPs varied from 17.33 ±â€¯1.53 to 133.67 ±â€¯5.51 items kg-1 of dry sediment. Fragment-type MPs were predominant in the surface water and sediment, which was 72.7% and 85.5% respectively. The most abundant polymer type polypropylene (PP) was found -to be 46% in the surface water and 61% in the sediment sample. The next major category, polyethylene (PE) was found to be 26% and 21%, respectively. Polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and polyamide (PA) were other commonly detected polymer types. The MPs were found to be contaminated by Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Sn from Energy dispersive-X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis. Tannery-induced Cr was detected in the highest concentrations in the MPs, which were 20.67 ±â€¯1.66 mg kg-1 (in surface water) and 14.2 ±â€¯1.25 mg kg-1 (in sediment). The pollution load index (PLI) of the MPs contamination in different sampling sites along the Buriganga river was found in the risk level category of I and II. The anthropogenic influence of the city area was reflected in the PLI values, which had an increasing trend from the upstream sampling points (1.00 ±â€¯1.00, 1.00 ±â€¯1.00) to the downstream sites (10.09 ±â€¯1.00, 7.71 ±â€¯3.60).

7.
Neotrop Entomol ; 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945399

RESUMO

Native bees are important pollinators in neotropical forests. Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille) (Apidae: Meliponini) is a stingless bee widely distributed from the south of Mexico to Argentina. We characterized the patterns of preference of T. angustula for pollen in relation to the richness and abundance of plant species in the Tucumano-Boliviano Forest. During two field campaigns in different seasons (winter and spring), six colonies of T. angustula were studied. Pollen from flowers of plant species in the study area (pollen offer) and pot-pollen in each hive (pollen demand) were collected and their plant family of origin identified. Pollen from Asteraceae was more abundant in the winter than in the spring. Pollen of Solanaceae in the winter and Bignoniaceae in the spring were the most selected by the worker bees. Pollen from plants outside the sampling area was also found in the pots; it was mainly from Asteraceae. Tetragonisca angustula workers showed a polylectic foraging behavior, being able to use in a dynamic way the resources that are present in their environment at different times of the year; occasionally, it selected less abundant specific resources likely based on their nutritional value. More studies are needed to evaluate aspects of pollen quality consumed by this bee.

8.
J Nematol ; 54(1): 20220022, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937923

RESUMO

Soil is essential for the sustenance of life. Diverse soil organisms support several biological processes such as organic matter decomposition, mineralization, nutrient cycling, and controlling pests and diseases. Among multicellular soil organisms, nematodes are ubiquitous, functionally diverse, and abundant. Notably, agricultural practices have diverse impacts on plants, soils, and soil organisms. Tillage affects nematodes directly by altering pore size and disrupting the continuity of water films and indirectly by affecting the lower trophic groups such as bacteria and fungi. The primary goal of this study was to examine the effect of increasing levels of physical disturbance on nematode communities in an undisturbed forest ecosystem. The experiment included four treatments: control with no disturbance, surface litter removed with no litter and no vegetation, tilling the soil with a rototiller every 2 mon, and every 2 wk. Tillage significantly reduced the overall abundance and overall richness of nematode communities over time. Among nematode trophic groups, tillage significantly reduced the abundance and richness of bacterial feeders, predators, and omnivores over time. The abundance and richness of c-p 2, c-p 4, and c-p 5 class nematodes were significantly decreased by tillage. Unlike tillage, minimal disturbance such as removal of surface litter resulted in a significant decrease in the abundance of only three genera: Acrobeles, Aporcelaimellus, and Boleodorus. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that nematodes of higher c-p classes such as Dorylaimida, Aporcelaimellus, Alaimus, Clarkus, and Tripyla were sensitive to physical disturbances. Bacterial feeders belonging to the c-p 2 class such as Tylocephalus, Acrobeles, Ceratoplectus, Plectus, and Pseudacrobeles were significantly reduced by tillage. Moreover, tillage significantly reduced the functional metabolic footprint of nematodes, which indicates decreased metabolic activity, reduced C inflow, and poorly structured soil food webs. Previous studies conducted in agricultural ecosystems determined that Clarkus, Filenchus, and Plectus were tolerant to tillage; however, they were found sensitive to tillage in our study. Overall, our study suggests that increasing levels of physical disturbance are detrimental to nematode community abundance and diversity that could affect soil ecosystem stability and sustainability.

9.
Oecologia ; 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941269

RESUMO

Predators use different spatial tactics to track the prey on the landscape. Three hypotheses describe spatial tactics: prey abundance for prey that are aggregated in space; prey habitat for uniformly distributed prey; and prey catchability for prey that are difficult to catch and kill. The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a generalist predator that likely employs more than one spatial hunting tactic to match their diverse prey with distinct distributions and behavior that are available. We conducted a study on 17 GPS collared wolves in 6 packs in Riding Mountain National Park, Manitoba, Canada where wolves prey on moose (Alces alces) and elk (Cervus canadensis). We evaluated wolf selection for prey density, habitat selection and catchability on the landscape through within-territory habitat selection analysis. We reveal support for both the prey habitat and prey catchability hypotheses. For moose, their primary prey, wolves employed a mixed habitat and catchability tactic. Wolves used spaces described by the intersection of moose habitat and moose catchability. Wolves selected for the catchability of elk, their secondary prey, but not elk habitat. Counter to our predictions, wolves avoided areas of moose and elk density, likely highlighting the ongoing space race between predator and prey. We illustrate that of the three hypotheses the primary driver was prey catchability, where the interplay of both prey habitat with catchability culminate in predator spatial behaviour in a multiprey system.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943521

RESUMO

Microplastics (MPs) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of the five fish species from the Kollidam and Vellar rivers of Tamil Nadu, Southern India were evaluated. A total of 315 MPs were isolated from GI tracts of 23 fishes (Chanos chanos, Chanda nama, Chelon macrolepis, Carangoides malabaricus and Gerrus filamentosus) sampled from both rivers. MPs ranged from 109 to 129 µm (119 ± 79.7) and 181 to 284 µm (122 ± 92.6) in size, with fibres (85.7%) and fragments (14.3%) being the most common ones in the fishes from Kollidam and Vellar river, respectively. The colour pattern of ingested MPs was dominated by blue, transparent, red, yellow and black in collected fishes from both rivers. In this study, MPs were higher in fishes with omnivore feeding habits due to their broad diet habits. Moreover, urban wastes, fishing and agricultural activities are the possible primary sources of MPs in both rivers.

11.
Front Oncol ; 12: 907960, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35936685

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the prognostic value and explore the biological significance of gap junction protein beta 2 (GJB2 or Cx26) in cervical cancer (CC). Methods: We first compared GJB2 expression between CC and normal tissues using public databases and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Based on The Cancer Genome Atlas data (TCGA cohort, n = 304) and tissue microarray samples (OBC cohort, n = 111), we explored the prognostic value of GJB2 for CC patients using bioinformatics analysis and IHC scoring. To explore the biological significance of GJB2, Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and Gene Ontology (GO) were performed. The impact of GJB2 on the immune microenvironment was analyzed by CIBERSORTx and ESTIMATE algorithms. We finally investigated the relationship between GJB2 and drug sensitivity based on the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC). Results: The expression of GJB2 was significantly increased in CC over normal tissues. Both the TCGA and OBC cohort found that patients with high GJB2 expression had shorter overall survival (OS) time, and high GJB2 expression was the independent risk factor for prognosis (TCGA: HR, 2.566; 95% CI, 1.066-6.180; p = 0.036; OBC: HR, 2.198; 95% CI, 1.019-4.741; p = 0.045). GJB2 was correlated with patient clinical factors such as tumor size and differentiation grade. The p53 signaling pathway and toll-like receptor pathway may be regulated by GJB2. The abundance of various immune cells was significantly different between the low and high GJB2 expression groups. The ImmuneScore was significantly increased in the high GJB2 expression group. In addition, the expression level of GJB2 was positively correlated with the natural log of the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (LN_IC50) value of cisplatin/paclitaxel (Spearman r = 0.238/0.153, p < 0.001). Conclusion: GJB2 can serve as a potential prognostic marker of poor survival and a therapeutic target in CC. Moreover, GJB2 may affect the immune microenvironment and is correlated with chemoresistance.

12.
Front Res Metr Anal ; 7: 959505, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35910705

RESUMO

The economics of abundance, along with the sociology of abundance, the law of abundance, and so forth, should be re-framed, linked, and situated in a common context for empirical rather than conceptual research. Abundance may seem to be a new, big thing, between anxiety over information overload, Big Data, and related technological disruptions. But scholars know that abundance is an ancient phenomenon, which only seemed to disappear as twentieth century social science focused on scarcity instead. Restoring the study of abundance, and figuring out how to solve the problems that abundance might create, means shedding disciplinary blinders and going back to basics. How does abundance, in various forms, create or alleviate social problems? We explain and illustrate how the Governing Knowledge Commons (GKC) framework provides a useful research tool to generate and test hypotheses about abundance in various economic, social, cultural, and legal settings.

13.
Chemosphere ; 306: 135564, 2022 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792206

RESUMO

The largest semi-enclosed sea of China, the Bohai Sea, serves as an important sink of microplastics (MPs) originated from terrestrial and marine sources. This study summarized potential sources and migration pathways of MPs in the Bohai Sea and reviewed the abundance and characteristics of MPs in water, sediments, and organisms. Coastal anthropogenic activities (i.e., plastic production, agricultural activities, and industrial and domestic sewage discharge) and marine origins (i.e., aquaculture, marine litters, and transportation) might accelerate the MPs enrichment in the Bohai Sea. The abundance of MPs ranged from 0.07 to 5200 items/m3 in the seawater, mainly influenced by the application of different trawl nets/sieves with different sizes (0.005-0.33 mm). Sediments of coastal rivers contained the MPs ranging from 56.7 to 1795 items/kg, significantly higher than that of the Bohai Sea (6.24-461.6 items/kg). Among organisms, the average abundance of MPs was the lowest in zooplanktons (0.03 items/animal), significantly lower than that in invertebrates (1.39 items/animal) and fish (2.12 items/animal), but no biomagnification of MPs was observed. The preliminary risk assessment indicated that seawater in the Liaodong Bay had medium ecological risk of MPs while other bays of the Bohai Sea had minor risks. To make the ecological risk of MPs quantifiable and comparable, future research priorities are recommended to focus on more frequent field surveys, standardization of sampling methods, and establishment of toxicity database of common polymer types of MPs in the Bohai Sea.

14.
J Hazard Mater ; 438: 129490, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792432

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence shows that microplastic pollution is ubiquitous in bivalve mollusks globally and is of particular concern due to its potential impact on human health. However, non-standardized sampling, processing, and analytical techniques increased the difficulty of direct comparisons among existing studies. Based on 61 peer-reviewed papers, we summarized the current knowledge of microplastics in bivalve mollusks globally and provided an in-depth analysis of factors affecting the outcome of microplastic data, with the main focus on the effects of different species and methodologies. We found no significant differences in microplastic abundance among genera from the same family but significant differences among bivalve families, indicating habitats play an important role in microplastic ingestion by bivalve mollusks. This also provided foundational knowledge for using epifaunal and infaunal bivalves to monitor microplastic pollution in water and sediment, respectively. Recommendations for microplastic monitoring protocol in bivalve mollusks were proposed according to the results of this review, covering (i) a sample size of at least 50 bivalves in the study area, (ii) the use of 10 % KOH as the digestion solution, and (iii) the pore size of a filter membrane of < 5 µm. Acknowledging the need for a standard procedure, more efforts towards protocol standardization used in long-term and large-scale microplastic monitoring programs in bivalve mollusks are needed.

15.
Environ Res ; : 113900, 2022 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35839911

RESUMO

The discovery of complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox), which can oxidize ammonia into nitrate, has recently changed the concept of traditional nitrification. However, comparative studies on the analysis of comammox microbial community in different ecosystems are still scarce. In this study, the distribution and diversity of the comammox microbial community in farmlands, riparian zones, and river sediments in summer and winter were investigated by high-throughput sequencing. And the relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms was measured via their amoA genes of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The relationships between ammonia oxidation microorganisms and the environmental factors were further analyzed. The abundance of comammox clade A was one order of magnitude lower than that of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) but higher than that of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The abundance of comammox was higher in summer than in winter and higher in farmland soils (1.81 ±â€¯0.95 × 107 copies g-1) than in riparian zones and river sediments. Meanwhile, Candidatus Nitrospira nitrosa were the most widespread comammox in most samples (up to 86.31%), followed by Candidatus Nitrospira nitrificans, with a low abundance of Candidatus Nitrospira inopinata (lower than 0.61%). Furthermore, the abundance of comammox clade A had a significantly negative correlation with pH and NH4+ concentration (P < 0.05). The study revealed the potential advantages of comammox in farmlands and may be conducive to further research on comammox in microbial nitrogen cycling.

16.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 171, 2022 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35790909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Humans have been influencing climate changes by burning fossil fuels, farming livestock, and cutting down rainforests, which has led to global temperature rise. This problem of global warming affects animals by causing heat stress, which negatively affects their health, biological functions, and reproduction. On the molecular level, it has been proved that heat stress changes the expression level of genes and therefore causes changes in proteome and metabolome. The importance of a microbiome in many studies showed that it is considered as individuals' "second genome". Physiological changes caused by heat stress may impact the microbiome composition. RESULTS: In this study, we identified fecal microbiota associated with heat stress that was quantified by three metrics - rectal temperature, drooling, and respiratory scores represented by their Estimated Breeding Values. We analyzed the microbiota from 136 fecal samples of Chinese Holstein cows through a 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach. Statistical modeling was performed using a negative binomial regression. The analysis revealed the total number of 24 genera and 12 phyla associated with heat stress metrics. Rhizobium and Pseudobutyrivibrio turned out to be the most significant genera, while Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes were the most significant phyla. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that three heat stress indicators quantify different metabolic ways of animals' reaction to heat stress. Other studies already identified that those genera had significantly increased abundance in mice exposed to stressor-induced changes. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into the analysis of microbiome composition in cattle using heat stress measured as a continuous variable. The bacteria highly associated with heat stress were highlighted and can be used as biomarkers in further microbiological studies.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Microbiota , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Camundongos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Temperatura
17.
Open Life Sci ; 17(1): 686-694, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35836428

RESUMO

Overweight and obesity have been linked with increased intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. On the other hand, physical activity has been known to lead to weight loss. Therefore, we hypothesized that exercise might influence the Lactobacillus population in fecal microbiota as their changed abundance is often associated with shifts in the physical activity and diet. In our experiment, Wistar rats were allocated into groups with normal feed or added sugar-sweetened beverages with or without access to a running wheel. Interestingly, only a combination of physical activity and sweetened beverage intake was associated with a significant increase in fecal lactobacilli abundance, suggesting a connection between exercise and a rise in lactobacilli abundance. Moreover, physical activity has improved weight-related parameters and led to increased plasma and mRNA adiponectin levels. Ghrelin and leptin plasma levels were unaltered. Taken together, our results demonstrate that effect of physical activity on adiposity even during unhealthy feeding patterns is accompanied by increased lactobacilli abundance in the fecal microbiota population.

18.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(13)2022 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35804540

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding ethyl cellulose rumen-protected methionine (RPM) on skeletal muscle mRNA abundance during the periparturient period. Sixty multiparous Holstein cows were used in a block design and assigned to either a control or RPM diet. The RPM was supplied from -28 to 60 days in milk (DIM) at a rate of 0.09% (prepartum) or 0.10% (postpartum) of dry matter (DM), ensuring a Lys:Met in the metabolizable protein of ~2.8:1. Muscle biopsies were collected at -21, 1, and 21 DIM. Thirty-five target genes associated with nutrient metabolism and biochemical pathways were measured via RT-qPCR. The mRNA abundance of genes associated with amino acid (AA) transport (SLC7A8, SLC43A2), carnitine transport (SLC22A5), insulin signaling (IRS1), and antioxidant response (NFE2L2) had diet × time effect (p < 0.05) due to greater abundance in RPM versus CON cows, especially at 1 and 21 DIM. Members of the AA transport (SLC7A8, SLC25A29, SCL38A9), fatty acid ß-oxidation (ACADVL), vitamin transport (SLC5A6, SLC19A2), mTOR pathway (AKT1 and mTOR), antioxidant response (KEAP1, CUL3), CDP-Choline pathway and arginine metabolism had overall greater abundance (p < 0.05) in RPM versus CON cows. Overall, data indicate that RPM can alter nutrient metabolism in the skeletal muscle around parturition partly through alterations in mRNA abundance.

19.
Front Physiol ; 13: 874172, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35812341

RESUMO

The current study examines the effect of dietary supplementation of ethanolic extract of Arthrospira platensis NIOF17/003, which is mainly natural astaxanthins (97.50%), on the growth performance, feed utilization, bacterial abundance, and immune-related and antioxidant gene expressions of the Pacific white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 360 healthy L. vannamei postlarvae (0.19 ± 0.003 g) were divided into four groups (0, 2, 4, and 6 g natural astaxanthins/kg diet) each in three replicates, at an initial density of 30 PLs per tank (40 L capacity). The shrimp were fed the tested diets three times a day at a rate of 10% of their total body weight for 90 days. Diets supplemented with different astaxanthin levels significantly improved shrimp growth performance and feed conversion ratio compared to the control diet. No significant differences were observed in survival rates among all experimental groups. The immune-related genes (prophenoloxidase, lysozyme, beta-glucan binding protein, transglutaminase, and crustin) mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in groups fed with different concentrations of the natural astaxanthins in a dose-dependent manner. The prophenoloxidase gene is the highest immune-upregulated gene (14.71-fold change) in response to astaxanthin supplementation. The superoxide dismutase mRNA level was significantly increased with increasing dietary astaxanthin supplementation. In addition, increasing astaxanthin supplementation levels significantly reduced the count of heterotrophic bacteria and Vibrio spp. in the culture water and shrimp intestine. Overall, the current results concluded that diet supplementation with natural astaxanthin, extracted from Arthrospira platensis, enhanced the growth performance, immune response, and antioxidant status of L. vannamei.

20.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 858592, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794924

RESUMO

Gut microbes significantly impact animal health, yet research on the gut microbiota of most birds, especially raptors, is lacking. This study investigated the effects of dietary and environmental changes on the composition and abundance of gut microbiota in 17 rescued common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) through 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing of microorganisms in the feces of the birds. Firmicutes (relative abundance, 43.63%), Proteobacteria (37.26%), Actinobacteria (7.31%), and Bacteroidetes (5.48%) were the dominant phyla in the gut microbiota of the common kestrels. A comparison of the gut microbiota before and after captivity revealed that community composition and abundance of the common kestrel gut microbiota differed among different living conditions including diet and environment. At the phylum level, the abundance of Firmicutes was higher (P < 0.05), and that of Proteobacteria was lower (P < 0.05), after captivity (54.62 and 27.16%, respectively) compared with before captivity (33.67 and 46.41%, respectively), but no significant differences were found among other phyla. At the genus level, the abundance of Lactobacillus was higher (P < 0.05) after captivity (15.77%) compared with the abundance before captivity (5.02%). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses showed that common kestrels in different living conditions exhibited differences (P < 0.05) in gut microbiota at phylum and genus levels. Functional prediction of gene sequences using PICRUSt2 further revealed that pathways related to glucose metabolism and amino acid metabolism were enhanced (P < 0.05) after captivity. Collectively, the findings from this study demonstrated that the relative abundance of specific microbes in the gut of the rescued common kestrels either increased or decreased, and that dietary and environment changes might be the predominant factors affecting the gut microbiota of these birds during rescue or captivity.

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