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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(5): e3316-e3326, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35687561

RESUMO

Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are a worldwide threat to animal and human health. As wild waterfowl circulate and spread these viruses around the world, investigations of AIV prevalence in wild populations are critical for understanding pathogen transmission, as well as predicting disease outbreaks in domestic animals and humans. Surveillance efforts in this study have isolated H4N6 for the first time in Israel from a faecal sample of a wild mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). Phylogenetic analyses of the HA and NA genes revealed that this strain is closely related to isolates from Europe and Asia. This Eurasian origin, together with Israel serving as an important migratory bottleneck of the mid Palearctic-African flyway, suggests a potential introduction of this strain by migratory birds. Additional phylogenetic analysis of the isolate's internal genes (PB1, PB2, PA, NP, M and NS) revealed high levels of phylogenetic relatedness with other AIV subtypes, indicating previous reassortment events. High reassortment rates are characteristic for H4N6 viruses, which, together with this subtype's ability to infect pigs and adaptability to the human receptor binding domain, raises the concern that it would potentially become zoonotic in the future. These results emphasize the importance of continuous AIV monitoring in migratory birds.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Doenças dos Suínos , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aves , Patos , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Suínos
2.
J Anim Ecol ; 91(8): 1612-1626, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35603988

RESUMO

The management of sustainable harvest of animal populations is of great ecological and conservation importance. Development of formal quantitative tools to estimate and mitigate the impacts of harvest on animal populations has positively impacted conservation efforts. The vast majority of existing harvest models, however, do not simultaneously estimate ecological and harvest impacts on demographic parameters and population trends. Given that the impacts of ecological drivers are often equal to or greater than the effects of harvest, and can covary with harvest, this disconnect has the potential to lead to flawed inference. In this study, we used Bayesian hierarchical models and a 43-year capture-mark-recovery dataset from 404,241 female mallards Anas platyrhynchos released in the North American midcontinent to estimate mallard demographic parameters. Furthermore, we model the dynamics of waterfowl hunters and habitat, and the direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic and ecological processes on mallard demographic parameters. We demonstrate that density dependence, habitat conditions and harvest can simultaneously impact demographic parameters of female mallards, and discuss implications for existing and future harvest management models. Our results demonstrate the importance of controlling for multicollinearity among demographic drivers in harvest management models, and provide evidence for multiple mechanisms that lead to partial compensation of mallard harvest. We provide a novel model structure to assess these relationships that may allow for improved inference and prediction in future iterations of harvest management models across taxa.


Assuntos
Efeitos Antropogênicos , Ecossistema , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Patos , Feminino , Dinâmica Populacional
3.
Vet Sci ; 9(5)2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35622742

RESUMO

Although waterfowl are the primary reservoir for multiple subtypes of influenza A virus (IAV), our understanding of population immunity in naturally infected waterfowl is poorly understood. Population immunity may be an important driver of seasonal subtype predominance in waterfowl populations and may affect the potential for establishment of introduced IAV such as the Eurasian-like A/Goose/Guangdong/1/1996 lineage in these populations. Here, we examine the prevalence of naturally acquired antibodies to nucleoprotein (NP), hemagglutinin (H3, H4, H5), and neuraminidase (N1, N2, N6, N8) in early migrating mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) sampled in Northwest Minnesota during staging and early fall migration in September 2014, 2015, 2017, and 2018. Serologic results were compared to historic and contemporary virus isolation results from these same study sites. The prevalence of antibodies to NP ranged from 60.8-76.1% in hatch-year (HY) birds and from 86.0-92.7% in after-hatch-year (AHY, >1-year-old) mallards indicating a high level of previous infection with IAV early in the fall migration season. Neutralizing antibodies were detected against H3, H4, and H5 in all years as were antibodies to N1, N2, N6, and N8. A high proportion of NP seropositive ducks tested positive for antibodies to multiple HA and NA subtypes, and this was more common in the AHY age class. Antibody prevalence to the HA and NA subtypes included in this study were consistent with the predominance of H4N6 in these populations during all years and reflected a broadening of the antibody response with age. Additional work is needed to document the longevity of these immune responses, if and how they correlate with protection against IAV transmission, infection, and disease, and if, as detected in this study, they adequately describe the true extent of exposure to IAV or specific HA or NA subtypes.

4.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35632743

RESUMO

The subtype H6N6 has been identified worldwide following the increasing frequency of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). These AIVs also have the ability to bind to human-like receptors, thereby increasing the risk of animal-human transmission. In September 2019, an H6N6 avian influenza virus-KNU2019-48 (A/Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)/South Korea/KNU 2019-48/2019(H6N6))-was isolated from Anas platyrhynchos in South Korea. Phylogenetic analysis results revealed that the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of this strain belongs to the Korean lineage, whereas the neuraminidase (NA) and polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1) genes belong to the Chinese lineage. Outstanding internal proteins such as PB2, polymerase acidic protein, nucleoprotein, matrix protein, and non-structural protein belong to the Vietnamese lineage. Additionally, a monobasic amino acid (PRIETR↓GLF) at the HA cleavage site; non-deletion of the stalk region (residue 59-69) in the NA gene; and E627 in the PB2 gene indicate that the KNU2019-48 isolate is a typical low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus. The nucleotide sequence similarity analysis of HA revealed that the highest homology (97.18%) of this isolate is to that of A/duck/Jiangxi/01.14 NCJD125-P/2015(H6N6), and the amino acid sequence of NA (97.38%) is closely related to that of A/duck/Fujian/10.11_FZHX1045-C/2016 (H6N6). An in vitro analysis of the KNU2019-48 virus shows a virus titer of not more than 2.8 Log10 TCID 50/mL until 72 h post-infection, whereas in the lungs, the virus is detected at 3 dpi (days post-infection). The isolated KNU2019-48 (H6N6) strain is the first reported AIV in Korea, and the H6 subtype virus has co-circulated in China, Vietnam, and Korea for half a decade. Overall, our study demonstrates that Korean H6N6 strain PB1-S375N, PA-A404S, and S409N mutations are infectious in humans and might contribute to the enhanced pathogenicity of this strain. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of continuous and intensive surveillance of the H6N6 virus not only in Korea but also worldwide.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Patos , Neuraminidase/genética , Filogenia , República da Coreia
5.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 633283, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970593

RESUMO

Avian influenza is a disease with every possibility to evolve as a human-to-human pandemic arising out of frequent mutations and genetic reassortment or recombination of avian influenza (AI) virus. The greatest concern is that till date, no satisfactory medicine or vaccines are available, leading to massive culling of poultry birds, causing huge economic loss and ban on export of chicken products, which emphasizes the need to develop an alternative strategy for control of AI. In the current study, we attempt to explore the molecular mechanism of innate immune potential of ducks against avian influenza. In the present study, we have characterized immune response molecules such as duck TLR3, TLR7, and RIGI that are predicted to have potent antiviral activities against the identified strain of avian influenza through in silico studies (molecular docking) followed by experimental validation with differential mRNA expression analysis. Future exploitation may include immunomodulation with the recombinant protein, and transgenic or gene-edited chicken resistant to bird flu.

6.
J Avian Med Surg ; 35(3): 361-366, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677035

RESUMO

An Indian runner duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) was presented for a second opinion after a linear, metallic foreign body was identified on radiographic images. The primary veterinarian performed diagnostic imaging while investigating the presenting complaint of the duck's left pelvic limb lameness. The images obtained from a computed tomography scan performed during the second-opinion visit revealed a linear, metallic foreign body with an associated migration tract originating from the ventriculus and terminating in the proximal left femur. Significant osteomyelitis was noted at the proximal left femur associated with the presence of the linear, metallic object. The foreign body and the adhesions associated with its migration were removed in 2, staged, surgical procedures. Although penetrating ventricular foreign bodies have been previously reported, migration through the cortex of a long bone is an unusual presentation. This case demonstrates that perforating, migrating, gastrointestinal foreign bodies can result in lameness refractory to analgesia and ancillary supportive care.


Assuntos
Patos , Corpos Estranhos , Animais , Corpos Estranhos/complicações , Corpos Estranhos/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária , Moela das Aves , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 306, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521392

RESUMO

Globally, outbreaks of Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) in poultry continue to burden economies and endanger human, livestock and wildlife health. Wild waterbirds are often identified as possible sources for poultry infection. Therefore, it is important to understand the ecological and environmental factors that directly influence infection dynamics in wild birds, as these factors may thereby indirectly affect outbreaks in poultry. In Australia, where large parts of the country experience erratic rainfall patterns, intense rainfalls lead to wild waterfowl breeding events at temporary wetlands and increased proportions of immunologically naïve juvenile birds. It is hypothesized that after breeding, when the temporary wetlands dry, increasing densities of immunologically naïve waterbirds returning to permanent water bodies might strongly contribute to AIV prevalence in wild waterfowl in Australia. Since rainfall has been implicated as an important environmental driver in AIV dynamics in wild waterbirds in southeast Australia and wild waterbirds are identified globally to have a role in virus spillover into poultry, we hypothesise that rainfall events have an indirect effect on AIV outbreaks in poultry in southeast Australia. In this study we investigated this hypothesis by examining the correlation between the timing of AIV outbreaks in poultry in and near the Murray-Darling basin in relation to temporal patterns in regional rainfall since 1970. Our findings support our hypothesis and suggest that the risk of AIV outbreaks in poultry increases after a period of high rainfall, with peak AIV risk two years after the onset of the high-rainfall period. This is presumably triggered by increased rates of waterbird breeding and consequent higher proportions of immunologically naïve juvenile waterbirds entering the population directly after major rainfall events, which subsequently aggregate near permanent water bodies when the landscape dries out.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Chuva , Animais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas
8.
Biol Lett ; 17(9): 20210381, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582734

RESUMO

Filial imprinting is a dedicated learning process that lacks explicit reinforcement. The phenomenon itself is narrowly heritably canalized, but its content, the representation of the parental object, reflects the circumstances of the newborn. Imprinting has recently been shown to be even more subtle and complex than previously envisaged, since ducklings and chicks are now known to select and represent for later generalization abstract conceptual properties of the objects they perceive as neonates, including movement pattern, heterogeneity and inter-component relationships of same or different. Here, we investigate day-old Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings' bias towards imprinting on acoustic stimuli made from mallards' vocalizations as opposed to white noise, whether they imprint on the temporal structure of brief acoustic stimuli of either kind, and whether they generalize timing information across the two sounds. Our data are consistent with a strong innate preference for natural sounds, but do not reliably establish sensitivity to temporal relations. This fits with the view that imprinting includes the establishment of representations of both primary percepts and selective abstract properties of their early perceptual input, meshing together genetically transmitted prior pre-dispositions with active selection and processing of the perceptual input.


Assuntos
Patos , Fixação Psicológica Instintiva , Estimulação Acústica , Acústica , Animais , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Aprendizagem
9.
Ecol Appl ; 31(7): e02425, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296480

RESUMO

The management of North American waterfowl is predicated on long-term, continental-scale banding implemented prior to the hunting season (i.e., July-September) and subsequent reporting of bands recovered by hunters. However, single-season banding and encounter operations have a number of characteristics that limit their application to estimating demographic rates and evaluating hypothesized limiting factors throughout the annual cycle. We designed and implemented a two-season banding program for American Black Ducks (Anas rubripes), Mallards (A. platyrhynchos), and hybrids in eastern North America to evaluate potential application to annual life cycle conservation and sport harvest management. We assessed model fit and compared estimates of annual survival among data types (i.e., pre-hunting season only [July-September], post-hunting season only [January-March], and two-season [pre- and post-hunting season]) to evaluate model assumptions and potential application to population modeling and management. There was generally high agreement between estimates of annual survival derived using two-season and pre-season only data for all age and sex cohorts. Estimates of annual survival derived from post-season banding data only were consistently higher for adult females and juveniles of both sexes. We found patterns of seasonal survival varied by species, age, and to a lesser extent, sex. Hunter recovered birds exhibited similar spatial distributions regardless of banding season suggesting banded samples were from the same population. In contrast, goodness-of-fit tests suggest this assumption was statistically violated in some regions and years. We conclude that estimates of seasonal and annual survival for Black Ducks and Mallards based on the two-season banding program are valid and accurate based on model fit statistics, similarity in survival estimates across data and models, and similarities in the distribution of recoveries. The two-season program provides greater precision and insight into the survival process and will improve the ability of researchers and managers to test competing hypotheses regarding population regulation resulting in more effective management.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Patos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Estações do Ano
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(39): 55786-55795, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142323

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs), type I transmembrane pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), are composed of the extracellular domain that is implicated in the recognition of microbial products and initiates the innate and adaptive immune response. Previous reports on TLRs in birds showed significant levels of inter- and intraspecific genetic variation. Little is known about the structure and function of the avian immune system, especially waterfowl species. This work aimed to identify and clone Anas platyrhynchos (mallard duck) TLR-3 (dTLR-3) and its expression level following challenge with velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as a model for waterfowl species. The mallard duck TLR-3 full-length cDNA sequence had been cloned, which consisted of 2457 nucleotides. The translated amino acid sequence showed identity degree as 97% with Muscovy duck, 95% with geese, 89% with helmeted guineafowls, 88% with the chickens TLR-3 gene, 82% with turkey TLR-3, and 79% with zebra finch, while it showed 54% with human one; the analysis data suggested that the new sequence is probably homologous to vertebrates' TLR-3. The predicted protein encoded by the duck dTLR-3 mRNA sequence is composed of 819 amino acids. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that dTLR-3 has typical structural features and contains the main components of proteins in the TLR family. The dTLR-3 expressed in almost all examined tissues of mallard duck following quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis and using B-actin as a housekeeping gene. To check the functionality of the receptor and its role in viral infection, we evaluate the expression level in different tissues and its changes following NDV infection. The results showed significant (P < 0.05) upregulated in the brain at 24 h (1.84-fold), reached a peak at 48 h (4.82-fold), and recovered to normal levels at 72 h post-infection. These results indicate a complete and functional dTLR-3 that is orthologous to other vertebrate receptors with its potential role in early response against viral infection in mallard duck species.


Assuntos
Patos , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Animais , Galinhas , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/genética , Receptor 3 Toll-Like
11.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 203-206, Jan.-Feb. 2021. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153036

RESUMO

Teratoma is a rare neoplasia with differentiation in two or three germ cell lines. Intracranial teratoma in birds has rarely been reported, especially affecting the brain. This is the first report of a brain teratoma in a mallard with neurological clinical signs. The neoplasm was characterized as a mature brain teratoma, extending from the cerebellum to the brainstem, and with one nodule in the cortex.(AU)


O teratoma é uma neoplasia rara, com diferenciação em duas ou três linhagens de células germinativas. Teratomas intracranianos, em aves, são raramente relatados, principalmente, com localização cerebral. Este é o primeiro relato de teratoma cerebral em um pato-real com sinais clínicos neurológicos. A neoplasia foi caracterizada como um teratoma cerebral maduro, estendendo do cerebelo ao tronco encefálico e com um nódulo no córtex.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Teratoma/veterinária , Neoplasias Encefálicas/veterinária , Patos , Animais Selvagens
12.
Parasite ; 28: 4, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the major migration routes for birds going between Europe and Asia is the Black Sea-Mediterranean route that converges on the Volga Delta, continuing into the area of the Caspian Sea. Cercarial dermatitis is a disorder in humans caused by schistosome trematodes that use aquatic birds and snails as hosts and is prevalent in areas of aquaculture in Northern Iran. Before the disorder can be addressed, it is necessary to determine the etiological agents and their host species. This study aimed to document whether domestic mallards are reservoir hosts and if so, to characterize the species of schistosomes. Previous work has shown that domestic mallards are reservoir hosts for a nasal schistosome. RESULTS: In 32 of 45 domestic mallards (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) (71.1%), the schistosome Trichobilharzia franki, previously reported only from Europe, was found in visceral veins. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis confirmed the species designation. These findings extend the range of T. franki from Europe to Eurasia. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of cercarial dermatitis in Iran is high in areas of aquaculture. Previous studies in the area have shown that domestic mallards are reservoir hosts of T. regenti, a nasal schistosome and T. franki, as shown in this study. The genetic results support the conclusion that populations of T. franki from Iran are not differentiated from populations in Europe. Therefore, the schistosomes are distributed with their migratory duck hosts, maintaining the gene flow across populations with compatible snail hosts in Iran.


TITLE: Routes migratoires, oiseaux domestiques et dermatite cercarienne : répartition de Trichobilharzia franki dans le nord de l'Iran. ABSTRACT: Contexte : L'une des principales voies de migration des oiseaux à destination et en provenance de l'Europe et de l'Asie est la route mer Noire-Méditerranée qui converge vers le delta de la Volga et se poursuit dans la région de la mer Caspienne. La dermatite cercarienne est une affection causée chez l'homme par des trématodes Schistosomatidae utilisant des oiseaux aquatiques et des mollusques comme hôtes, qui est répandue dans les zones d'aquaculture du nord de l'Iran. Avant de pouvoir lutter contre cette parasitose, il est nécessaire de connaître les agents étiologiques et leurs espèces hôtes. Ce travail vise à documenter si les canards domestiques sont des hôtes réservoirs et si oui, à caractériser les espèces de schistosomes. Des travaux antérieurs ont montré que les canards domestiques sont des hôtes réservoirs pour un schistosome nasal. Résultats : Chez 32 de 45 canards domestiques (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) (71,1 %), le schistosome Trichobilharzia franki, précédemment signalé uniquement en Europe, a été trouvé dans les veines viscérales. L'identification de l'espèce a été vérifiée par une analyse morphologique et phylogénétique moléculaire. Cela étend l'aire de répartition de l'Europe à l'Eurasie. Conclusion : La dermatite cercarienne est répandue dans les zones d'aquaculture en Iran. Des travaux antérieurs dans la région ont montré que les canards domestiques sont des hôtes réservoirs de T. regenti, un schistosome nasal et de T. franki, comme le montre cette étude. Les résultats génétiques soutiennent que les populations de T. franki d'Iran ne sont pas différenciées des populations d'Europe. Par conséquent, les schistosomes se dispersent avec leur hôte canard lors de la migration, maintenant un flux génétique entre les populations avec des mollusques hôtes compatibles en Iran.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Doenças das Aves , Dermatite , Patos/parasitologia , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Ásia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Mar Negro , Dermatite/epidemiologia , Dermatite/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Europa (Continente) , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Schistosoma/anatomia & histologia , Schistosoma/genética , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Esquistossomose/transmissão , Caramujos/parasitologia
13.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 608274, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33329501

RESUMO

Domestic mallards (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) are traditionally used as a model to investigate infection dynamics and immune responses to low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIVs) in free-living mallards. However, it is unclear whether the immune response of domestic birds reflects the response of their free-living counterparts naturally exposed to these viruses. We investigated the extent to which the innate humoral immune response was similar among (i) wild-type domestic mallards in primary and secondary infection with LPAIV H4N6 in a laboratory setting (laboratory mallards), (ii) wild-type domestic mallards naturally exposed to LPAIVs in a semi-natural setting (sentinel mallards), and (iii) free-living mallards naturally exposed to LPAIVs. We quantified innate humoral immune function by measuring non-specific natural antibodies (agglutination), complement activity (lysis), and the acute phase protein haptoglobin. We demonstrate that complement activity in the first 3 days after LPAIV exposure was higher in primary-exposed laboratory mallards than in sentinel and free-living mallards. LPAIV H4N6 likely activated the complement system and the acute phase response in primary-exposed laboratory mallards, as lysis was higher and haptoglobin lower at day 3 and 7 post-exposure compared to baseline immune function measured prior to exposure. There were no differences observed in natural antibody and haptoglobin concentrations among laboratory, sentinel, and free-living mallards in the first 3 days after LPAIV exposure. Our study demonstrates that, based on the three innate humoral immune parameters measured, domestic mallards seem an appropriate model to investigate innate immunology of their free-living counterparts, albeit the innate immune response of secondary-LPAIV exposed mallards is a better proxy for the innate immune response in pre-exposed free-living mallards than that of immunologically naïve mallards.

14.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545281

RESUMO

Active influenza A virus (IAV) surveillance in wild waterfowl in the United States has revolved around convenience-based sampling methods, resulting in gaps in surveillance during the spring season. We conducted active IAV surveillance in mallards continuously from July 2017 to July 2019 in the coastal marshes of Lake Erie near Port Clinton, Ohio. We aimed to understand ecological and evolutionary dynamics of IAV across multiple seasons, including the under­sampled spring season. We collected 2096 cloacal swabs and estimated a 6.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.050-0.071) prevalence during the study period. Prevalence was lowest during spring (1.0%, 95% CI: 0.004-0.015). Time­stamped phylogenetic analyses revealed local persistence of genetic lineages of multiple gene segments. The PA segment consists of a lineage detected in multiple seasons with a time to most recent common ancestor of 2.48 years (95% highest posterior density: 2.16-2.74). Analysis of the H3 and H6 segments showed close relation between IAVs detected in spring and the following autumn migration. Though the mechanisms behind viral persistence in a single location are not well understood, we provide evidence that viruses can persist across several seasons. Current surveillance methods should be evaluated to ensure they are capturing the breadth of genetic diversity of IAV in waterfowl and prepare for IAV outbreaks in both animals and humans.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Animais , Patos/virologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Estações do Ano , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Ecol Evol ; 10(3): 1413-1424, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076524

RESUMO

Field studies have shown that waterbirds, especially members of the Anatidae family, are major vectors of dispersal by endozoochory for a broad range of plants lacking a fleshy fruit, yet whose propagules can survive gut passage. Widely adopted dispersal syndromes ignore this dispersal mechanism, and we currently have little understanding of what traits determine the potential of angiosperms for endozoochory by waterbirds. Results from previous experimental studies have been inconsistent as to how seed traits affect seed survival and retention time in the gut and have failed to control for the influence of plant phylogeny. Using 13 angiosperm species from aquatic and terrestrial habitats representing nine families, we examined the effects of seed size, shape, and hardness on the proportion of seeds surviving gut passage through mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and their retention time within the gut. We compiled a molecular phylogeny for these species and controlled for the nonindependence of taxa due to common descent in our analyses. Intact seeds from all 13 species were egested, but seed survival was strongly determined by phylogeny and by partial effects of seed mass and hardness (wet load): species with seeds harder than expected from their size, and smaller than expected from their loading, had greater survival. Once phylogeny was controlled for, a positive partial effect of seed roundness on seed survival was also revealed. Species with seeds harder than expected from their size had a longer mean retention time, a result retained after controlling for phylogeny. Our study is the first to demonstrate that seed shape and phylogeny are important predictors of seed survival in the avian gut. Our results demonstrate that the importance of controlling simultaneously for multiple traits and relating single traits (e.g., seed size) alone to seed survival or retention time is not a reliable way to detect important patterns, especially when phylogenetic effects are ignored.

16.
Acta Vet Hung ; 67(3): 401-406, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549541

RESUMO

Reports of Sarcocystis rileyi-like protozoa ('rice breast disease') from anseriform birds had been rare in Europe until the last two decades, when S. rileyi was identified in northern Europe and the UK. However, despite the economic losses resulting from S. rileyi infection, no recent accounts are available on its presence (which can be suspected) in most parts of central, western, southern and eastern Europe. Between 2014 and 2019, twelve mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were observed to have rice breast disease in Hungary, and the last one of these 12 cases allowed molecular identification of S. rileyi, as reported here. In addition, S. rileyi was molecularly identified in the faeces of one red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The hunting season for mallards in Hungary lasts from mid-August to January, which in Europe coincides with the wintering migration of anseriform birds towards the south. Based on this, as well as bird ringing data, it is reasonable to suppose that the first S. rileyi-infected mallards arrived in Hungary from the north. on the other hand, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), which are final hosts of S. rileyi, are ubiquitous in Hungary, and our molecular finding confirms an already established autochthonous life cycle of S. rileyi in the region. Taken together, this is the first evidence for the occurrence of S. rileyi in Hungary and its region.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Patos , Sarcocystis/isolamento & purificação , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Hungria , Sarcocistose/diagnóstico , Sarcocistose/parasitologia
17.
J Vet Pharmacol Ther ; 42(6): 713-721, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435964

RESUMO

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone was performed in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) after single bolus injections of 10 mg/kg administered intramuscularly (IM; n = 10) or intravenously (IV; n = 10), in a randomized cross-over design with a washout period between doses. Mean (±SD) Cmax following IM injection was 1.6 (±0.8) µg/ml with Tmax at 15.0 (±10.5) min. Area under the curve (AUC) was 84.66 and 104.58 min*mg/ml following IV and IM administration, respectively. Volume of distribution (VD ) after IV dose was 3.0 L/kg. The mean plasma clearance after 10 mg/kg IV was 139.5 (±67.9) ml min-1  kg-1 . Elimination half-lives (mean [±SD]) were 15.0 and 16.1 (±3.0) min following IV and IM administration, respectively. Mean bioavailability at 10 mg/kg IM was 108.6%. None of the ducks achieved a sufficient anesthetic depth for invasive procedures, such as surgery, to be performed. Heart and respiratory rates measured after administration remained stable, but many ducks were hyperexcitable during recovery. Based on sedation levels and duration, alfaxalone administered at dosages of 10 mg/kg IV or IM in mallard ducks does not induce clinically acceptable anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestésicos/farmacocinética , Patos/sangue , Pregnanodionas/farmacocinética , Anestésicos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos/sangue , Animais , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Injeções Intramusculares , Injeções Intravenosas , Masculino , Pregnanodionas/administração & dosagem , Pregnanodionas/sangue
18.
J Therm Biol ; 83: 95-102, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331531

RESUMO

Although birds have genetically determined sex, the sex ratio has been reported to deviate from parity in several studies. Temperature-dependent sex determination, which is common in reptiles, is absent in birds. However, females are able to adjust their investment into eggs according to the sex of the embryo, which may cause sex-specific embryonic mortality. Incubation temperature may also cause sex-biased embryonic mortality, and it may differentially affect the phenotype of male and female hatchlings. We aimed to investigate differences between male and female Mallard embryos regarding their egg size, mortality during incubation and hatchling phenotype in relation to incubation temperature. Mallard eggs were incubated under six constant incubation temperatures (ranging from 35.0 to 38.0 °C). Hatchlings were weighed, and their morphological traits were measured. We determined the sex of hatchlings and unhatched embryos by genetic analysis and found higher male embryonic mortality at 35.5 °C (44 males vs. 28 females) and a higher proportion of female hatchlings at 38 °C (24 males vs. 38 females); however, these results were not statistically significant. Our results suggest that Mallard females do not differentiate quantitatively between sexes during egg production. Male hatchlings were significantly larger but not heavier than females. The size difference between sexes was most pronounced at temperatures around 36 °C, which is the mean temperature of naturally incubated Mallard eggs.


Assuntos
Anseriformes/embriologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Aves Domésticas/embriologia , Razão de Masculinidade , Temperatura , Animais , Anseriformes/fisiologia , Feminino , Incubadoras , Masculino , Aves Domésticas/fisiologia
19.
Anim Cogn ; 22(5): 769-775, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183592

RESUMO

Avian filial imprinting is a rapid form of learning occurring just after hatching in precocial bird species. The acquired imprint on either or both parents goes on to affect the young bird's survival and social behaviour later in life (Bateson in Biol Rev 41:177-217, 1966). The imprinting mechanism is specialized but flexible, and causes the hatchling to develop high-fidelity recognition and attraction to any moving stimulus of suitable size seen during a predefined sensitive period. It has been observed (Martinho and Kacelnik in Science 353:286-288, 2016; Versace et al. in Anim Cogn 20:521-529, 2017) that in addition to visual and acoustic sensory inputs, imprinting may incorporate informational rules or abstract concepts. Here we report a study of mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) undergoing imprinting on the chromatic heterogeneity of stimuli, with a focus on how this may be transferred to novel objects. Ducklings were exposed to a series of chromatically heterogeneous or homogeneous stimuli and tested for preference between two novel stimuli, one heterogeneous and the other homogeneous. Exposure to heterogeneity significantly enhanced preference for novel heterogeneous stimuli, relative to ducklings exposed to homogeneous stimuli or unexposed controls. These findings support the view that imprinting does not rely solely on exemplars, or snapshot-like representations of visual input, but that instead young precocial animals form complex multidimensional representations of the target object, involving abstract properties, either at the time of learning, or later, through generalization from the learnt exemplars.


Assuntos
Patos , Fixação Psicológica Instintiva , Animais , Aprendizagem , Comportamento Social
20.
Avian Dis ; 63(sp1): 126-130, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131568

RESUMO

Long-term comprehensive studies of avian influenza virus subtypes in ducks not only contribute to understanding variations and patterns of subtype diversity, but also can be important in defining seasonal and temporal risks associated with transmission of potentially highly pathogenic H5 and H7 subtypes to domestic poultry. We analyzed influenza A virus (IAV) surveillance data from dabbling ducks collected at an important migratory stopover site in northwestern Minnesota from 2007-2016 and identified prevalence and subtype diversity throughout this period. In total, 13,228 cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs from waterfowl were tested over the 10-year period; the majority of these waterfowl were mallards sampled from late August through late September (n = 9133). From these, 1768 IAVs were isolated (19.4% mean annual prevalence, ranging from 11.0% in 2007 to 32.8% in 2011), and both hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase were identified for 1588. Although subtype diversity and prevalence varied by year, H3 and H4 HA subtypes predominated in all years, accounting for 65.7% of the observed HA subtype diversity. The mechanisms driving this consistent pattern of subtype diversity and predominance are not understood but may include factors at the host, population, and virus level.


Prevalencia de virus de influenza A en patos muestreados en el noroeste de Minnesota y evidencia de predominio de los subtipos H3N8 y H4N6 en patos de collar entre los años 2007 al 2016. Los estudios exhaustivos a largo plazo de subtipos de virus de la influenza aviar en patos no solo contribuyen a comprender las variaciones y patrones de diversidad de subtipos, sino que también pueden ser importantes para definir los riesgos estacionales y temporales asociados con la transmisión de subtipos H5 y H7 potencialmente altamente patógenos para la avicultura comercial. Analizamos los datos de vigilancia del virus de la influenza A de patos chapoteadores recolectados en un sitio de descanso migratorio importante en el noroeste de Minnesota desde el año 2007 al 2016 y se identificó la prevalencia y la diversidad de subtipos a lo largo de este período. En total, 13,228 hisopos cloacales y orofaríngeos de aves acuáticas se analizaron durante el período de diez años; la mayoría de estas aves acuáticas eran patos silvestres muestreados desde finales de agosto hasta finales de septiembre (n = 9133). De estas muestras, 1768 virus de la influenza aviar fueron aislados (prevalencia anual media de 19.4%, y con un rango de 11.0% en el 2007 a 32.8% en 2011), y tanto la hemaglutinina (HA) como la neuraminidasa fueron identificadas para 1588 virus. Aunque la diversidad de subtipos y la prevalencia variaron por año, los subtipos de hemaglutinina H3 y H4 predominaron en todos los años, representando el 65.7% de la diversidad de subtipos observada para la hemaglutinina. Los mecanismos que impulsan este patrón consistente de diversidad de subtipos y predominio no se comprenden, pero pueden incluir factores a nivel del hospedador, de la población y del virus. Abbreviations: CL = cloacal; HA = hemagglutinin; IAV = influenza A virus; NA = neuraminidase; NWR = National Wildlife Refuge; RRT-PCR = real-time reverse transcriptase PCR; WMA = Wildlife Management Area.


Assuntos
Patos , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Cloaca/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/classificação , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Prevalência , Estações do Ano
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