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1.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-15, 2023. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765481

RESUMO

Background: The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Aim: The study examined the expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) in adult and young yak brain tissues, and provided researchers with meaningful insight into the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of this mammal. Method: The study employed immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) to obtain the results. Results: Ngb and Hif-1α were significantly (P<0.05) expressed in the cerebellar cortex, piriform lobe, medulla, and corpus callosum of the adult yak while in the young yak brain tissues, the protein expressions were significantly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, pineal gland, corpus callosum, and cerebellar cortex. The Ngb and Hif-1α expression showed similarities and differences. This may have resulted from similar animal species, source of nutrition, age factors, brain size, emotional activities, and communication. The findings documented that Ngb and Hif-1α are commonly expressed in various adult and young yak brain tissues. Multiple roles in the brain tissues of the adult and young yaks are involved in the expression and distribution and are proposed to play a significant role in the adaptation of the yak to the high altitude environment. Conclusion: This study provides meaningful data to understand the adaptive mechanism to hypoxia and recommended researchers to expand on the adaptive mechanism and brain tissues that are not recorded.(AU)


Contexto: O cérebro é um órgão que funciona como o centro do sistema nervoso em todos os animais vertebrados e na maioria dos invertebrados. Objetivo: O estudo examinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator-1α indutível por hipóxia (Hif-1α) em tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens e forneceu aos pesquisadores uma visão significativa da anatomia, fisiologia e bioquímica desse mamífero. Método: O estudo utilizou imuno-histoquímica (IHC), PCR quantitativo em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e western blot (WB) para a obtenção dos resultados. Resultados: Ngb e Hif-1α foram significativamente (P < 0,05) expressos no córtex cerebelar, lobo piriforme, medula e corpo caloso do iaque adulto, enquanto nos tecidos cerebrais do iaque jovem as expressões proteicas foram encontradas significativamente na substância branca do cerebelo, glândula pineal, corpo caloso e córtex cerebelar. A expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α apresentou semelhanças e diferenças. Isso pode ter resultado de espécies animais semelhantes, fonte de nutrição, fatores de idade, tamanho do cérebro, atividades emocionais e comunicação. Os resultados documentaram que o Ngb e o Hif-1α são comumente expressos em vários tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens. Múltiplos papéis nos tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens estão envolvidos na expressão e distribuição e são propostos para desempenhar um papel significativo na adaptação do iaque ao ambiente de alta altitude. Conclusão: Este estudo fornece dados significativos para compreender o mecanismo adaptativo à hipóxia e recomendou que os pesquisadores expandissem o mecanismo adaptativo e os tecidos cerebrais que não foram registrados.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Bovinos , Bovinos , Cérebro/anatomia & histologia , Cérebro/fisiologia , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Neuroglobina/análise , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/análise
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245330, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339394

RESUMO

Abstract Background The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. Aim The study examined the expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb) and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (Hif-1α) in adult and young yak brain tissues, and provided researchers with meaningful insight into the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry of this mammal. Method The study employed immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and Western blot (WB) to obtain the results. Results Ngb and Hif-1α were significantly (P<0.05) expressed in the cerebellar cortex, piriform lobe, medulla, and corpus callosum of the adult yak while in the young yak brain tissues, the protein expressions were significantly found in the white matter of the cerebellum, pineal gland, corpus callosum, and cerebellar cortex. The Ngb and Hif-1α expression showed similarities and differences. This may have resulted from similar animal species, source of nutrition, age factors, brain size, emotional activities, and communication. The findings documented that Ngb and Hif-1α are commonly expressed in various adult and young yak brain tissues. Multiple roles in the brain tissues of the adult and young yaks are involved in the expression and distribution and are proposed to play a significant role in the adaptation of the yak to the high altitude environment. Conclusion This study provides meaningful data to understand the adaptive mechanism to hypoxia and recommended researchers to expand on the adaptive mechanism and brain tissues that are not recorded.


Resumo Contexto O cérebro é um órgão que funciona como o centro do sistema nervoso em todos os animais vertebrados e na maioria dos invertebrados. Objetivo O estudo examinou a expressão de neuroglobina (Ngb) e fator-1α indutível por hipóxia (Hif-1α) em tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens e forneceu aos pesquisadores uma visão significativa da anatomia, fisiologia e bioquímica desse mamífero. Método O estudo utilizou imuno-histoquímica (IHC), PCR quantitativo em tempo real (qRT-PCR) e western blot (WB) para a obtenção dos resultados. Resultados Ngb e Hif-1α foram significativamente (P < 0,05) expressos no córtex cerebelar, lobo piriforme, medula e corpo caloso do iaque adulto, enquanto nos tecidos cerebrais do iaque jovem as expressões proteicas foram encontradas significativamente na substância branca do cerebelo, glândula pineal, corpo caloso e córtex cerebelar. A expressão de Ngb e Hif-1α apresentou semelhanças e diferenças. Isso pode ter resultado de espécies animais semelhantes, fonte de nutrição, fatores de idade, tamanho do cérebro, atividades emocionais e comunicação. Os resultados documentaram que o Ngb e o Hif-1α são comumente expressos em vários tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens. Múltiplos papéis nos tecidos cerebrais de iaques adultos e jovens estão envolvidos na expressão e distribuição e são propostos para desempenhar um papel significativo na adaptação do iaque ao ambiente de alta altitude. Conclusão Este estudo fornece dados significativos para compreender o mecanismo adaptativo à hipóxia e recomendou que os pesquisadores expandissem o mecanismo adaptativo e os tecidos cerebrais que não foram registrados.


Assuntos
Animais , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia , Encéfalo , RNA Mensageiro , Bovinos , Neuroglobina
3.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e225136, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1354771

RESUMO

Aim: To evaluate the influence of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) coping fabrication methods and ceramic application on the marginal and internal fit of metal-ceramic crowns. Methods: Co-Cr copings for metal-ceramic crowns were prepared by lost wax casting or CAD-CAM machining of sintered blocks. The fit was analyzed using the silicone replica technique at four assessment points: marginal gap (MG), axial wall (AW), axio-occlusal (AO) angle, and central occlusal (CO) wall. After the initial analysis, the copings were ceramic-veneered with the layering technique, and the fit was again determined. Data were statistically analyzed by paired and unpaired Student's-t test (α=0.05). Results: Marginal and internal fit before ceramic application according to the coping manufacturing method showed significant differences only at CO (p < 0.001), with milled copings (137.98±16.71 µm) showing higher gap values than cast copings (112.86±8.57 µm). For cast copings, there were significant differences at MG (before 109.13±8.79 µm; after 102.78±7.18 µm) and CO (before 112.86±8.57 µm; after 104.07±10.63 µm) when comparing the fit before and after ceramic firing. For milled copings, there was significant difference only at AO (before 116.39±9.64 µm; after 108.54±9.26 µm). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the coping fabrication method influenced the internal fit. Ceramic firing maintained or improved the fit of the metal-ceramic crowns. The marginal discrepancy of all restorations, before and after ceramic firing, can be considered clinically acceptable


Assuntos
Cerâmica , Ligas Metalo-Cerâmicas , Adaptação Marginal Dentária , Coroas
4.
Interdisciplinaria ; 39(1): 299-310, jun. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1360495

RESUMO

Resumen El objetivo del presente estudio es adaptar el Inventario de dimensiones parentales en su versión abreviada (Power, 2002) a la población argentina. Se tradujeron los 13 ítems incluidos en la evaluación de la dimensión general, que abarca las dimensiones de: Apoyo/cuidado, Inconsistencia y Seguimiento a través de la disciplina/control. El inventario traducido se administró a una muestra intencional de 771 adultos, 535 mujeres y 236 varones, de entre 26 y 63 años de edad (M = 38.56; DE = 4.76), de clase media (Estrato II de la Escala Graffar/Méndez Castellanos), de población no clínica, y padres y madres de niños que cursaban preescolar en 12 escuelas privadas de distintas provincias de Argentina (Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Mendoza, Santa Fe y Tucumán). El análisis factorial confirmatorio mostró que el modelo teórico de tres dimensiones, propuesto por los autores de la prueba original, ajustó satisfactoriamente a los datos e indicó una adecuada consistencia de la estructura de la prueba. Además, se analizó la confiabilidad como consistencia interna evaluada a través del omega de McDonald y se obtuvieron los siguientes valores: Apoyo/cuidado = .74; Seguimiento a través de la disciplina/control = .70, e Inconsistencia = .74. Es de hacer notar que, en este inventario, la dimensión Seguimiento a través de la disciplina corresponde a un control moderado, es decir, apropiado para un estilo autoritativo. Finalmente, dado que el inventario ha sido estudiado con una muestra extensa, extraída de varias provincias argentinas, los resultados obtenidos son generalizables a casi todo el país.


Abstract Diana Baumrind (1966) proposed three primary parenting styles: the authoritarian style, the permissive style, and the authoritative style. Almost two decades later, Maccoby and Martin (1983) theoretically added a fourth (negligent) parenting style. Parental styles are based on variations in the levels of the parental dimensions of sensitivity (warmth, affection), parental demand (parental control) and autonomy granted (Richaud, Lemos & Vargas Rubilar, 2013). It has been suggested that the findings related to broad parenting styles are not always easy to interpret (Stewart & Bond, 2002) and that Baumrind's three-category parenting style typology can be usefully disaggregated into parenting dimensions (Darling and Steinberg, 1993). A dimensional approach can be particularly valuable in allowing an independent assessment of parenting and discipline (Locke & Printz, 2002). One of these dimensional models is that of Power (2002), which includes 11 dimensions of which the first three: Sensitivity, Inconsistency and Follow-up through discipline, evaluate a general dimension of the relationship of parents with their children, as perceived by parents. These three basic dimensions correspond to those of Baumrind described above: sensitivity (warmth, affection), autonomy granted (permissiveness) and parental demand (parental control), respectively. Power's Parenting Styles Inventory (PDI) assesses parenting styles from a parent's perspective. It is a self-report that, as we said, assesses 11 dimensions of parents' attitudes and behaviors towards their children. It has 57 items organized into 11 scales, each of which evaluates different dimensions of parent-child relationships. The first three scales, which include 13 items, measure a "general dimension" (Support / care, Inconsistency and Follow-up through discipline / control). The following scales assess different types of control and are distinguished from the general dimensions, in that they focus on disciplinary practices in response to the child's misbehavior. The PDI-S is a shortened version, which retains the most valid and reliable components of the original PDI. The PDI-S can be used with parents of children between 3 and 12 years old, and was developed from the PDI (Slater & Power, 1987). Given the importance of having an adequate instrument to assess parental style from the parents' perspective, the objective of this study is to adapt the Inventory of Parental Dimensions in its short version (Power, 2002) to the Argentine population. The 13 items included in the evaluation of the General Dimension, were translated, which includes the dimensions: Support / care, Inconsistency and Follow-up through discipline / control). The translated Inventory was administered to an intentional sample of 771 adults, 535 women and 236 men, between 26 and 63 years of age (Me = 38.56 SD = 4.76), middle class (Stratum II of the Graffar / Méndez Castellanos Scale), of the non-clinical population, and parents of children who attended pre-school in 12 private schools in different provinces of Argentina (Buenos Aires, Córdoba, Mendoza, Santa Fe and Tucumán). The Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed that the three-dimensional theoretical model, proposed by the authors of the original test, satisfactorily adjusted to the data, indicating an adequate consistency of the test structure. In addition, reliability was analyzed as internal consistency evaluated through McDonald's omega, obtaining the following values: Support / care = .74; Follow-up through discipline / control = .70 and Inconsistency = .74. Finally, given that the Inventory has been studied with an extensive sample, drawn from several Argentine provinces, the results obtained are generalizable to almost the entire country.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 896311, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35558117

RESUMO

The virulence factors of the opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis have been a main subject of research. In contrast, limited information is available on the mechanisms that allow the bacterium to accommodate to the conditions during carriage, a prerequisite for pathogenicity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the adaptation of S. epidermidis at different anatomical sites is reflected by differential gene regulation. We used qPCR to profile S. epidermidis gene expression in vivo in nose and skin swabs of 11 healthy individuals. Despite some heterogeneity between individuals, significant site-specific differences were detected. For example, expression of the S. epidermidis regulator sarA was found similarly in the nose and on the skin of all individuals. Also, genes encoding colonization and immune evasion factors (sdrG, capC, and dltA), as well as the sphingomyelinase encoding gene sph, were expressed at both anatomical sites. In contrast, expression of the global regulator agr was almost inactive in the nose but readily present on the skin. A similar site-specific expression profile was also identified for the putative chitinase-encoding SE0760. In contrast, expression of the autolysine-encoding gene sceD and the wall teichoic acid (WTA) biosynthesis gene tagB were more pronounced in the nose as compared to the skin. In summary, our analysis identifies site-specific gene expression patterns of S. epidermidis during colonization. In addition, the observed expression signature was significantly different from growth in vitro. Interestingly, the strong transcription of sphingomyelinase together with the low expression of genes encoding the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) suggests very good nutrient supply in both anatomical niches, even on the skin where one might have suspected a rather lower nutrient supply compared to the nose.

6.
Front Pediatr ; 10: 868974, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35558364

RESUMO

Introduction: A comprehensive assessment of visual functioning at an early age is important not only for identifying and defining visual impairment but also for planning personalized rehabilitation programs based on the visual diagnosis. Since existing tools to evaluate visual functioning present some important limitations (e.g., they are based on qualitative reports, they do not take into account environmental adaptations of visual testing or they have not been formally validated as clinical instruments), the present work has the main aim to propose a new clinical tool (Visual Function Score, VFS) to detect and define visual disorders at an early age. Methods: The Visual Function Score was administered to one hundred visually impaired children (age range 4 months to 17.75 years old) in the form of a professional-reported protocol for a total of 51 items, each of which is assigned a score from 1 to 9 (or from 0 to 9 in some specific cases). The VFS produces three sub-scores and a global score (from 0 to 100), resulting in a quantitative evaluation of visual functioning. Results: The VFS can detect the well-known differences between different types of visual impairment (cerebral, oculomotor, and peripheral or grouped as central and peripheral) and takes into account different environments in the definition of a quantitative score of visual functioning. Discussion: Overall, the use of a quantitative tool to evaluate visual functions and functional vision such as the VFS would be fundamental to monitor the progresses of patients over time in response to rehabilitation interventions.

7.
Front Psychol ; 13: 850495, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35558701

RESUMO

Sensorimotor aftereffects have been widely studied after lateral prism adaptation but not after vertical prism adaptation. It is thus well-known that lateral prism adaptation produces aftereffects on visuospatial representation and, recently, on auditory perception. This study aimed to explore the sensorimotor after-effects of vertical prism adaptation as well as its aftereffects on vertical visuospatial representation (Experiment 1) and on auditory frequency representation (Experiment 2). The experimental procedure was similar in both experiments: before and after prism adaptation to an upward or a downward optical deviation, healthy young participants performed an visual open-loop pointing task and a visual (Experiment 1) or an auditory (Experiment 2) perceptual bisection task. In the visual task, the participants had to indicate if they perceived the bisection as higher or lower than the true center of a line. In the auditory task, the participants had to indicate if they perceived the target auditory frequency closer to the low or the high limit of an auditory interval. For sensorimotor aftereffects, pointing errors were computed by means of a vertical touchscreen. For the perceptual bisection task, we measured the percentage of "down" (Experiment 1) or "low" responses (Experiment 2), and we computed the visual (Experiment 1) or the auditory (Experiment 2) subjective center for each participant. Statistical analyses were carried out separately for each optical deviation in each experiment. Sensorimotor aftereffects were observed in both experiments, in the opposite direction to the optical deviation (all ps < 0.01). No significant aftereffects occurred on visuospatial representation (all ps > 0.5), whereas the percentage of "low" responses and the auditory subjective center significantly increased after adaptation to a downward optical deviation (all ps < 0.05). Unlike lateral prism adaptation aftereffects that have been previously shown in both visuospatial horizontal representation and auditory frequency representation, aftereffects of vertical prism adaptation occurred in the auditory frequency representation but not in the vertical visuospatial representation. These results suggest that both vertical and lateral prism adaptations share a common substrate dedicated to the auditory modality (probably the temporal cortex), and that vertical adaptation does not act on the neural substrate of vertical visuospatial representation.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502861

RESUMO

We sought to examine whether short-term whole-body cold acclimation would modulate finger vasoreactivity and thermosensitivity to localized cooling. Fourteen men were equally assigned to either the experimental (CA) or the control (CON) group. The CA group was immersed to the chest in 14°C water for ≤120 min daily over a 5-day period, while the skin temperature of the right-hand fingers was clamped at ~35.5°C. The CON group was instructed to avoid any cold exposure during this period. Before and after the intervention, both groups performed, on two different consecutive days, a local cold provocation trial consisting of a 30-min hand immersion in 8°C water, while immersed to the chest once in 21°C (mild-hypothermic trial; 0.5°C fall in rectal temperature from individual pre-immersion values) and on the other occasion in 35.5°C (normothermic trial). In the CA group, the cold-induced reduction in finger temperature was less (mild-hypothermic trial: P = 0.05; normothermic trial: P = 0.02), and the incidence of the cold-induced vasodilation episodes was greater (in normothermic trials: P = 0.04) in the post than in the pre-acclimation trials. The right-hand thermal discomfort was also attenuated (mild-hypothermic trial: P = 0.04; normothermic trial: P = 0.01). The finger temperature responses of the CON group did not vary between testing periods. Our findings suggest that repetitive whole-body exposure to severe cold within a week, may attenuate finger vasoreactivity and thermosensitivity to localized cooling. These regional thermo-adaptions were ascribed to central neural habituation produced by the iterative, generalized cold stimulation.

9.
Mar Policy ; 141: 105093, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35540179

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced coastal communities around the world to re-evaluate their approaches to marine conservation and marine protected area (MPA) management. Initial studies have called for the need for improved social-ecological resilience of MPAs to improve the adaptive capacity of communities and ecosystems to respond to future crises. However, as posed by Armitage and Johnson (2006), it is critical that MPA managers ask the question "for what and for whom are we trying to promote resilience?" in designing more resilient MPAs for a post-pandemic world. Based on a systematic literature review of marine reserve impacts and supported by fieldwork conducted in the Wakatobi National Park in Indonesia over the course of the COVID-19 crisis, this study examines what opportunities for transformations in MPA management and governance have emerged, and how MPAs can focus on incorporating principles of equitable resilience as they build back from the pandemic. The findings demonstrate how equitable resilience can be undermined when the voices and interests of local communities are sidelined in favour of powerful interest groups such as tourism or NGOs. Ultimately, the paper concludes that planning for resilience in MPAs must synchronize with local realities to better realize the potential for system transformation and a reimagining of MPA capacity to better serve local communities.

10.
Cell Rep ; 39(6): 110796, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35545051

RESUMO

Malignant tumors exhibit altered metabolism resulting in a highly acidic extracellular microenvironment. Here, we show that cytoplasmic lipid droplet (LD) accumulation, indicative of a lipogenic phenotype, is a cellular adaption to extracellular acidity. LD marker PLIN2 is strongly associated with poor overall survival in breast cancer patients. Acid-induced LD accumulation is triggered by activation of the acid-sensing G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) OGR1, which is expressed highly in breast tumors. OGR1 depletion inhibits acid-induced lipid accumulation, while activation by a synthetic agonist triggers LD formation. Inhibition of OGR1 downstream signaling abrogates the lipogenic phenotype, which can be rescued with OGR1 ectopic expression. OGR1-depleted cells show growth inhibition under acidic growth conditions in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Isotope tracing shows that the source of lipid precursors is primarily autophagy-derived ketogenic amino acids. OGR1-depleted cells are defective in endoplasmic reticulum stress response and autophagy and hence fail to accumulate LDs affecting survival under acidic stress.

11.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 16: 748930, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547194

RESUMO

Improving dynamic balance can prevent falls in humans with neurological and mechanical deficits. Dynamic balance requires the neural integration of multisensory information to constantly assess the state of body mechanics. Prior research found that intermittent visual rotations improved balance training during walking on a narrow beam, but limitations from the immersive virtual reality headset hindered balance training effectiveness overall. We theorized that intermittent visual occlusions with electrically controlled liquid crystal glasses would overcome the previous limitations of the immersive virtual reality headset and provide a means to enhance dynamic balance training efficacy. Forty healthy young individuals walked on a treadmill-mounted balance beam for 30 min (20 subjects with intermittent visual occlusions and 20 subjects with unperturbed vision). Balance performance, in number of step-offs of the beam, improved by 78% for the visual occlusions group on the same day of the training, a near fourfold improvement compared to the 21% improvement for the unperturbed vision group (t(38) = -5.2, p < 0.001). The difference between groups was also apparent 2 weeks later testing for retention (60% improvement for the visual occlusions group, 5% for the unperturbed vision group; t(38) = -4.2, p < 0.001). Intermittent visual occlusions are likely a simple method for enhancing balance training in dynamic motor tasks.

12.
Cureus ; 14(4): e23997, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547405

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cases of knee osteoarthritis are on the rise in India with an increasingly ageing population. A large number among them shall undergo total knee replacement, so there is a requirement for validated patient-reported outcome measures in the Hindi language. Oxford Knee Score (OKS) is one of the most commonly used patient-reported outcome measure scoring systems. The current study was designed to test and validate cross-cultural adaptation and translate the Hindi version of the Oxford Knee Score (OKS-H).  Material and Methods: The OKS-H was formulated as per recommendations for cross-cultural adaptation and translation. The OKS was tested on 162 patients with knee osteoarthritis who underwent a total knee replacement. Reliability of the OKS-H was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. The construct validity was assessed using OKS-H, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) questionnaire.  Results: The translation was performed with no major difficulty. The OKS was completed by 158 (97.5%) and 157 (96.9%) patients at test and retest, respectively, after one week. With an ICC of 0.87, OKS had shown good reliability. The construct validity obtained against the WOMAC and SF-36 scores was strong (ICC between 0.49 to 0.86). CONCLUSION: The translated OKS-H is a reliable and valid instrument for patient-reported outcome measures in cases of knee osteoarthritis opting for total knee arthroplasty.

13.
Front Physiol ; 13: 897174, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547573

RESUMO

Mitochondria have been suggested to be paramount for temperature adaptation in insects. Considering the large range of environments colonized by this taxon, we hypothesized that species surviving large temperature changes would be those with the most flexible mitochondria. We thus investigated the responses of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to temperature in three flying insects: the honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica), the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata). Specifically, we measured oxygen consumption in permeabilized flight muscles of these species at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 45°C, sequentially using complex I substrates, proline, succinate, and glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P). Complex I respiration rates (CI-OXPHOS) were very sensitive to temperature in honeybees and fruit flies with high oxygen consumption at mid-range temperatures but a sharp decline at high temperatures. Proline oxidation triggers a major increase in respiration only in potato beetles, following the same pattern as CI-OXPHOS for honeybees and fruit flies. Moreover, both succinate and G3P oxidation allowed an important increase in respiration at high temperatures in honeybees and fruit flies (and to a lesser extent in potato beetles). However, when reaching 45°C, this G3P-induced respiration rate dropped dramatically in fruit flies. These results demonstrate that mitochondrial functions are more resilient to high temperatures in honeybees compared to fruit flies. They also indicate an important but species-specific mitochondrial flexibility for substrate oxidation to sustain high oxygen consumption levels at high temperatures and suggest previously unknown adaptive mechanisms of flying insects' mitochondria to temperature.

14.
Front Neural Circuits ; 16: 839361, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35547643

RESUMO

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are involved in critical tasks such as inspection and exploration. Thus, they have to perform several intelligent functions. Various control approaches have been proposed to implement these functions. Most classical UAV control approaches, such as model predictive control, require a dynamic model to determine the optimal control parameters. Other control approaches use machine learning techniques that require multiple learning trials to obtain the proper control parameters. All these approaches are computationally expensive. Our goal is to develop an efficient control system for UAVs that does not require a dynamic model and allows them to learn control parameters online with only a few trials and inexpensive computations. To achieve this, we developed a neural control method with fast online learning. Neural control is based on a three-neuron network, whereas the online learning algorithm is derived from a neural correlation-based learning principle with predictive and reflexive sensory information. This neural control technique is used here for the speed adaptation of the UAV. The control technique relies on a simple input signal from a compact optical distance measurement sensor that can be converted into predictive and reflexive sensory information for the learning algorithm. Such speed adaptation is a fundamental function that can be used as part of other complex control functions, such as obstacle avoidance. The proposed technique was implemented on a real UAV system. Consequently, the UAV can quickly learn within 3-4 trials to proactively adapt its flying speed to brake at a safe distance from the obstacle or target in the horizontal and vertical planes. This speed adaptation is also robust against wind perturbation. We also demonstrated a combination of speed adaptation and obstacle avoidance for UAV navigations, which is an important intelligent function toward inspection and exploration.

15.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 890083, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548301

RESUMO

Transient and chronic waterlogging constrains crop production in many regions of the world. Here, we invoke a novel iTRAQ-based proteomic strategy to elicit protein synthesis and regulation responses to waterlogging in tolerant (XM 55) and sensitive genotypes (YM 158). Of the 7,710 proteins identified, 16 were distinct between the two genotypes under waterlogging, partially defining a proteomic basis for waterlogging tolerance (and sensitivity). We found that 11 proteins were up-regulated and 5 proteins were down-regulated; the former included an Fe-S cluster assembly factor, heat shock cognate 70, GTP-binding protein SAR1A-like and CBS domain-containing protein. Down-regulated proteins contained photosystem II reaction center protein H, carotenoid 9, 10 (9', 10')-cleavage dioxygenase-like, psbP-like protein 1 and mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor. We showed that nine proteins responded to waterlogging with non-cultivar specificity: these included 3-isopropylmalate dehydratase large subunit, solanesyl-diphosphate synthase 2, DEAD-box ATP-dependent RNA helicase 3, and 3 predicted or uncharacterized proteins. Sixteen of the 28 selected proteins showed consistent expression patterns between mRNA and protein levels. We conclude that waterlogging stress may redirect protein synthesis, reduce chlorophyll synthesis and enzyme abundance involved in photorespiration, thus influencing synthesis of other metabolic enzymes. Collectively, these factors accelerate the accumulation of harmful metabolites in leaves in waterlogging-susceptible genotypes. The differentially expressed proteins enumerated here could be used as biological markers for enhancing waterlogging tolerance as part of future crop breeding programs.

16.
Front Psychol ; 13: 818036, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548501

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Polish version of the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2) and Flow State Scale-2 (FSS-2), for use with Polish adults and young adults. Currently, there are no tools that would allow us to study flow among Polish speakers. At the same time, due to the great interest in flow and its potential importance for effectiveness, cooperation, and learning, it is worth ensuring that reliable validated measurement questionnaires are available for people studying the Polish population. Study participants completed 856 questionnaires, of which 496 individuals (with an average age of 36.31 years) participated in the DFS-2 study and 360 individuals (with an average age of 33.46 years) participated in the FSS-2 study. The maximum likelihood estimator (MLR) was selected for the CFA analysis. Model fit was assessed using: χ2, comparative fit index (CFI), Tucker-Lewis index (TLI), and standardized root mean square of residuals (SRMR), and root mean square of approximation error (RMSEA). For both questionnaires, formative first-level models with nine factors and second-level models with nine factors loaded on a higher-order flow factor were compared using the Satorra-Bentler Scaled difference χ2 test. The ω coefficient was used to estimate the reliability of the FFS-2 and DFS-2 models tested in the CFA method. Confirmatory factor analysis of both DFS-2 structural models showed satisfactory model fit. Most of the fit indices for the hierarchical 2nd order FSS-2 model presented satisfactory values, except for SRMR. Both DFS-2 and FSS-2 factors tested in the analysis showed good reliability (ω ≥ 0.7). Our findings confirmed the reliability and validity of the Polish versions of DFS-2 and FSS-2 scales. The scales are reliable when applied to Polish adults and young adults.

17.
Mar Genomics ; 63: 100952, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568402

RESUMO

Roseivivax marinus strain TCYB24 is a rod-shaped bacterium of Rhodobacteraceae isolated from the gill of deep-sea mussel Bathymodiolus marisindicus which collected from the Tiancheng hydrothermal vent under depth of 2700 m on the southwest Indian ridge. In our previous study, the strain TCYB24 was proved to produce quorum sensing signal of N-Acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) and form biofilm. In order to determine its adaptive mechanism against the extreme environment of deep-sea hydrothermal vents, the whole genome was sequenced by high-throughput Illumina tag sequencing. The results show the whole genome consists of one circular chromosome and eight circular plasmids, with a total length of 4.60 Mb (G + C content of 67.4%), 4338 open reading frames, 46 tRNAs and 6 rRNA operons. According to the genome-wide functional annotation, numbers of heavy metal resistance, high pressure and cold adapting related genes were found. In addition, genes about exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis and secretion and biofilm formation, which facilitate bacteria to resist extreme environments, were identified. Intriguingly, a pair of RaiI/R-type quorum sensing system was discovered firstly in the bacterium isolated from hydrothermal environment. The results may help to understand genetic underpinning of extreme environmental adaptation mechanism of bacteria in deep-sea hydrothermal area.

18.
Mar Genomics ; 63: 100955, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35568404

RESUMO

Genome of Mycetocola spongiae MSC19T, a novel marine sponge-associated Actinobacteria isolated from the Mariana Trench sponge Cacospongia mycofijiensis, was sequenced. The genome has one circular chromosome of 3,196,754 bp, with an average GC content of 66.43 mol%, and 2887 coding sequences. Gene annotation shows that M. spongiae MSC19T possesses series of genes related to adaptation to deep-sea environmental stresses including cold shock, heat shock, osmotic stress and oxidative stress. Genes encoding for heavy metal resistance, multidrug resistance and multiple natural product biosynthesis which are crucial for survival in the extreme environment are also detected in the genome. The potentials to synthesize kinds of vitamins and eukaryotic-like proteins indicates the possible nutrient exchange and mutual recognization between M. spongiae MSC19T and its sponge host. The genome provides insights into the stress resistance and ecological fitness of bacterial symbionts in the deep-sea sponge holobionts.

19.
Fam Process ; 2022 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35570371

RESUMO

There has been an increase in the implementation of evidence-based parenting programs from high-income countries to several African countries. In this review, we systematically evaluated intervention studies of culturally adapted parenting programs in nine African countries with the objective of examining the quality of training for interventionists and cultural adaptation procedures. A total of 18 studies, obtained from an electronic search of 6 databases, met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated following PRISMA guidelines. The Ecological Validity Model was adopted to organize data on cultural adaptation procedures. Sixteen of the 18 studies reported information regarding the clinical training of interventionists and the cultural adaptations undertaken. Live and interactive workshops were the most common format used to train interventionists in the focal intervention. Overall, cultural adaptations in most studies included translation of intervention protocols into the local language. However, studies varied in the way cultural adaptation procedures were reported with some studies failing to report on cultural adaptation procedures. Concurring with previous literature, attending to issues of culture, power, privilege, access, sustainability, and other relevant concepts to increase the cultural relevance is highly encouraged in parent intervention studies in Africa. This review provides a baseline upon which future training and adaptation procedures can be built.

20.
Front Neuroinform ; 16: 856175, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35571867

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common mental health disorders that can affect sleep, mood, appetite, and behavior of people. Multimodal neuroimaging data, such as functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, have been widely used in computer-aided detection of MDD. However, previous studies usually treat these two modalities separately, without considering their potentially complementary information. Even though a few studies propose integrating these two modalities, they usually suffer from significant inter-modality data heterogeneity. In this paper, we propose an adaptive multimodal neuroimage integration (AMNI) framework for automated MDD detection based on functional and structural MRIs. The AMNI framework consists of four major components: (1) a graph convolutional network to learn feature representations of functional connectivity networks derived from functional MRIs, (2) a convolutional neural network to learn features of T1-weighted structural MRIs, (3) a feature adaptation module to alleviate inter-modality difference, and (4) a feature fusion module to integrate feature representations extracted from two modalities for classification. To the best of our knowledge, this is among the first attempts to adaptively integrate functional and structural MRIs for neuroimaging-based MDD analysis by explicitly alleviating inter-modality heterogeneity. Extensive evaluations are performed on 533 subjects with resting-state functional MRI and T1-weighted MRI, with results suggesting the efficacy of the proposed method.

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