Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.090
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256933, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364505

RESUMO

Abstract Anticarsia gemmatalis Hünber, 1818 is one of the main defoliating species in the soybean crop. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, 1915, is a bacterium used in the biological control of this pest species. Resistant populations and their sublethal effects caused by the use of the bacteria have already been reported; however, there are no studies on phenotypic plasticity in adulthood exposed to Bt-based bioinsecticide sub-doses. This study aimed to evaluate the morphometry of A. gemmatalis adults under laboratory conditions submitted to the Bt-based bioinsecticide Dipel® over the three generations. The body segments mensuread were width, length, and area of the anterior and posterior wings, the weight of the integument, chest, abdomen, wings, and the whole adult of males and females. Among the treatments, LC5 in the first generation and LC10 in the second generation were those with lower thresholds in relation to the weight of the chest and abdomen, considering the proportions of the body smaller than the females. The female's weight adulthood was reduced by 10% about males, and, only in the first generation. Males have larger body size and more pronounced phenotypic plasticity than females. Here, we demonstrate the first study assessing the phenotypic plasticity of A. gemmatalis adults.


Resumo Anticarsia gemmatalis Hünber, 1818 é uma das principais espécies desfolhadoras da cultura da soja. Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner, 1915, é uma bactéria utilizada no controle biológico dessa espécie de praga. Populações resistentes e seus efeitos subletais causados pelo uso da bactéria já foram relatados, no entanto, não há estudos sobre a plasticidade fenotípica na idade adulta exposta a subdoses de bioinseticida à base de Bt. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a morfometria de adultos de A. gemmatalis em condições de laboratório submetidos ao bioinseticida Dipel® ao longo de três gerações. Os segmentos corporais mensuráveis eram largura, comprimento e área das asas anterior e posterior, o peso do tegumento, tórax, abdômen, asas e todo o adulto de machos e fêmeas. Dentre os tratamentos, CL5 na primeira geração e CL10 na segunda geração foram aqueles com limiares mais baixos em relação ao peso do tórax e abdômen, considerando as proporções do corpo menores que as do sexo feminino. O peso da fêmea na idade adulta foi reduzido em 10% em relação aos machos e, apenas na primeira geração. Os machos têm tamanho corporal maior e plasticidade fenotípica mais pronunciada do que as fêmeas. Este estudo demonstra o primeiro estudo avaliando a plasticidade fenotípica de adultos de A. gemmatalis.

2.
Braz. J. Biol. ; 83: 1-5, 2023. mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | VETINDEX, VETINDEX | ID: vti-765542

RESUMO

This study estimated the length–weight relationships of 16 fish species occurring close to the shores of sandy beaches along the lower Negro River basin, Brazilian Amazon. The specimens were captured for one day each month, in October to November 2016, early in the morning and early evening, using trawl net (20 m length and 3.5 m height, 5 mm mesh between opposite knots). Measurements were taken for standard length (SL 0.1 cm precision) and total weight (TW 0.01 g precision). The parameters a and b of the equation WT = a.LTb were estimated. The a values ranged from 0.0018 to 0.0226 and b values ranged from 2.5271 to 3.3244. This study also provides new data on of maximum lengths for six species, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa and Trachydoras microstomus, and new reports of the LWRs parameters of 15 fish species.(AU)


Este estudo estimou as relações comprimento-peso de 16 espécies de peixes que ocorrem às margens de praias arenosas ao longo da bacia do baixo Rio Negro, Amazônia brasileira. As espécies foram capturadas durante um dia de cada mês, de outubro a novembro de 2016, no início da manhã e no início da noite, usando rede de cerco (20 m de comprimento e 3,5 m de altura, 5 malha mm entre nós opostos). As medidas foram feitas para comprimento padrão (SL - precisão de 0,1 cm) e peso total (TW - precisão de 0,01 g). Os parâmetros a e b da equação WT = a.LTb foram estimados. Os valores de a variaram de 0,0018 a 0,0226 e os valores de b variaram de 2,5271 a 3,3244. Este estudo também fornece novos dados sobre comprimentos máximos para seis espécies, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa e Trachydoras microstomus, e novos reportes dos parâmetros da LWRs de 15 espécies de peixes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes/anatomia & histologia , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250003, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339392

RESUMO

Abstract This study estimated the length-weight relationships of 16 fish species occurring close to the shores of sandy beaches along the lower Negro River basin, Brazilian Amazon. The specimens were captured for one day each month, in October to November 2016, early in the morning and early evening, using trawl net (20 m taken for standard length (SL - 0.1 cm precision) and total weight (TW - 0.01 g precision). The parameters a and b of the equation WT = a.LTb were estimated. The a values ranged from 0.0018 to 0.0226 and b values ranged from 2.5271 to 3.3244. This study also provides new data on of maximum lengths for six species, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa and Trachydoras microstomus, and new reports of the LWRs parameters of 15 fish species.


Resumo Este estudo estimou as relações comprimento-peso de 16 espécies de peixes que ocorrem às margens de praias arenosas ao longo da bacia do baixo Rio Negro, Amazônia brasileira. As espécies foram capturadas durante um dia de cada mês, de outubro a novembro de 2016, no início da manhã e no início da noite, usando rede de cerco (20 m de comprimento e 3,5 m de altura, 5 malha mm entre nós opostos). As medidas foram feitas para comprimento padrão (SL - precisão de 0,1 cm) e peso total (TW - precisão de 0,01 g). Os parâmetros a e b da equação WT = a.LTb foram estimados. Os valores de a variaram de 0,0018 a 0,0226 e os valores de b variaram de 2,5271 a 3,3244. Este estudo também fornece novos dados sobre comprimentos máximos para seis espécies, Amazonsprattus scintilla, Brycon pesu, Moenkhausia megalops, Pachyurus paucirastrus, Reganella depressa e Trachydoras microstomus, e novos reportes dos parâmetros da LWRs de 15 espécies de peixes.


Assuntos
Animais , Perciformes , Caraciformes , Characidae , Brasil , Rios
4.
PeerJ ; 10: e13229, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35502208

RESUMO

Background: Domestication, including selective breeding, can lead to morphological changes of biomechanical relevance. In birds, limb proportions and sternum characteristics are of great importance and have been studied in the past for their relation with flight, terrestrial locomotion and animal welfare. In this work we studied the effects of domestication and breed formation in limb proportions and sternum characteristics in chicken (Gallus gallus), mallard ducks (Anas plathyrhynchos) and Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata). Methods: First, we quantified the proportional length of three long bones of the forelimb (humerus, radius, and carpometacarpus) and the hind limb (femur, tibiotarsus, and tarsometatarsus) in domestic chickens, mallard ducks, and Muscovy ducks and their wild counterparts. For this, we took linear measurements of these bones and compared their proportions in the wild vs. the domestic group in each species. In chicken, these comparisons could also be conducted among different breeds. We then evaluated the proportional differences in the context of static and ontogenetic allometry. Further, we compared discrete sternum characteristics in red jungle fowl and chicken breeds. In total, we examined limb bones of 287 specimens and keel bones of 63 specimens. Results: We found a lack of significant change in the proportions of limb bones of chicken and Muscovy duck due to domestication, but significant differences in the case of mallard ducks. Variation of evolvability, allometric scaling, and heterochrony may serve to describe some of the patterns of change we report. Flight capacity loss in mallard ducks resulting from domestication may have a relation with the difference in limb proportions. The lack of variation in proportions that could distinguish domestic from wild forms of chicken and Muscovy ducks may reflect no selection for flight capacity during the domestication process in these groups. In chicken, some of the differences identified in the traits discussed are breed-dependent. The study of the sternum revealed that the condition of crooked keel was not unique to domestic chicken, that some sternal characteristics were more frequent in certain chicken breeds than in others, and that overall there were no keel characteristics that are unique for certain chicken breeds. Despite some similar morphological changes identified across species, this study highlights the lack of universal patterns in domestication and breed formation.

5.
Ecol Appl ; : e2646, 2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35524985

RESUMO

Estimating tree leaf biomass can be challenging in applications where predictions for multiple tree species is required. This is especially evident where there is limited or no data available for some of the species of interest. Here, we use an extensive national database of observations (61 species; 3628 trees) and formulate models of varying complexity, ranging from a simple model with diameter at breast height (DBH) as the only predictor, to more complex models with up to eight predictors (DBH, leaf longevity, live crown ratio, wood specific gravity, shade tolerance, mean annual temperature, and mean annual precipitation), to estimate tree leaf biomass for any species across the continental United States. The most complex with all eight predictors was the best and explained 74-86% of the variation in leaf mass. Consideration was given to the difficulty of measuring all of these predictor variables for model application, but many are easily obtained or are already widely collected. Because most of the model variables are independent of species and key species level variables are available from published values, our results show that leaf biomass can be estimated for new species not included in the data used to fit the model. The latter assertion was evaluated using a novel 'leave-one-species out' cross validation approach, which showed that our chosen model performs similarly for species used to calibrate the model, as well as those not used to develop it. The models exhibited a strong bias towards overestimation for a relatively small subset of the trees. Despite these limitations, the models presented here can provide leaf biomass estimates for multiple species over large spatial scales and can be applied to new species or species with limited leaf biomass data available.

6.
Data Brief ; 42: 108155, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35515994

RESUMO

This dataset comprises tree inventories and damage assessments performed in Namibia's semi-arid Zambezi Region. Data were sampled in savannas and savanna woodlands along steep gradients of elephant population densities to capture the effects of those (and other) disturbances on individual-level and stand-level aboveground woody biomass (AGB). The dataset contains raw data on dendrometric measures and processed data on specific wood density (SWD), woody aboveground biomass, and biomass losses through disturbance impacts. Allometric proxies (height, canopy diameters, and in adult trees also stem circumferences) were recorded for n = 6,179 tree and shrub individuals. Wood samples were taken for each encountered species to measure specific wood density. These measurements have been used to estimate woody aboveground biomass via established allometric models, advanced through our improved methodologies and workflows that accounted for tree and shrub architecture shaped by disturbance impacts. To this end, we performed a detailed damage assessment on each woody individual in the field. In addition to estimations of standing biomass, our new method also delivered data on biomass losses to different disturbance agents (elephants, fire, and others) on the level of plant individuals and stands. The data presented here have been used within a study published with Ecological Indicators (Kindermann et al., 2022) to evaluate the benefits of our improved methodology in comparison to a standard reference method of aboveground biomass estimations. Additionally, it has been employed in a study on carbon storage and sequestration in vegetation and soils (Sandhage-Hofmann et al., 2021). The raw data of dendrometric measurements can be subjected to other available allometric models for biomass estimation. The processed data can be used to analyze disturbance impacts on woody aboveground biomass, or for regional carbon storage estimates. The data on species-specific wood density can be used for application to other dendrometric datasets to (re-) estimate biomass through allometric models requiring wood density. It can further be used for plant functional trait analyses.

7.
AAPS J ; 24(3): 67, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35538161

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to propose a unified, continuous, and bodyweight-only equation to quantify the changes of human basal metabolic rate (BMR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and drug clearance (CL) from infancy to adulthood. The BMR datasets were retrieved from a comprehensive historical database of male and female subjects (0.02 to 64 years). The CL datasets for 17 drugs and the GFR dataset were generated from published maturation and growth models with reported parameter values. A statistical approach was used to simulate the model-generated CL and GFR data for a hypothetical population with 26 age groups (from 0 to 20 years). A biphasic equation with two power-law functions of bodyweight was proposed and evaluated as a general model using nonlinear regression and dimensionless analysis. All datasets universally reveal biphasic curves with two distinct linear segments on log-log plots. The biphasic equation consists of two reciprocal allometric terms that asymptotically determine the overall curvature. The fitting results show a superlinear scaling phase (asymptotic exponent >1; ca. 1.5-3.5) and a sublinear scaling phase (asymptotic exponent <1; ca. 0.5-0.7), which are separated at the phase transition bodyweight ranging from 5 to 20 kg with a mean value of 10 kg (corresponding to 1 year of age). The dimensionless analysis generalizes and offers quantitative realization of the maturation and growth process. In conclusion, the proposed mixed-allometry equation is a generic model that quantitatively describes the phase transition in the human maturation process of diverse human functions.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal , Modelos Biológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Vias de Eliminação de Fármacos , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica , Adulto Jovem
9.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 845813, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35360321

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N) is an important element for most terrestrial ecosystems; its variation among different plant organs, and allocation mechanisms are the basis for the structural stability and functional optimization of natural plant communities. The nature of spatial variations of N and its allocation mechanisms in plants in the Tibetan Plateau-known as the world's third pole-have not been reported on a large scale. In this study, we consistently investigated the N content in different organs of plants in 1564 natural community plots in Tibet Plateau, using a standard spatial-grid sampling setup. On average, the N content was estimated to be 19.21, 4.12, 1.14, and 10.86 mg g-1 in the leaf, branch, trunk, and root, respectively, with small spatial variations. Among organs in communities, leaves were the most active, and had the highest N content, independent of the spatial location; as for vegetation type, communities dominated by herbaceous plants had higher N content than those dominated by woody plants. Furthermore, the allocation of N among different plant organs was allometric, and not significantly influenced by vegetation types and environmental factors; the homeostasis of N was also not affected much by the environment, and varied among the plant organs. In addition, the N allocation strategy within Tibet Plateau for different plant organs was observed to be consistent with that in China. Our findings systematically explore for the first time, the spatial variations in N and allometric mechanisms in natural plant communities in Tibet Plateau and establish a spatial-parameters database to optimize N cycle models.

10.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429139

RESUMO

Mandibular morphology is determined not only by dietary habits, but also by sexual selection and allometry in primates. It is well-known that African papionins show intra- and interspecific variations through varied extensions of a common ontogenetic allometric trajectory in the face. Here, we used geometric morphometrics to compare the ontogenetic trajectories of large-bodied Japanese macaques and small-bodied long-tailed macaques in the sister clade of African papionins. The two species showed a major common allometric trend that was comparable to that of African papionins, but the allometric trajectory was transposed parallel to each other with few interspecies differences in mandibular shape. A minor allometric trend occurred before the eruption of the first molar. During extensino of this allometric trend in Japanese macaques, mandibular shape becomes mechanically suitable for processing tough food items in their dietary repertoire in winter. The decoupling of size and shape in the major allometric trend can allow for adaptive modifications in mandibular shape, which in turn may play a central role in speciation in macaques. Compared to other African papionins, macaques are widely distributed in temperate areas and have survived in fluctuating climates and habitats. Thus, evolutionary modifications that occur in different ontogenetic bases can result in variations in size and shape that are uniquely adaptive for a given clade.

11.
J Exp Biol ; 225(8)2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35483405

RESUMO

Acoustic allometry occurs when features of animal vocalisations can be predicted from body size measurements. Despite this being considered the norm, allometry sometimes breaks, resulting in species sounding smaller or larger than expected for their size. A recent hypothesis suggests that allometry-breaking mammals cluster into two groups: those with anatomical adaptations to their vocal tracts and those capable of learning new sounds (vocal learners). Here, we tested which mechanism is used to escape from acoustic allometry by probing vocal tract allometry in a proven mammalian vocal learner, the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina). We tested whether vocal tract structures and body size scale allometrically in 68 young individuals. We found that both body length and body mass accurately predict vocal tract length and one tracheal dimension. Independently, body length predicts vocal fold length while body mass predicts a second tracheal dimension. All vocal tract measures are larger in weaners than in pups and some structures are sexually dimorphic within age classes. We conclude that harbour seals do comply with anatomical allometric constraints. However, allometry between body size and vocal fold length seems to emerge after puppyhood, suggesting that ontogeny may modulate the anatomy-learning distinction previously hypothesised as clear cut. We suggest that seals, and perhaps other species producing signals that deviate from those expected from their vocal tract dimensions, may break allometry without morphological adaptations. In seals, and potentially other vocal learning mammals, advanced neural control over vocal organs may be the main mechanism for breaking acoustic allometry.


Assuntos
Mamíferos , Vocalização Animal , Acústica , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Prega Vocal/anatomia & histologia
12.
Am J Bot ; 2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35435252

RESUMO

PREMISE: Comparative anatomy is necessary to identify the extremes of combinations of functionally relevant structural traits, to ensure that physiological data cover xylem anatomical diversity adequately, together achieving a global understanding of xylem structure-function relations. A key trait relationship is that between xylem vessel diameter and wall thickness, both the single vessel wall as well as the double vessel+adjacent imperforate tracheary element (ITE) wall. METHODS: We compiled a comparative dataset with 1093 samples, 858 species, 350 genera, 86 families, and 33 orders. We used broken linear regression and an algorithm exploring changes in parameter values from linear regressions using subsets of the dataset to identify a threshold, at 90 µm vessel diameter, in the wall thickness-diameter relationship. KEY RESULTS: Below 90 µm in diameter, virtually any wall thickness could be associated with virtually any diameter. Below this threshold, selection is free to favor a very wide array of combinations, such as very thick walls and narrow vessels in ITE-free herbs, or very thin-walled, wide vessels in evergreen dryland pioneers. Above 90 µm, there was a moderate positive relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that the space of vessel wall thickness-diameter combinations is very wide, with selection eliminating individuals with vessel walls "too thin" for their diameter. Most importantly, our survey revealed apparently poorly-studied plant hydraulic syndromes (functionally significant trait combinations). These data suggest that the full span of trait combinations, and thus the minimal set of hydraulic syndromes requiring study to span woody plant functional diversity adequately, remains to be documented. Keywords This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(16): e2114935119, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412896

RESUMO

SignificanceDuring human birth, the risk of complications is relatively high because of the comparatively large dimensions of the fetal head and shoulders relative to the maternal birth canal. Here we show that humans exhibit a developmental mode of the shoulders that likely contributes to mitigating obstetrical problems. Human shoulder growth is decelerated before birth but accelerated after birth, which stands in contrast to the more uniform shoulder growth trajectories of chimpanzees and macaques. This indicates that fetal developmental modifications were required during human evolution not only in the head but also in the shoulders to compensate obstetrical constraints.


Assuntos
Distocia do Ombro , Ombro , Animais , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Macaca fuscata , Pan troglodytes , Parto , Gravidez , Risco , Ombro/embriologia , Ombro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Distocia do Ombro/epidemiologia
14.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 825097, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35401584

RESUMO

With current observations and future projections of more intense and frequent droughts in the tropics, understanding the impact that extensive dry periods may have on tree and ecosystem-level transpiration and concurrent carbon uptake has become increasingly important. Here, we investigate paired soil and tree water extraction dynamics in an old-growth upland forest in central Amazonia during the 2018 dry season. Tree water use was assessed via radial patterns of sap flow in eight dominant canopy trees, each a different species with a range in diameter, height, and wood density. Paired multi-sensor soil moisture probes used to quantify volumetric water content dynamics and soil water extraction within the upper 100 cm were installed adjacent to six of those trees. To link depth-specific water extraction patterns to root distribution, fine root biomass was assessed through the soil profile to 235 cm. To scale tree water use to the plot level (stand transpiration), basal area was measured for all trees within a 5 m radius around each soil moisture probe. The sensitivity of tree transpiration to reduced precipitation varied by tree, with some increasing and some decreasing in water use during the dry period. Tree-level water use scaled with sapwood area, from 11 to 190 L per day. Stand level water use, based on multiple plots encompassing sap flow and adjacent trees, varied from ∼1.7 to 3.3 mm per day, increasing linearly with plot basal area. Soil water extraction was dependent on root biomass, which was dense at the surface (i.e., 45% in the upper 5 cm) and declined dramatically with depth. As the dry season progressed and the upper soil dried, soil water extraction shifted to deeper levels and model projections suggest that much of the water used during the month-long dry-down could be extracted from the upper 2-3 m. Results indicate variation in rates of soil water extraction across the research area and, temporally, through the soil profile. These results provide key information on whole-tree contributions to transpiration by canopy trees as water availability changes. In addition, information on simultaneous stand level dynamics of soil water extraction that can inform mechanistic models that project tropical forest response to drought.

15.
J Exp Biol ; 225(7)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438776

RESUMO

The movement of limbless terrestrial animals differs fundamentally from that of limbed animals, yet few scaling studies of their locomotor kinematics and morphology are available. We examined scaling and relations of morphology and locomotion in sidewinder rattlesnakes (Crotalus cerastes). During sidewinding locomotion, a snake lifts sections of its body up and forward while other sections maintain static ground contact. We used high-speed video to quantify whole-animal speed and acceleration; the height to which body sections are lifted; and the frequency, wavelength, amplitude and skew angle (degree of tilting) of the body wave. Kinematic variables were not sexually dimorphic, and most did not deviate from isometry, except wave amplitude. Larger sidewinders were not faster, contrary to many results from limbed terrestrial animals. Free from the need to maintain dynamic similarity (because their locomotion is dominated by friction rather than inertia), limbless species may have greater freedom to modulate speed independently of body size. Path analysis supported: (1) a hypothesized relationship between body width and wavelength, indicating that stouter sidewinders form looser curves; (2) a strong relationship between cycle frequency and whole-animal speed; and (3) weaker effects of wavelength (positive) and amplitude (negative) on speed. We suggest that sidewinding snakes may face a limit on stride length (to which amplitude and wavelength both contribute), beyond which they sacrifice stability. Thus, increasing frequency may be the best way to increase speed. Finally, frequency and skew angle were correlated, a result that deserves future study from the standpoint of both kinematics and physiology.


Assuntos
Crotalus , Locomoção , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Tamanho Corporal , Crotalus/fisiologia , Extremidades , Locomoção/fisiologia
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1973): 20220456, 2022 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35473385

RESUMO

Hibernation is a natural state of suspended animation that many mammals experience and has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy for saving energy. However, the actual amount of savings that hibernation represents, and particularly its dependence on body mass (the 'scaling') has not been calculated properly. Here, we estimated the scaling of daily energy expenditure of hibernation (DEEH), covering a range of five orders of magnitude in mass. We found that DEEH scales isometrically with mass, which means that a gram of hibernating bat has a similar metabolism to that of a gram of bear, 20 000 times larger. Given that metabolic rate of active animals scales allometrically, the point where these scaling curves intersect with DEEH represents the mass where energy savings by hibernation are zero. For BMR, these zero savings are attained for a relatively small bear (approx. 75 kg). Calculated on a per cell basis, the cellular metabolic power of hibernation was estimated to be 1.3 × 10-12 ± 2.6 × 10-13 W cell-1, which is lower than the minimum metabolism of isolated mammalian cells. This supports the idea of the existence of a minimum metabolism that permits cells to survive under a combination of cold and hypoxia.


Assuntos
Hibernação , Ursidae , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Mamíferos
17.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(3)2022 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336781

RESUMO

The freshwater eel Anguilla japonica is rapidly decreasing in number and has not yet been successfully mass produced. This may be at least partially attributable to the unique and long early life history of the eel. Therefore, we investigated its ontogeny of morphometry and growth pattern in larval stages to provide baseline information for understanding the early life history and improving seed rearing technology. This study was conducted for 200 days after hatching (DAH) and analyzed morphometry and allometry for eel larvae. The following cultured eel larval stages were identified: the yolk sac larvae stage (0-6 DAH, 3.23-6.85 mm total length (TL)), the pre-leptocephalus stage (7-30 DAH, 6.85-15.31 mm TL), and the leptocephalus stage (50-200 DAH, 15.31-60.06 mm TL). Cultured and wild eel larvae could be divided into characteristic larval stages at similar sizes. However, compared to wild eels, cultured eels had a slower growth rate and fewer preanal myomeres. Meanwhile, cultured eel larvae rarely had a mixed feeding period as the absorption of endogenous reserves was completed by 7 DAH. The lower jaw of eel larvae was significantly longer than the upper jaw from 50 DAH. In the pre-leptocephalus and leptocephalus stages, eel larvae showed continuous positive allometric growth at trunk height and tail muscle height with change to the willow leaf-like form. These growth characteristics may be the result of adaptation to the migration over long distances and to a diel vertical migration. The inflection point in the body parts growth patterns showed only before 30 DAH, and mass mortality appeared at this period. Therefore, to improve the growth and survival rates of cultured eel seed, it is necessary to focus on improving the feeding and rearing protocol until 30 DAH.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 798035, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35356106

RESUMO

The leaf economics spectrum (LES) is the leading theory of plant ecological strategies based on functional traits, which explains the trade-off between dry matter investment in leaf structure and the potential rate of resource return, revealing general patterns of leaf economic traits investment for different plant growth types, functional types, or biomes. Prior work has revealed the moderating role of different environmental factors on the LES, but whether the leaf trait bivariate relationships are shifted across climate regions or across continental scales requires further verification. Here we use the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, a very widely used and robust criterion, as a basis for classifying climate regions to explore climatic differences in leaf trait relationships. We compiled five leaf economic traits from a global dataset, including leaf dry matter content (LDMC), specific leaf area (SLA), photosynthesis per unit of leaf dry mass (Amass), leaf nitrogen concentration (Nmass), and leaf phosphorus concentration (Pmass). Moreover, we primarily used the standardized major axis (SMA) analysis to establish leaf trait bivariate relationships and to explore differences in trait relationships across climate regions as well as intercontinental differences within the same climate type. Leaf trait relationships were significantly correlated across almost all subgroups (P < 0.001). However, there was no common slope among different climate zones or climate types and the slopes of the groups fluctuated sharply up and down from the global estimates. The range of variation in the SMA slope of each leaf relationship was as follows: LDMC-SLA relationships (from -0.84 to -0.41); Amass-SLA relationships (from 0.83 to 1.97); Amass-Nmass relationships (from 1.33 to 2.25); Nmass-Pmass relationships (from 0.57 to 1.02). In addition, there was significant slope heterogeneity among continents within the Steppe climate (BS) or the Temperate humid climate (Cf). The shifts of leaf trait relationships in different climate regions provide evidence for environmentally driven differential plant investment in leaf economic traits. Understanding these differences helps to better calibrate various plant-climate models and reminds us that smaller-scale studies may need to be carefully compared with global studies.

19.
J Neurosci ; 42(18): 3704-3715, 2022 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35318286

RESUMO

Scaling between subcomponents of folding and total brain volume (TBV) in healthy individuals (HIs) is allometric. It is unclear whether this is true in schizophrenia (SZ) or first-episode psychosis (FEP). This study confirmed normative allometric scaling norms in HIs using discovery and replication samples. Cross-sectional and longitudinal diagnostic differences in folding subcomponents were then assessed using an allometric framework. Structural imaging from a longitudinal (Sample 1: HI and SZ, nHI Baseline = 298, nSZ Baseline = 169, nHI Follow-up = 293, nSZ Follow-up = 168, totaling 1087 images, all individuals ≥ 2 images, age 16-69 years) and a cross-sectional sample (Sample 2: nHI = 61 and nFEP = 89, age 10-30 years), all human males and females, is leveraged to calculate global folding and its nested subcomponents: sulcation index (SI, total sulcal/cortical hull area) and determinants of sulcal area: sulcal length and sulcal depth. Scaling of SI, sulcal area, and sulcal length with TBV in SZ and FEP was allometric and did not differ from HIs. Longitudinal age trajectories demonstrated steeper loss of SI and sulcal area through adulthood in SZ. Longitudinal allometric analysis revealed that both annual change in SI and sulcal area was significantly stronger related to change in TBV in SZ compared with HIs. Our results detail the first evidence of the disproportionate contribution of changes in SI and sulcal area to TBV changes in SZ. Longitudinal allometric analysis of sulcal morphology provides deeper insight into lifespan trajectories of cortical folding in SZ.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Psychotic disorders are associated with deficits in cortical folding and brain size, but we lack knowledge of how these two morphometric features are related. We leverage cross-sectional and longitudinal samples in which we decompose folding into a set of nested subcomponents: sulcal and hull area, and sulcal depth and length. We reveal that, in both schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis, (1) scaling of subcomponents with brain size is different from expected scaling laws and (2) caution is warranted when interpreting results from traditional methods for brain size correction. Longitudinal allometric scaling points to loss of sulcal area as a principal contributor to loss of brain size in schizophrenia. These findings advance the understanding of cortical folding atypicalities in psychotic disorders.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Cerebral , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Exp Biol ; 225(Suppl_1)2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35258613

RESUMO

Speed regulation in animals involves stride frequency and stride length. While the relationship between these variables has been well documented, it remains unresolved whether animals primarily modify stride frequency or stride length to increase speed. In this study, we explored the interrelationships between these three variables across a sample of 103 tetrapods and assessed whether speed regulation strategy is influenced by mechanical, allometric, phylogenetic or ecological factors. We observed that crouched terrestrial species tend to regulate speed through stride frequency. Such a strategy is energetically costly, but results in greater locomotor maneuverability and greater stability. In contrast, regulating speed through stride length is closely tied to larger arboreal animals with relatively extended limbs. Such movements reduce substrate oscillations on thin arboreal supports and/or helps to reduce swing phase costs. The slope of speed on frequency is lower in small crouched animals than in large-bodied erect species. As a result, substantially more rapid limb movements are matched with only small speed increases in crouched, small-bodied animals. Furthermore, the slope of speed on stride length was inversely proportional to body mass. As such, small changes in stride length can result in relatively rapid speed increases for small-bodied species. These results are somewhat counterintuitive, in that larger species, which have longer limbs and take longer strides, do not appear to gain as much speed increase out of lengthening their stride. Conversely, smaller species that cycle their limbs rapidly do not gain as much speed out of increasing stride frequency as do larger species.


Assuntos
Marcha , Locomoção , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha/fisiologia , Locomoção/fisiologia , Filogenia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA